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Transportation Decisionmaking: Information Tools for Tribal Governments

Tribal Transportation Best Practices Guidebook

Prepared by:
FHWA Office of Planning

Valerie J. Southern
Transportation Consultant, LLC

Technical Communication Consultants, Inc.

Publication Number:
FHWA-HEP-10-005
December 2009

Disclaimer: This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. The contents of this document do not necessarily reflect the official policy of the Department of Transportation. Moreover, the United States Government does not endorse products or manufactures. Trademarks or manufacturers' names may appear herein only because they are considered essential to the objective of this document.

cover page collage

Table of Contents

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. BEST PRACTICES
  3. CASE STUDIES
  4. CHECKLIST
  5. TECHNICAL RESOURCES
  6. INVITATION
  7. APPENDIX A: Program Survey
  8. APPENDIX B: Acknowledgement

1. Introduction

The U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides continuing educational and technical support to tribal governments nationwide. One noteworthy example is Transportation Decision-making: Information Tools for Tribal Government - a series of learning modules with guidance on Federal funding and steps for preparing the long-range transportation plan and transportation improvement program. 1

The Tribal Transportation Best Practices Guidebook launches a new FHWA series highlighting successful tribal transportation practices.

PURPOSE. This Tribal Transportation Best Practices Guidebook launches a new educational series which highlights, through research and case study, achievements in tribal transportation. The purpose of the first Guidebook is to showcase successful program management practices in tribal transportation and share this information with the larger transportation community.

METHODOLOGY. Preparing this Guidebook involved five steps.

Step 1 - Literature Review. An extensive search for publications covering the topic of tribal transportation program management was undertaken through a variety of conventional and on-line sources including the Transportation Research Board (TRB) and the Internet. This yielded a wide range of publications, articles and reports. 2

The most comprehensive publication found through the search was NCHRP Synthesis 366: Tribal Transportation Program - A Synthesis of Highway Practice released in 2007 by the Transportation Research Board. This document provides an inventory of thirty tribal transportation organizations from across the country. It describes each organization's composition, capacity and operations. As defined by its authors, the purpose of the NCHRP Synthesis 366 report is to:

"...provide information...in determining the state of tribal transportation programs, and the steps needed to assist tribes in developing the capacity to effectively perform transportation-related functions."

NCHRP Synthesis 366 was the primary source document used for selecting tribal transportation programs for this Guidebook.

Preparing the Guidebook involved:

Literature Review - review of publications focused on tribal transportation program management practices and techniques.

Candidate Selection - selection of successful tribal transportation programs based on program substance and location.

Invitation to Participate - outreach to the managers of the selected tribal transportation programs.

Interview and Survey - formal discussion and collection of data from the tribal transportation program managers.

Common Practices - synthesis of the management practices reported by the surveyed managers.

Step 2 - Selection. Thirteen tribal transportation programs were initially selected for study. Twelve were featured in Synthesis 366 and one in the 2006 FHWA publication, Tribal Seat Belt Initiative - Final Report. Two factors were considered when selecting the programs. First, the program's achievements in traditional transportation program areas were considered. These traditional areas are Finance, Inter-Governmental Relations, Technical Application, Safety and Public Transportation. Second, to ensure a broad geographical representation of tribal programs from across the country, the program's location was considered. Using these selection factors, the original thirteen were narrowed to six programs, located in the states of Arizona, California, Connecticut, Idaho and Minnesota.

Step 3 - Invitation. The managers of the selected tribal transportation programs received letters from FHWA which explained the Guidebook project and invited their participation. Each letter included a twenty-three question program survey (shown in Appendix A). The survey was designed to obtain information on the tribal transportation program's purpose, history, services and funding sources. Information was also requested on how the program was administered and what it achieved.

Step 4 - Interview. Telephone interviews were conducted with each manager of the tribal transportation program. The discussion followed the sequence of questions in the program survey. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with outside Federal, State, regional, local and private sector officials involved in some way with the program. These interviews offered additional insight on how the programs were administered. In all, twenty-three interviews were conducted. They formed the basis of the case studies for this Guidebook.

When using this Guidebook, the tribal practitioner should routinely ask:

  • What are the goals of my tribal transportation program?
  • What am I trying to achieve?
  • What improvements are needed to increase my program's effectiveness?
  • When and where do I start - to reach my program goals?

