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Appendix C: Terms and Acronyms

Allocation An administrative distribution of funds for programs that do not have a statutory distribution formula.
Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Legislation defining the responsibilities of and requirements for transportation providers to make transportation accessible to individuals with disabilities.
Annual Funding Agreement A negotiated annual written funding agreement between a Self-Governance Indian Tribal Government (ITG) and the Secretary of the Interior, authorizing the ITG to plan, conduct, consolidate and administer programs, services, functions and activities or portions thereof previously administered by the Department of the Interior through the BIA, and other programs for which appropriations are made available for the ITG through the Secretary of the Interior from agencies other than Department of the Interior.
Apportionment The distribution of funds as prescribed by a statutory formula.
Appropriation Authorization of funding expenditures from Congress.
Arterial Highway A major highway used primarily for through traffic.
Arterial Street A class of street serving major traffic movements (high-speed, high volume) for travel between major points.
Attainment Area An area considered to have air quality that meets or exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health standards used in the Clean Air Act. Nonattainment areas are areas considered not to have met these standards for designated pollutants. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a nonattainment area for others.
Authorization Basic substantive legislation or that which empowers an agency to implement a particular program and also establishes an upper limit on the amount of funds that can be appropriated for that program.
Authorization Act Basic substantive legislation that establishes or continues Federal programs or agencies and establishes an upper limit on the amount of funds for the program(s). The current authorization act for surface transportation programs is the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU).
Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) The total volume of traffic on a highway segment for one year, divided by the number of days in the year.
BIA Classification of Roads An identification of specific roads or trails that take into account current and future traffic generators, and relationships to connecting or adjacent BIA, State, county, Federal, and/or local roads.
BIA Roads System Those existing and proposed roads for which the BIA has or plans to obtain legal right(s)-of-way. This includes only roads for which the BIA has the primary responsibility to construct, improve and maintain. Any additions or deletions to this system must be supported by resolution from the Indian Tribal Government.
BIA/FHWA Memorandum of Agreement An agreement between the BIA and the FHWA which contains mutually agreeable roles and responsibilities for the administration of the IRR and BIA Bridge programs.
Bikeway A facility designed to accommodate bicycle travel for recreational or commuting purposes. Bikeways are not necessarily separated facilities; they may be designed and operated to be shared with other travel modes.
Bridge Management System (BMS) A systematic process that provides, analyzes and summarizes bridge information for use in selecting and implementing cost-effective bridge construction, rehabilitation and maintenance programs.
Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) The original Clean Air Act was passed in 1963, but the national air pollution control program is actually based on the 1970 version of the law. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are the most far-reaching revisions of the 1970 law. The 1990 amendments made major changes in the Clean Air Act.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) A compilation of the general and permanent rules of the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government as published in the Federal Register. The code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation.
Collector (Highway) In rural areas, routes that serve intra-county rather than statewide travel. In urban areas, streets that provide direct access to neighborhoods and arterials.
Conformity Process to assess the compliance of any transportation plan, program or project with air quality implementation plans. The conformity process is defined by the Clean Air Act.
Congestion Management System (CMS) Systematic process for managing congestion. Provides information on transportation system performance and finds alternative ways to alleviate congestion and enhance the mobility of people and goods, to levels that meet state and local needs.
Congestion Mitigation & Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) A categorical federal-aid funding program created with ISTEA and continued in SAFETEA-LU. Directs funding to projects that contribute to meeting National air quality standards. CMAQ funds generally may not be used for projects that result in the construction of new capacity for SOVs (single-occupant vehicles).
Dedicated Funds Any funds dedicated at their source (e.g., sales taxes, gasoline taxes, and property taxes), rather than through an allocation from the pool of general funds.
Department of Transportation (US DOT) Establishes the nation's overall transportation policy. Under its umbrella there are ten administrations whose jurisdictions include highway planning, development and construction; urban mass transit; railroads; aviation; and the safety of waterways, ports, highways, and oil and gas pipelines. The Department of Transportation (US DOT) was established in October 15, 1966 by 49 U.S.C. 102 and 102 note, "to assure the coordinated, effective administration of the transportation programs of the Federal Government" and to develop "national transportation policies and programs conducive to the provision of fast, safe, efficient, and convenient transportation at the lowest cost consistent therewith."
