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Metropolitan Area Transportation Planning for Healthy Communities


[1] World Health Organization, Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) for walking and cycling.

[2]Clean Air Act Amendment 42 USC §85. Accessed 6 June 2012:

[3] FHWA, "Transportation Conformity: A Basic Guide for State and Local Officials, Appendix A: Health Effects of Pollutants."

[4] FHWA, "Transportation Conformity: A Basic Guide for State and Local Officials, Appendix A: Health Effects of Pollutants."

[5] 23 USC §134(k) and "Transportation Management Area Planning Certification Primer."

[6] "Integrating Health and Physical Activity Goals Into Transportation Planning: Building the Capacity of Planners and Practitioners: Proceedings of the Portland Roundtable," FHWA, FTA, and USDOT/Volpe Center, January 2004.

[7] "Annotated Bibliography on Health and Physical Activity in Transportation Planning," USOT/Volpe Center, April 2004.

[8] "Report to the U.S. Congress on the Outcomes of the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program SAFETEA-LU Section 1807," FHWA with Assistance from USDOT/Volpe Center, April 2012

[9] Centers for Disease Control. 2011. CDC Transportation Recommendations. Accessed 23 August 2011:

[10] The SAFETEA-LU Environmental Review Process Final Guidance, November 15, 2006, defines the role of Lead Agencies, Participating Agencies, and Cooperating Agencies (which include these tribes, resource agencies, etc.).

[11] 23 USC §134(d) Under MAP-21, MPOs serving TMA areas shall include public agencies that operate major modes of transportation including public transportation and appropriate State officials.

[12] 23 USC §134(e)

[13] 23 USC §134(h) and 135(d)

[14] 23 USC §134 (h) lays out eight planning factors for the metropolitan planning process, which shall be considered in the identification of transportation facilities for the MTP (§ 134 (i)). These planning factors are also contained in MAP-21 under 23 USC §134 (h).

[15] 23 CFR §134 (i) (6)

[16] FHWA Office of Civil Rights, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964,

[17] FHWA, "An Overview of Transportation and Environmental Justice,"

[18] Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. Effects of Air Pollutants - Health Effects. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course.

[19] Center for Disease Control. 2011. CDC Transportation Recommendations. Accessed 17 July 2012:

[20] FHWA. 2012. Coordinating Land Use and Transportation: What is the Role of Transportation? Accessed 17 July 2012:

[21] CDC. 2011. "Encourage Healthy Community Design." CDC. 2012. Land Use Planning and Urban/Peri-Urban Agriculture.

[22] CDC. 2009. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Accessed 17 July 2012: ; National Center for Environmental Health. 2008. Public Health Impact Assessment in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969: CDC's Review and Commenting Program. Center for Disease Control - Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services. Fact Sheet. Accessed 23 August 2011:

[23] U.S. Department of Justice. 2009. A Guide to Disability Rights Law. Accessed 17 July 2012:

[24] 23 USC §134 (c)2

[25] FHWA Office of Civil Rights. Questions and Answers about ADA/Section 504. Accessed 17 July 2012: 28 CFR §35.170-35.190.

[26] U.S. Administration on Aging. 2011. Outline of 2006 Amendments to Older Americans Act. Accessed 17 July 2012: Section 416 specifically authorizes the Assistant Secretary of Health and Human Services to award grants for innovations to improve transportation.

[27] Human Impact Partners. 2011. HIA Policy. Accessed 29 August 2011:

[28] Washington State. 2007. SB 5186 Digest. Accessed 17 July 2012:

[29] Massachusetts DOT. 2011. Healthy Transportation Compact - MassDOT. Accessed 29 August:

[30] The CDC runs a Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Legislative Database. The database contains hundreds of enacted, pending, and proposed state bills related to nutrition and physical activity. Bills are easily searchable by state, bill number, year, and/or topic. Database:

[31] FHWA, "Transportation Alternatives Interim Guidance,"

[32] 23 USC §402

[33] MAP-21, Section 1122 §213 (b) (3)

[34] MAP-21, Section 1122 §213 (b) (2).


[36] "Report to the U.S. Congress on the Outcomes of the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program SAFETEA-LU Section 1807," FHWA with Assistance of USDOT/Volpe Center, April 2012.


[38] MAP-21, Section 1113

[39]Uniform Guidelines for State Highway Programs

[40] FHWA. 2010. Metropolitan Planning Funds. Accessed 17 July 2012:

[41] MAP-21, Section 20007 §5307 (a)(2)

[42] APA, NACCHO, and APHA respectively in Joint Letter to Congress, American Society of Landscape Architects, The American Institute of Architects, and the American Planning Association. February 29, 2012. ; Letter to Barbara Boxer and John Mica. May 24, 2012. ; APHA Transportation Policy Statements.

[43] 23 CFR §450.322

[44] ICF International. 2011. Sustainable Transportation Performance Measures. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 231-K-10-004. Accessed 26 August:

[45] Center for Disease Control. 2012. Health Impact Assessments. CDC - Healthy Places. Accessed 7 June 2012:

[46] Dannenberg, Andrew et al. 2006. Growing the Field of Health Impact Assessment in the United States: An Agenda for Research and Practice. American Journal of Public Health. 96 (2): 19-27. Accessed 7 June 2012:

[47] CDC 2012.

[48] CDC 2012.

[49] World Health Organization. 2012. HEAT - Health Economic Assessment Tool. Accessed 7 June 2012:

[50] Fenton, Mark and Brigid Junot. 2010. Health Economic Analysis Tool for Walking and Bicycling in the United States: Summary of prospective U.S. users' interest and recommendations. Accessed 12 September 2011:

[51] According to the National Complete Streets Coalition, Complete Streets are roads designed and operated to enable safe access and travel for all users and modes. (

[52] Metropolitan area transportation planning processes are governed by Federal law (23 USC §134 and §135).

[53] Funds include future allocations or appropriations of urban STP funds programmed in the TIP. The MPO will honor existing commitments to "worthy" projects already in the 2011-2015 transportation improvement program.

[54] The MPO has already awarded the first round of funds for active transportation projects.

[55] U.S. Obesity Trends, and Physical Inactivity Estimate, by County.

[56] I-PLACE3S Health & Climate Enhancements and Their Application in King County. June 2009.

[57] "About SANDAG."

[58] SB 375 was intended in part to support the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32).




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