Use the Guidebook

  • Are the Guidebook case study situations similar to my own program management experiences?
  • Which of the Guidebook best practices should I apply to improve my program?
  • Should I contact the case study program manager for more information?

After Guidebook Use

  • Who should I share and discuss my experiences with - my colleagues, my supervisor, Tribal Council, the reservation community?
  • Which publications in this Guidebook could I use to continue my professional development?
  • In what other ways should I apply the lessons of this Guidebook?

Step 5 - Identification of Best Practices. The information obtained from each tribal interview was analyzed and six case studies were developed. The most noteworthy program management practices used by the tribal managers were distilled from the case studies. These practices are considered learning tools which are shared in this Guidebook with other tribal transportation practitioners for application in their own programs.

RESULTS. From the case studies, the best practices in tribal transportation program management were identified as the following: Leadership, Problem Identification, Resource Allocation, Creative Problem Solving and Collaboration and Partnership. Each is discussed in detail, with examples, in Chapter 2 - Best Practices. These best practices were essential to the managers in the tribal case studies. They were the building blocks that moved their tribal transportation programs forward - to their intended goals.

HOW TO USE THIS GUIDEBOOK. This Guidebook is based on the real experiences of tribal program managers. Its lessons are intended for, and should be familiar to, anyone responsible for the daily management of a tribal transportation program. While the case study experiences may be familiar, too often the tribal transportation program may not reach its full potential because effective program management methods are not fully or methodically applied.

This Guidebook offers learning tools to help improve the effectiveness and application of tribal transportation program management methods. Its purpose is to:

This Guidebook should serve as a reality check for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of an existing tribal transportation program. Moreover, it encourages the tribal practitioner to visualize and apply new management scenarios for his or her transportation program.

As a starting point, the tribal practitioner should ask the questions listed in the adjacent text box. These questions should be revisited periodically and especially when improvements or updates to an existing tribal transportation program are undertaken.

Guidebook Contents. Each chapter of this Tribal Transportation Best Practices Guidebook builds upon the previous chapter. A summary of contents is provided here.

Chapter 1 introduces the Guidebook and explains how and why it was prepared.

The Guidebook is designed for easy use and reference.

Chapter
1 - Introduction
2 - Best Practices
3 - Case Studies
4 - Check List
5 - Technical Resources
6 - Invitation

Chapter 2 describes the best transportation program management practices that were identified in the tribal case studies.

Chapter 3 presents the tribal case studies and their noteworthy transportation programs. A program contact is also provided for those wanting more information.

Chapter 4 is a check- list for applying the best practices outlined in the Guidebook. Users are encouraged to expand or modify the check-list based on their specific program issues and needs.

Chapter 5 is an annotated bibliography of publications relevant to the topic of tribal transportation program management.

Chapter 6 is an invitation to the tribal transportation community to participate in future FHWA case studies and guidebooks.

Appendix A contains the Program Survey that was used to collect program information for the tribal case studies.

Appendix B is an acknowledgement of the officials that participated in this research project.

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2. Best practices

A best practice may represent a technique or method that, through application, leads to a desired outcome. The term is frequently used when assessing positive outcomes from well-administered programs or projects. For this effort, case studies from four (4) Tribal Governments and one (1) Tribal Association were conducted to identify relevant best practices.

BEST PRACTICES. From the case studies, six (6) best practices were identified:

Leadership. All of the tribal transportation programs were guided by the vision and direction of a working group, a program director or both. Under their leadership, the program progressed from an initial concept to a successful strategy for achieving a specific transportation program goal or objective.

Problem Identification. All of the tribal transportation managers in the case studies focused on solving a clearly and concisely defined problem. By clearly defining the problem, they found it easier to identify the best program solution.

Resource Allocation. To achieve the tribal transportation program goal and objectives, the managers allocated an effective mix of staffing, funding and/or technical resources. This added value and support to the tribal transportation program.

Creative Problem Solving. The tribal managers in the case studies successfully stepped 'out of the box' in developing creative solutions to address their program needs and to solve problems.

Collaboration and Partnership. The tribal managers in the case studies reached outside of their tribal organizations to external agencies and officials for assistance and support. This enhanced the tribal program, supplied additional program resources and produced good will among the agencies. The collaboration built lasting and respectful agency relationships.