Dial-A-Ride Term for demand-responsive systems usually delivering door-to-door service to clients, who make request by telephone on an as-needed reservation or subscription basis.
Driving Under the Influence (DUI) The driving or operating of any vehicle or common carrier while drunk or under the influence of liquor or narcotics.
Emergency Preparedness Plan A comprehensive plan which identifies potential emergencies and their impact on the community, and identifies operating procedures and actions to put in place during actual emergencies.
Enhancement Activities Activities related to a particular transportation project that "enhance" or contribute to the existing or proposed project. Examples include facilities for pedestrians or cyclists, landscaping or other scenic beautification projects, historic preservation, control and removal of outdoor advertising, archaeological planning and research, and mitigation of water pollution due to highway runoff.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Report developed as part of the National Environmental Policy Act requirements, which details any adverse economic, social and environmental effects of a proposed transportation project for which Federal funding is being sought. Adverse effects could include air, water or noise pollution; destruction or disruption of natural resources; adverse employment effects; injurious displacement of people or businesses; or disruption of desirable community or regional growth.
Environmental Restoration Re-establishment (including all site preparation activities) of natural habitats or other environmental resources on a site where they formerly existed or currently exist in a substantially degraded state. This can include the restitution for the loss, damage or destruction of natural resources arising out of the accidental discharge, dispersal, release or escape into or upon the land, atmosphere, watercourse, or body of water of any commodity transported by a motor carrier. This also may include the on-site or offsite replacement of wetlands and other natural habitats lost through development activities.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) A branch of the US DOT that administers the federal-aid highway program, providing financial assistance to states to construct and improve highways, urban and rural roads, and bridges. The FHWA also administers the Federal Lands Highway Program, including survey, design and construction of forest highway system roads, parkways and park roads, Indian reservation roads, defense access roads and other Federal lands roads. FHWA became a component of the US DOT in 1967 pursuant to the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. app. 1651 note).
Federal Lands Highway Program (FLHP) Provides funds to construct roads and trails within (or, in some cases, providing access to) Federal lands. There are four categories of FLHP funds: Indian Reservation Roads, Public Lands Highways, Park Roads and Parkways and Refuge Roads. Funds available to the US Forest Service may be used for forest development roads and trails. To be eligible for funding, projects must be open to the public and part of an approved Federal land management agency general management plan.
Federal Register Daily publication which provides a uniform system for making regulations and legal notices issued by the Executive Branch and various departments of the Federal government available to the public.
Federal Transit Administration (FTA) FTA is the principal source of federal assistance for the planning, development, and improvement of public or mass transportation systems. Formerly the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, FTA operates under the authority of the Federal Transit Act, as amended. The Act was repealed in 1994 and re-enacted as Chapter 53 of Title 49. FTA became a component of the US DOT on July 1, 1968. Its mission is to a) assist in the development of mass transportation facilities, equipment, techniques and methods, with the cooperation of public and private mass transportation companies, b) encourage the planning and establishment of area-wide urban mass transportation systems for economic and urban development, c) provide assistance to State and local governments and their instrumentalities in financing such systems and d) provide financial assistance to help implement national goals relating to mobility for elderly persons, persons with disabilities and economically disadvantaged persons.
Federal-aid Highway Program (FAHP) An umbrella term for most of the Federal programs providing highway funds to the States. This is not a term defined in law. As used in this document, FAHP is comprised of programs administered by FHWA.
Ferry Boat A boat providing fixed-route service across a body of water.
Financial Capacity Refers to the ISTEA and SAFETEA-LU requirement that an adequate financial plan for funding and sustaining transportation improvements be in place prior to programming federally-funded projects. Generally refers to the stability and reliability of revenue in meeting proposed costs.
Financial Element Financial information and documentation within a transportation plan or program (STIP, TIP or TTIP). The information pertains to implementing the transportation plan and may include revenue projections, revenue shortfalls, project costs and funding strategies.
Financial Plan Documentation required to be included with a metropolitan transportation plan and TIP that demonstrates consistency between reasonably available and projected sources for federal, State, local and private revenues and the costs of implementing proposed transportation system improvements. This is optional for the long-range statewide transportation plan and STIP
Financial Planning The process of defining and evaluating funding sources, sharing the information and deciding how to allocate the funds.