Communications. The tribal managers effectively communicated the purpose of their program to the audience that it served. Program information was conveyed at different levels and to different audiences - internally (within the tribal organization), to the external partner agencies and/or to the larger tribal community. Effective communications is a helpful tool in the management of a tribal transportation program.

Common Best Practices From the tribal transportation case studies, the common best practices were:

  • Leadership
  • Problem Identification
  • Resource Allocation
  • Creative Problem Solving
  • Collaboration and Partnership
  • Communications

APPLICATION. Not surprisingly, each featured tribal organization applied the best practices, listed and described above, differently. This section explains how the best practices were applied and the specific circumstances involved in their application.

Leadership

All of the tribal transportation programs were guided by the vision and direction of a working group, a program director or both. Under their leadership, the program progressed from an initial concept to a successful strategy for achieving a specific transportation goal or objective.

In exercising Leadership, the tribal practitioner is encouraged to:

Coeur d'Alene Tribe Case Study - New Bus Service. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe, located in northern Idaho, had no bus service for its members. This made it difficult for tribal members to access essential services such as employment, housing, medical and retail services.

Leadership
  • Identify and Articulate Problem
  • IEnvision a Solution
  • IFollow-Through

Red Lake Band of Chippewa Tribe Case Study - Self Governance. Leadership was also the key for the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Tribe in Minnesota. The Tribe is one of the first in the nation to broker a Self-Governance agreement with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) through U.S. Public Law 93-638. This work was accomplished through the involvement and vision of the Tribe's Roads Director.

Problem Identification

All of the tribal transportation managers in the case studies focused on solving a clearly and concisely defined problem. By clearly defining the problem, they found it easier to identify the best program solution.

In Problem Identification, the tribal practitioner is encouraged to:

Hoopa Valley Tribe Case Study - Cost Accounting. The Hoopa Valley Tribe in California operates two for-profit transportation enterprises - an Aggregate Crushing Service and a Ready-Mix Plant.

Coeur d'Alene Tribe Case Study - Recreational Trail. After many years of coordination and planning, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe completed construction of its new 15- mile recreational trail. This improvement was not supported wholeheartedly by pockets of mostly non-tribal property owners who lived near the trail alignment. Some did not believe the Tribe held legal rights to the land.

Problem Identification
  • Investigate Cause of Deficiency
  • Conduct Research on Options
  • Create an Action Plan

Mashantucket Pequot Tribe Case Study - Asset Management. The Mashantucket Pequot Tribe in Connecticut came to the realization that it needed a better method to track, maintain and manage its growing inventory of public works assets.

Resource Allocation

To achieve their tribal transportation program goal and objectives, the managers allocated an effective mix of staffing, funding and/or technical resources. This added value and support to the tribal transportation program.

In Resource Allocation, the tribal practitioner is encouraged to:

Red Lake Band of Chippewa Case Study - Road Construction. The Red Lake Band of Chippewa Tribe in Minnesota had an urgent need to construct an 11-mile road through wilderness forest. The new road would provide direct access to a planned tribal housing development.

Hoopa Valley Tribe Case Study - Labor Management. The Hoopa Valley Tribe in California needed to maximize the labor resources of its for-profit transportation enterprises.

Resource Allocation
  • Determine Need
  • Assess Available Resources
  • Efficiently Allocate Resources

Creative Problem Solving

The tribal managers in the case studies successfully stepped 'out of the box' in developing creative solutions to address their program needs and to solve problems.

In Creative Problem Solving, the tribal practitioner is encouraged to:

Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona Case Study - Seat Belt Safety Campaign. Concerned by the high incidence of traffic related fatalities and injuries in Indian country, the FHWA Arizona Division contracted the Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona (ITCA) to develop seat belt promotion campaigns.

Creative Problem Solving
  • Be Creative and Original
  • Investigate Available Options
  • Design to Community Values and Needs

Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona Case Study - Community Resources. Early on, it was acknowledged that the FHWA safety grants that subsidized the ITCA tribal seat belt safety campaigns were insufficient and would not cover all of the program costs.

Collabaration and Partnership

The tribal managers in the case studies reached outside of their tribal organizations to external agencies and officials for assistance and support. This enhanced the tribal program, supplied additional program resources and produced good will among the agencies. The collaboration built lasting and respectful agency relationships.

In Collaboration and Partnership, the tribal practitioner is encouraged to:

Coeur d'Alene Tribe Case Study - Coalition Building. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's bus system (CityLink) began modestly with one fixed route traveling up and down the reservation. Today the system serves the reservation and most of the urban and rural areas of northern Idaho. CityLink ridership grew from 18,700 to 306,000 in its first three years. The system's rapid expansion is the direct result of partnership and collaboration.

Red Lake Band of Chippewa Tribe - State DOT Partnership. According to the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MinnDOT), working with the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Tribe is a pleasure and a joy. The compliment is attributed to the Tribe's professionalism and willingness to share tribal resources and data.

Collaboration - Partnership
  • Determine Program Deficiencies
  • Identify Partners with Similar Program Objectives
  • Share Resources to Achieve a Common Goal
  • Build on the Experience

Communications

The tribal managers effectively communicated the purpose of the tribal transportation program to the audience that it served. Program information was conveyed at different levels and to different audiences - internally (within the tribal organization), to the external partner agencies and/or to the larger tribal community. Effective communications is a helpful tool in the management of a tribal transportation program.

In Communications, the tribal practitioner is encouraged to:

Coeur d'Alene Tribe Case Study - Website and Brochure. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe in northern Idaho needed to communicate the services of its expanded CityLink bus system to current and future users.

Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona Case Study - Campaign Symbols. Like the adage "a picture is worth a thousand words," the Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona (ITCA) wanted its tribal seat belt safety campaign message to be understood and embraced at first glance.

Communications
  • Target Audience
  • Design a Concise Message.
  • Develop Reliable Mechanism to Convey Information

Mashantucket Pequot Tribe Case Study - Staff Training. The Mashantucket Pequot Tribe in Connecticut has adopted a new asset management program called Infrastructure 2000.

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3. Case Studies

This chapter summarizes the tribal case studies that were conducted for this Tribal Transportation Best Practices Guidebook. For each case study, there is an overview and summary of the featured tribal transportation program. The successful results of the tribal transportation programs are also listed. Program contacts are provided for those wanting more information.

Coeur d'Alene Tribe - Transit System
Coeur d'Alene Tribe - Recreational Trail
Hoopa Valley Tribe - For-Profit Transportation Enterprises
Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc. - Seat Belt Safety
Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation - Asset Management
Red Lake Band of Chippewa - Self Governance and Intergovernmental Relations

Tribal Transportation Best Practice

Coeur D'Alene TribeE - Transit System

Side view of Coeur d'Alene Tribe mini-bus, which offers affordable mobility and access for tribe and community members.

The Coeur d' Alene Tribe's CityLink bus system represents a unique compact between the Tribe, Kootenai County, the Kootenai MPO, the Panhandle Area Council and the Idaho Transportation Department. Together, they creatively pool and administer Federal, State and tribal grants and local match to support the system. Before CityLink, there were no regional fixed route bus services in northern Idaho. The effort represents the only tribal and county shared transit system in the United States. All of the partners express satisfaction and pride in their ability to work together in achieving this common goal.

The fare-free bus service is operated and maintained by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, which serves as a third-party provider. There are five routes linking urban and rural job centers. The system also links educational, medical and retail services. CityLink's geographic coverage and ridership have expanded and increased exponentially in three years. It was created through the vision and determination of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, which inspired the other agencies to join what is now known as the "Coalition of the Willing." In 2009, CityLink received a FTA award for Success in Enhancing Ridership. The award recognizes ridership gains and the transferability of ridership initiatives to other transit agencies.

Best Practice Results:

Another side view of Coeur d'Alene Tribe mini-bus, which offers affordable mobility and access for tribe and community members

Program Contacts:

Coeur d'Alene Tribe - Recreational Trail

Small map depicting Coeur d'Alene Tribe recreational trail, owned and independently managed by tribal government.

The Trail of the Coeur d'Alenes was created through a lengthy legal process involving the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the State of Idaho and the Union Pacific Railroad. Originally, the alignment was an abandoned rail right-of-way needing clean-up and a permanent cap over contaminated soils.

Today, the paved 73-mile corridor is a revered recreational treasure traversing tribal and state lands and attracting visitors from throughout the United States. The Tribe's 15-mile trail section runs through its pristine Lake Region and ties seamlessly to the state-managed section. A separate division within tribal government provides day-to-day oversight and management of the trail.