Fiscal Constraint The TIP or STIP includes sufficient financial information for demonstrating its projects can be implemented using committed, available or reasonably available revenue sources. This applies to each program year. Projects in air quality nonattainment and maintenance areas may be included in the first two years of the TIP or STIP only if funds are “available” or “committed.”
Fiscal Year - Federal (FFY) The yearly accounting period beginning October 1 and ending September 30 of the subsequent calendar year. Fiscal years are denoted by the calendar year in which they end (e.g. FFY 1991 began October 1, 1990 and ended September 30, 1991).
Freeway A divided arterial highway designed for the unimpeded flow of large traffic volumes. Access to a freeway is rigorously controlled and intersection grade separations are required.
Geographic Information System (GIS) A system of hardware, software and data for collecting, storing, analyzing and disseminating information about areas of the Earth. For Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) purposes, GIS is defined as a highway network (spatial data which graphically represents the geometry of the highways, an electronic map) and its geographically referenced component attributes (HPMS section data, bridge data, and other data including socioeconomic data) that are integrated through GIS technology to perform analyses. From this, GIS can display attributes and analyze results electronically in map form.
Goals Generalized statements which broadly relate the physical environment to values.
Grants A federal financial assistance award making payment in cash or in kind for a specified purpose. The term "grants-in-aid" is commonly restricted to grants to states and local governments.
High Occupancy Vehicle Lane Exclusive road or traffic lane limited to buses, vanpools, carpools and emergency vehicles.
Highway Any road, street, parkway or freeway/expressway that includes rights-of-way, bridges, railroad-highway crossings, tunnels, drainage structures, signs, guardrail and protective structures in connection with highways. The highway further includes that portion of any interstate or international bridge or tunnel and the approaches thereto (23 U.S.C. 101a).
Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program (HBRRP) Established under 23 U.S.C., Section 144, to enable the several states to replace and rehabilitate highway bridges when it is determined that the bridge is unsafe because of structural deficiencies, physical deterioration or functional obsolescence.
Highway Trust Fund (HTF) An account established by law to hold Federal highway user taxes that are dedicated for highway and transit related purposes. The HTF has two accounts: the Highway Account and the Mass Transit Account.
Highway-Rail Grade Crossing (Rail) A location where one or more railroad tracks are crossed by a public highway, road, street or a private roadway at grade, including sidewalks and pathways at or associated with the crossing.
Highway-User Tax A charge levied on persons or organizations based on their use of public roads. Funds collected are usually applied toward highway construction, reconstruction and maintenance.
Historic Preservation Protection and treatment of the Nation's significant historic buildings, landmarks, landscapes, battlefields, tribal communities and archeological sites; prominent federally-owned buildings; and State and privately-owned properties.
Indian Lands Indian reservation or Indian trust land or restricted Indian land which is not subject to fee title alienation without the approval of the Federal Government, or Indian and Alaska Native villages, group, or communities in which Indians and Alaskan Natives reside, whom the Secretary of the Interior has determined are eligible for services generally available to Indians under Federal laws specifically applicable to Indians.
Indian Reservation Roads (IRR) Public roads that are located within or provide access to an Indian reservation or Indian trust land or restricted Indian land which is not subject to fee title alienation without the approval of the Federal Government, or Indian and Alaska Native villages, group, or communities in which Indians and Alaskan Natives reside, whom the Secretary of the Interior has determined are eligible for services generally available to Indians under Federal laws specifically applicable to Indians. Roads on the BIA Road System are also IRR roads.
Indian Tribal Government (ITG) Duly formed governing body of an Indian Tribe.
Indian Tribe Any Indian or Alaska Native tribe, band, nation, pueblo, village or community that the Secretary of the Interior acknowledges to exist as an Indian tribe pursuant to the Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act of 1994, 25 U.S.C. 479a.
Infrastructure 1) In transportation planning, all the relevant elements of the environment in which a transportation system operates. 2) A term connoting the physical underpinnings of society at large including, but not limited to, roads, bridges, transit, waste systems, public housing, sidewalks, utility installations, parks, public buildings and communications networks.
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) The application of advanced technologies to improve the efficiency and safety of transportation systems.
Intermodal The ability to connect, and the connections between, modes of transportation.
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) Legislative initiative by the U.S. Congress that restructured funding for transportation programs. ISTEA authorized increased levels of highway and transportation funding from FY92-97 and increased the role of regional planning commissions/MPOs in funding decisions. The Act also required comprehensive regional and Statewide long-term transportation plans with an increased emphasis on public participation and transportation alternatives.