The success of the trail is due to the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's environmental and resource management practices, effective program communications techniques and its ability to work productively with its program partners and the community-at-large.

Best Practice Results:

Photo taken from paved Coeur d'Alene Tribe recreational trail, showing a partial lake view.

Program Contacts:

Hoopa Valley Tribe - For-Profit Transportation Enterprises

Photo of Hoopa Valley Tribe front-end loader

One goal for the Hoopa Valley Tribe in California is for each of its for-profit transportation enterprises to stand on its own in terms of good management and profitability. As a best practice, a portion of the profits from the Aggregate Crushing Plant and Ready Mix Plant are "recycled" back to the tribal community. Each enterprise generates its own work and revenue by bidding on and performing contracts for the State, the Bureau of Indian Affairs and private developers. Labor, administration and equipment are shared between the enterprises, where practicable, and are paid for by the enterprise that utilizes them. Most of the enterprise workers are tribal members.

As a best practice, the enterprise workers are cross-trained to perform a variety of functions across enterprises. This is in sharp contrast to most private operations that retain workers in fixed functions or release the workers when the construction cycle slows. Another best practice is the Hoopa Valley Tribe's creation of a dual accounting system to track the costs and profits of each enterprise operation. The dual accounting system is structured to meet, if not exceed, Government and Business accounting practices and standards. The accounting system ensures transparency and assists in assessing the fiscal health of each for-profit business enterprise.

Best Practice Results:

Program Contacts:

Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc. - Seat Belt Safety

Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona. Culturally-appropriate seatbelt campaign logo that states Buckle Up for Life.

The Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona (ITCA) provides planning support to nineteen tribal governments. In 2000, with FHWA safety grants, ITCA initiated a program to reduce motor vehicle crash fatalities and injuries on tribal lands. The Tribal Occupant Protection Campaign and Seatbelt Initiative is a best practice. It enabled two Arizona tribes to produce their own seat belt safety campaigns.

Before starting the campaigns, ITCA conducted focus groups with at-risk tribal males to determine why they did not use seatbelts. The campaigns were based on the opinions expressed in the focus groups. Culture-appropriate campaign logos and graphics were designed by the participating Tribes with consultation from a branding consultant hired by ITCA. Each Tribe was supported by a Campaign Advisory Committee (CAC) representing a rich mix of agencies, ranging from Indian Health Services to local police, fire and rescue services. The in-kind and financial support from the CAC members supplemented the FHWA safety grants.

Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona. Seatbelt campaign ad targeted to males that states Seatbelts. Just wear em.

While the participating Tribes have requested program data not be released, there is evidence that seat belt monitoring and use have increased on their reservations and seat belt-related fatalities have decreased. This best practice is a program model for other tribal governments nationwide. However, according to ITCA, more federal safety funds - targeted exclusively for Indian traffic safety - will be needed for other tribal safety programs to reach their highest potential.

Best Practice Results:

Program Contacts:

Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation - Asset Management

Infrastructure 2000, transportation asset software - sample visual map showing the location of roadway, culvert and drainage systems.

The Mashantucket Pequot Tribe in Connecticut maintains Infrastructure 2000 software to assist with transportation asset management.3 This successful application of state-of-the-art technology is a tribal best practice.

Through interactive data screens and management modules, Infrastructure 2000 tracks traffic volumes, equipment, services, and labor functions. It also tracks mowing, litter removal, snowplowing, landscaping and roadway maintenance and construction schedules. The life cycles of the Tribe's equipment and vehicles are also tracked and calibrated to ensure they are replaced or maintained when required. Infrastructure 2000 enables visual maps showing the location of roadway, culvert and drainage systems. Its records are centralized within the Public Works Department and transmitted electronically to other tribal departments for seamless information sharing. There is routine and mandatory staff training on the software to ensure proper use.

Sample Infrastructure 2000 software screen - explains that the software records and reports traffic counts and volumes, signage, and volume (history) and records inventory and condition data on sidewalks, handicap ramps, landscape trees/features.

Best Practice Results:

Program Contacts:


Red Lake Band of Chippewa - Self Governance and Intergovernmental Relations

Red Lake Band Chippewa Red Lake Construction Company backhoe digging a ditch.

As a best practice, the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Tribe in Minnesota has established an independent and successful Roads Department through its self-governance compact. The Tribe has also mastered the art of building inter-governmental relationships. Both initiatives have assisted in meeting the Tribe's transportation challenges. Each is briefly described here.

A) Self Governance Compact, In 1995, the Tribe was one of the first in the nation to establish a BIA Self-Governance Compact through U.S Public Law 93-638. In 1999, it participated in a Department of Interior self-governance pilot project for the Indian Reservation Roads (IRR) program. Since that time, the Tribe has established a Self Governance Coordinator position and created the Red Lake Construction Company which undertakes most of its infrastructure construction projects.

B) Intergovernmental Relations. The Red Lake Band of Chippewa Tribe has also enlisted the support of non-tribal agencies to assist with its infrastructure construction and public works. This includes productive partnerships and resource sharing with the Corps of Engineers, the Minnesota Department of Transportation and Operation Walking Shield. With Operation Walking Shield, the tribe constructed a new 11-mile reservation road through forested terrain to a planned tribal housing site. Over a three year period, the project involved the resources and labor of one-thousand recruits from the Air Force Reserve, the Army Reserve, the Navy Sea Bees and the Minnesota National Guard.

While the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Road Department exercises control and independence when performing its public works and construction, several of its projects would not have been possible without the Tribe's skillful collaboration and resource-sharing with outside agencies.

Photo of land surveyor with siteline level on tripod, standing next to an all-terrain vehicle (ATV).

Best Practice Results:

Program Contacts:

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4. Checklist

This chapter provides a check list for the tribal transportation practitioner. The checklist is designed as a framework that tribal transportation planners may use as a starting point to improve their programs or to address specific program challenges or issues. The tribal practitioner is encouraged to use this check list to:

This check list can be expanded or modified based on the specific circumstances and needs of the tribal transportation program. For example, all of the implementation steps listed under the program themes were not used in each individual tribal case study. In some cases, the program managers used judgment in determining which steps to take. Additionally, the program themes may be interchangeable. A tribal transportation program may require a strong infusion of leadership or resources or, possibly, a combination of several of the other management themes featured in this Guidebook; such as increased partnerships or improved communications. As with any program, tribal transportation program needs will vary in scope and complexity. The tribal practitioner is encouraged to use judgment in determining whether all, some or more of the management methods listed here will be needed when pursuing a specific program strategy. The themes and implementation steps listed below are starting points.

Leadership

a Identify and articulate the problem.

a Envision a solution.

a Follow through.

Problem Identification

a Investigate the cause of the deficiency.

a Conduct research on possible options.

a Develop an Action Plan for executing the solution.

Resource Allocation

a Determine the need.

a Assess all available resources.

a Efficiently allocate available resources to meet the need.

Creative Problem Solving

a Be creative and original.

a Investigate available options.

a Design a solution that is responsive to the community's values, needs and expectations.

Collaboration and Partnership

a Determine the program deficiencies.

a Identify partners with similar program objectives.

a Share resources to achieve a common goal.

a Build on the experience.

Communications

a Target Audience.

a Design a Concise Message.

a Develop Reliable Mechanism to Convey Information.

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5. Technical Resources

This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of publications relevant to the topic of tribal transportation program management. It features USDOT Federal Highway Administration, Transportation Research Board and other related publications.

USDOT - FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION

Asset Management

Transportation Planning and Asset Management, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Asset Management, 2008: A discussion on the benefits of applying transportation asset management during the planning process. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/asstmgmt/tpamb.cfm

Asset Manager Primer, USDOT, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Asset Management, 1999: This primer was developed to answer the question, "What is asset management" There is discussion on the concept and its application. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/asstmgmt/amprimer.pdf

Report 545 - Analytical Tools for Asset Management, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, 2005: This report examines two transportation asset management tools - AssetManager NT and AssetManager PT - designed to help state departments of transportation and other transportation agencies identify, evaluate and recommend investment decisions for managing infrastructure assets. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_545.pdf

Historic Preservation

Improving the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process Through Enhanced Tribal Capacity: This document describes the Council on Environmental Quality's creation of an Interagency Tribal NEPA Capacity Work Group. The objective is to make the NEPA process efficient and timely.

FHWA Historic Preservation and Archaeology Program, Tribal Issues: This document provides information on tribal consultation and coordination, provides examples of streamlining initiatives and offers links to other resources related to Tribes and historic preservation.