Interstate Highway Limited access, divided highway of at least four lanes designated by the FHWA as part of the Interstate System.
Interstate Highway System (IHS) The system of highways that connects the principal metropolitan areas, cities and industrial centers of the United States. Also connects the US to internationally significant routes in Canada and Mexico.
Intrastate Travel within the same state.
IRR Inventory An inventory of roads which meet the following criteria: a) public roads strictly within reservation boundaries, b) public roads that provide access to lands, to groups, villages, and communities in which the majority of residences are Indian, c) public roads that serve Indian lands not within reservation boundaries and d) public roads that serve recognized Indian groups, villages and isolated communities not located within a reservation.
IRR Road/Bridge Inventory An inventory of BIA owned IRR roads and bridges.
IRR TIP A multi-year listing of road improvement projects programmed for construction by a BIA area office, with IRR Program funds, for the next 3-5 years. A separate IRR TIP is prepared for each State within the area office's jurisdiction.
IRR Transportation Planning Funds Funds provided under 23 U.S.C., Section 204 (j), for transportation planning by Indian Tribal Governments.
Level of Service (LOS) 1) A qualitative assessment of a road's operating conditions. For local government comprehensive planning purposes, level of service means an indicator of the extent or degree of service provided by, or proposed to be provided by, a facility based on and related to the operational characteristics of the facility. Level of service indicates the capacity per unit of demand for each public facility. 2) This term refers to a standard measurement used by transportation officials which reflects the relative ease of traffic flow on a scale of A to F, with free-flow being rated LOS-A and congested conditions rated as LOS-F.
Limitation on Obligations Any action or inaction by an officer or employee of the United States that limits the amount of Federal assistance that may be obligated during a specified time period. A limitation on obligations does not affect the scheduled apportionment or allocation of funds; it just controls the rate at which these funds may be used
Local Street A street intended solely for access to adjacent properties.
Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) A document resulting from regional or statewide collaboration and consensus on a region or state's transportation system, and serving as the defining vision for the region's or state's transportation systems and services. In metropolitan areas, the plan indicates all of the transportation improvements scheduled for funding over the next 20 years.
Management Systems (1) Systems to improve identification of problems and opportunities throughout the entire surface transportation network, and to evaluate and prioritize alternative strategies, actions and solutions. (2) A systematic process, designed to assist decision makers in selecting cost-effective strategies/actions to improve the efficiency and safety of, and protect the investment in, the Nation's transportation infrastructure.
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) 1) Regional policy body, required in urbanized areas with populations over 50,000, and designated by local officials and the governor of the state. Responsible in cooperation with the state and other transportation providers for carrying out the metropolitan transportation planning requirements of federal highway and transit legislation. 2) Formed in cooperation with the state, develops transportation plans and programs for the metropolitan area. For each urbanized area, a Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) must be designated by agreement between the Governor and local units of government representing 75% of the affected population (in the metropolitan area), including the central cities or cities as defined by the Bureau of the Census, or in accordance with procedures established by applicable State or local law.
Minor Arterials (Highway) Roads linking cities and larger towns in rural areas. In urban areas, roads that link but do not penetrate neighborhoods within a community.
Mode A specific form of transportation, such as automobile, subway, bus, rail or air.
Motorcycle A two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle designed to transport one or two people, including motor scooters, minibikes and mopeds.
Motorized Vehicle All vehicles that are licensed for highway driving. Specifically excluded are snow mobiles and minibikes.
Multimodal Transportation Often used as a synonym for intermodalism. Congress and others frequently use the term intermodalism in its broadest interpretation as a synonym for multimodal transportation. Most precisely, multimodal transportation covers all modes without necessarily including a holistic or integrated approach.
National Highway System (NHS) This system of highways designated and approved in accordance with the provisions of 23 U.S.C. 103(b). (23CFR500)
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) The NHTSA was established by the Highway Safety Act of 1970 (23 U.S.C. 401 note) to 1) carry out a congressional mandate to reduce the number of deaths, injuries and economic losses resulting from motor vehicle crashes on the Nation's highways, 2) provide motor vehicle damage susceptibility and ease of repair information, motor vehicle inspection demonstrations and protection of purchasers of motor vehicles having altered odometers and 3) provide average standards for greater vehicle mileage per gallon of fuel for vehicles under 10,000 pounds (gross vehicle weight).
National Scenic Byways Program (NSBP) Designates roads that have outstanding scenic, historic, cultural, natural, recreational and archaeological qualities as All-American Roads or National Scenic Byways and provides grants for scenic byway projects.
National Trails System (NTS) The network of scenic, historic and recreation trails created by the National Trails System Act of 1968. These trails provide for outdoor recreation needs, promote the enjoyment, appreciation and preservation of open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources and encourage public access and citizen involvement.
Nonattainment Area (NAA) Any geographic area that has not met the requirements for clean air as set out in the Clean Air Act of 1990.
Notice of Funding Availability Written notice to the respective area tribes that the BIA area office has received contractible program funds.
Objectives Specific, measurable statements related to the attainment of goals.
Obligation The Federal government's legal commitment (promise) to pay or reimburse the States or other entities for the Federal share of a project's eligible costs.
Obligation Limitation A restriction or "ceiling" on the amount of Federal assistance that may be promised (obligated) during a specified time period. This is a statutory budgetary control that does not affect the apportionment or allocation of funds. Rather, it controls the rate at which these funds may be used.
Other Freeways And Expressways (Highway) All urban principal arterials with limited access but not part of the Interstate system.
Other Principal Arterials (Highway) Major streets or highways, many of multi-lane or freeway design, serving high-volume traffic corridor movements that connect major generators of travel.
Public Law 93-638 - Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, as amended The response by Congress, in recognition of the unique obligation of the United States, to the strong expression of the Indian people for self-determination, assuring maximum Indian participation in the direction of education as well as other Federal services for Indian communities so as to render such programs and services more responsive to the needs and desires of Indian communities.
Paratransit A variety of smaller, often flexibly scheduled-and-routed transportation services using low-capacity vehicles, such as vans, to operate within normal urban transit corridors or rural areas. These services usually serve the needs of persons that standard mass-transit services would serve with difficulty or not at all. Often, the patrons include the elderly and persons with disabilities.
Park A place or area set aside for recreation or preservation of a cultural or natural resource.
Parkway A highway that has full or partial access control, is usually located within a park or a ribbon of park-like developments and prohibits commercial vehicles. Buses are not considered commercial vehicles in this case.
Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) Particulate matter consists of airborne solid particles and liquid droplets. It may be in the form of fly ash, soot, dust, fog and fumes. The particles are classified as "coarse" if smaller than 10 microns or "fine" if smaller than 2.5 microns. Coarse particles are produced in grinding operations or from the disturbance of dust by natural air turbulence, such as wind. Fine particles are by-products of fossil fuel combustion such as diesel and bus engines. They may travel to the lungs and are linked to respiratory ailments such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. Exposure may aggravate other medical conditions such as heart disease and emphysema and may cause premature death. Particulate matter contributes to diminished visibility and particle deposition (soiling).
Pavement Management System A systematic process that provides, analyzes and summarizes pavement information for use in selecting and implementing cost-effective pavement construction, rehabilitation and maintenance programs. Pavement includes all road surface types including paved, gravel, improved or unimproved earth.
Pedestrian Any person not in or on a motor vehicle or other vehicle.
Pedestrian Walkway A continuous way designated for pedestrians and separated from motor vehicular through lanes by space or barrier.
Performance Measures Indicators of how well the transportation system is performing, such as average speed, reliability of travel and accident rates. Used as factors in the decision making process.
Problem Identification An element in the planning process which represents the gap between the desired vision, goals and objectives and the current or projected performance of the system.
Program Development An element in the planning process in which improvements are formalized in the transportation improvement program and provide detailed strategies.
Programming Prioritizing proposed projects and matching those projects with available funds to accomplish agreed upon and stated needs.
Public Authority A federal, State, county, town or township, Indian tribe, municipal or other local government or instrumentality thereof, with authority to finance, build, operate or maintain highway facilities, either as toll or toll- free facilities.
Public Transit Agencies A public entity responsible for administering and managing transit activities and services. Public transit agencies can directly operate transit service or contract out for all or part of the total transit service provided.
Public Transportation Transportation by bus, rail or other conveyance, either publicly or privately owned, which provides to the public general service on a regular and continuing basis. Also known as "mass transportation", "mass transit" and "transit."