Tribal Consultation and Cultural Resources Assessment - Environmental Justice Case Studies: This case study describes a project confronted with the discovery of protected historical resources. It demonstrates how agencies can work together and, at the same time, comply with their respective mandates.

Section 106 FAQ's on Tribal Consultation: This document addresses frequently asked questions on the Section 106 process.

Partnership and Collaboration

Arizona: Building Technical Capacity for Improved Tribal Consultation and Communication (or PDF, 81KB): This document describes successful communications between the Arizona Department of Transportation, several tribal governments and the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona.

Bangor Area, Maine: Technical Assistance and Coordination between a Tribe and MPO (or PDF, 384KB): This document describes participation by the Penobscot Indian Nation in the policy and planning committees of the Bangor Area Comprehensive Transportation System.

North Central New Mexico: Development of a Regional Transit District (or PDF, 102KB): The North Central Regional Transit District is a regional transit planning organization designed with five Indian pueblos and non-tribal governments.

San Diego, California: A Tribal Consortium Enhances Tribal/State Coordination Efforts (or PDF, 189KB): The Reservation Transportation Authority (RTA) is a unique consortium of 24 tribes that has worked effectively with Caltrans and the San Diego Association of Governments.

South Dakota: State/Tribal Planning Coordination Meetings Achieve Results (or PDF, 176KB): Annual meetings are held by South Dakota Department of Transportation and tribes to coordinate the STIP with the IRR TIP and to discuss tribal transportation needs.

Thurston County, Washington: Partnership between Tribes and an MPO (or PDF, 157KB): This document describes the participation of the Nisqually Indian Tribe and the Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation in the Thurston Regional Planning Council planning process.

Real Estate

Acquisition of Easements over Native American Lands For Transportation Project: This document describes research conducted by the FHWA Office of Real Estate Services on obtaining right-of-way easements over Tribal or allotted lands. It identifies best practices.

Safety

Tribal Highway Safety Improvement Program Model: This is a model program with guidelines for identifying hazardous highway locations, sections, and elements; and developing and prioritizing projects.

Transportation Planning

Tribal Transportation Planning Capacity Building: This program is designed to help decision makers and transportation officials plan tribal transportation services.

A Citizen's Guide to Transportation Decision-Making: The FHWA and the Federal Transit Administration developed this guide for public understanding on how transportation decisions are made at the local, state and national level.

Indian Reservation Roads (IRR) Program, Transportation Planning Procedures and Guidelines: This document explains the transportation planning process under the IRR Program.

Final Rule on Indian Reservation Roads Program: The final rule on the IRR Program became effective October 1, 2004. This rule establishes the policies and procedures that govern the program.

Final Rule on Indian Reservation Roads Program Subject Index: Subject index for IRR Program regulations.

Transportation Decisionmaking: Information Tools for Tribal Governments: Training Series provides modules for twelve planning topics. The training modules are designed to assist transportation professionals responsible for planning for the capital, operating, and maintenance needs on tribal lands.

Transportation Research Board

Synthesis 366 - Tribal Transportation Program - A Synthesis of Highway Practice, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, 2007: Documentation on the political and institutional structures of tribes and how transportation programs function within them. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_syn_366.pdf

Report 545 - Analytical Tools for Asset Management, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, 2005: This report examines two transportation asset management tools - AssetManager NT and AssetManager PT - designed to help state departments of transportation and other transportation agencies identify, evaluate and recommend investment decisions for managing infrastructure assets. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_545.pdf

Conference on Transportation Improvements - Experiences Among Tribal, Local, State and Federal Governments, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Transportation Research Circular #D-C039, Transportation Research Board, 2002.

Other Resources

American Indian Transportation: Issues and Successful Models - Technical Assistance Brief No. 14, National Transit Resource Center, Community Transportation Association of America, Washington, DC, 1999.

American Indian Transportation: Issues and Successful Models, Brief No. 28, National Transit Resource Center, Community Transportation Association of America, Washington, DC, 2006.

Government to Government Transportation Accord, Minnesota Department of Transportation, FHWA - Minnesota Division, Minnesota.

Navajo Transit System, 2008. www.navajotransit.com

Program for Local Governments - Tribal Affairs, Wisconsin Department of Transportation. http://www.dot.wisconsin.gov/localgov/aid/tribal-affairs.htm.

The Denali Commission Awards Kawerak, Inc. with 2007 Best Practice Award, Denali Commission, Anchorage Alaska, 2007.

Tribal Transportation Current Practices, Community Transportation Association of America. http://web1.ctaa.org/webmodules/webarticles/anmviewer.asp?a=96&print=yes

Tribal Transportation: Barriers and Solutions, Brief #5, 2002, Research and Training Center on Disabilities in Rural Communities, Rural Institute, University of Montana. http://rtc.ruralinstitute.umt.edu/Indian/Factsheets/transportation.htm

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6. Invitation

This chapter is an open invitation to the national tribal transportation community to participate in the development of future FHWA tribal transportation Guidebook projects. FHWA is seeking input on future topics to feature in its Guidebooks - topics that provide the best benefit to the tribal transportation practitioner. FHWA is also seeking examples of exemplary tribal transportation practices and programs that can be show cased and shared as case studies.

Readers of this Guidebook are encouraged to complete and submit the brief form below.
Thank you in advance for your participation in this new educational series!

Your Name: Your Telephone #:
Your E-Mail Address:
Your Organization:
List your suggestions for future Tribal Transportation Guidebook topics in order of priority:
Guidebook Topic Why Is the Topic Important to the Tribal Transportation Community?
List your suggestions for future Tribal Transportation Guidebook case studies:
Tribal Transportation Program Why should the Program be studied?
Please send your suggestions to: Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Planning, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Room E72-125, Washington, DC 20590
Telephone: (202) 366-0106 E-Mail: kenneth.petty@dot.gov

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7. APPENDIX A: PROGRAM SURVEY

This program survey was used to collect information on the tribal transportation programs featured in the Tribal Transportation Best Practices Guidebook.

Tribal Transportation Best Practices Survey

Your participation in this U.S. Department of Transportation research project is very much appreciated. Our objective is to begin the necessary and important work of documenting the best transportation practices of Tribal Governments and sharing this information with other tribal and transportation officials and agencies. The results of this research will represent a learning tool and an aid to practitioners in their work. It also will help to identify methods for achieving effective tribal transportation planning and program management.

I. Introduction
a) Date: b) Tribe Name:
c) Tribe Address:
d) Interviewee Name / Title:
e) Interviewee Involvement w/ Program - # of Years:
f) Telephone # / E-Mail:
II. Program Information
a) Name of Program:
b) Purpose of Program:
c) When Started: d) How Started (History):
e) How Authorized, i.e. Tribal Ordinance, State DOT-Tribal Agreement:
f) How Funded:
Funding Year Funding Level Funding Source
g) Description of Service:
Program Year Number Served How Served
Tribal Non-Tribal
h) How Program Service(s) Communicated:
III. Program Management and Support
a) # of Program Staff:
Staff Title # Function How Funded # of Years
b) Program Support and Oversight (Within Tribal Government):
c) Program Support and Oversight (Outside Tribal Government):
Outside Agency ContactśTitle Phone # Level of Involvement
IV. Program Performance and Monitoring

a) Best / Promising Program Features (Why):

b) Disappointing/Unsatisfactory Program Features (Why):

c) Program Monitoring Process:
d) Future Program Goals/Objectives:
V. Other Comments.

Please provide to the Researcher documents that will aid in the understanding of the history, development, funding and management of the program. Electronic photographs, maps, graphics and/or brochures depicting program services will also be helpful to this research effort.

Thank you for your time and participation.
It is appreciated!

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8. Appendix B : Acknowledgment

Participants in the tribal case studies and this Guidebook project are listed here with appreciation.

Coeur d'Alene Tribe Case Studies

Hoopa Valley Tribe Case Study

Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona Case Study

Mashantucket Pequot Tribe Case Study

Red Lake Band of Chippewa Tribe Case Study

Guidebook Project Review Team

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Reference

1. The Transportation Decision-Making Series modules are available on the FHWA Tribal Planning web site at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/planning/processes/tribal/planning_modules/.

2. Most of the documents reviewed in the literature search are listed in Chapter 5 - Technical Resources.

3. Infrastructure 2000 software is no longer available for purchase. The reader may contact the Tribe directly for more information or review the other asset management programs listed in Section 5 - Technical Resources.

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Updated: 12/19/2013
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