Public Road Any road under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public authority (federal, state, county, town or township, local government, or instrumentality thereof) and open to public travel.
Recreational Trails Program (RTP) Provides funds to the States to develop and maintain recreational trails and trail-related facilities for motorized and non-motorized recreational trail uses.
Regionally Significant Project A project on a transportation facility which serves regional transportation needs.
Relative Need Formula An allocation formula used by the BIA to distribute construction funds to the 12 BIA area offices.
Right of Way The land (usually a strip) acquired for or devoted to highway transportation purposes.
Rural Highway Any highway, road or street that is not an urban highway.
Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) Authorized in 2005, SAFETEA-LU authorizes funding for federal transportation investments for federal fiscal years 2005 - 2009. Approximately $244.1 billion is authorized for highway, highway safety, public transportation and other surface transportation programs. It represents the largest surface transportation investment in the Nation's history.
Safety Management System A systematic process that has the goal of reducing the number and severity of transportation related accidents by ensuring all opportunities to improve safety are identified, considered and implemented as appropriate.
State As defined in chapter 1 of Title 23 of the United States Code, any of the 50 States, comprising the United States, plus the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. However, for some purposes (e.g., highway safety programs under 23 U.S.C. 402), the term may also include the Territories (the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands) and the Secretary of the Interior (for Indian Reservations).
State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) A revolving fund mechanism for financing a variety of highway and transit projects through loans and credit enhancement. SIBs are designed to complement traditional Federal-aid highway and transit grants by providing States increased flexibility for financing infrastructure investments.
State Transportation Agency The State highway department, transportation department or other State transportation agency to which Federal-aid highway funds are apportioned.
State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) A staged, multi-year, statewide, intermodal program of transportation projects, consistent with the statewide transportation plan and planning processes as well as metropolitan plans, TIPs and processes.
Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) A statewide recreation plan required by the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965. Addresses the demand for and supply of recreation resources within a State, identifies needs and new opportunities for recreation improvements and sets forth an implementation program to meet the goals identified by its citizens and elected leaders.
Statewide Transportation Plan The official statewide intermodal transportation plan that is developed through the statewide transportation planning process.
Sub-Allocation An administrative distribution of funds from BIA Central Office down to the BIA area.
Surface Transportation Program (STP) Federal-aid highway funding program that funds a broad range of surface transportation capital needs including many roads, transit, sea and airport access, vanpool, bike and pedestrian facilities.
Transportation Conformity Process to assess the compliance of any transportation plan, program or project with air quality implementation plans. The conformity process is defined by the Clean Air Act.
Transportation Control Measures (TCM) Transportation strategies that affect traffic patterns or reduce vehicle use to reduce air pollutant emissions. These may include HOV lanes, provision of bicycle facilities, ridesharing and telecommuting. Such actions may be included in a SIP if needed to demonstrate attainment of the NAAQS.
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Programs designed to reduce demand for transportation through various means such as the use of transit and of alternative work hours.
Transportation Enhancement Activities (TE) Activities for safe bicycle and pedestrian facilities, scenic routes, beautification, restoring historic buildings, renovating streetscapes or providing transportation museums and visitors centers.
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) Authorized in 1998, TEA-21 authorized federal funding for transportation investment for fiscal years 1998-2003. Approximately $217 billion in funding was authorized, which was used for highway, transit and other surface transportation programs.
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) A document prepared by a metropolitan planning organization that lists projects to be funded with FHWA/FTA funds for the next one-to-three-year period.
Tribal Lands Land held in trust for Indian people, restricted Indian land which is not subject to fee title alienation without the approval of the Federal Government, and fee lands owned by tribal governments.
Tribal Priority List A list of transportation projects which the Indian Tribal Government considers a high priority.
Tribal TIP A multi-year, financially constrained, list of proposed transportation projects to be implemented within or providing access to Indian country during the next 3-5 years. It is developed from the tribal priority list.
United States (US) Territories Samoa, Guam, the Northern Marianas, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
United States Code A consolidation and codification of all general and permanent laws of the U.S.
Urban Highway Any road or street within the boundaries of an urban area.
Urbanized Area Area that contains a city of 50,000 or more population plus incorporated surrounding areas meeting size or density criteria as defined by the U.S. Census.
Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) The number of miles traveled nationally by vehicles for a period of 1 year. VMT is either calculated using 2 odometer readings or, for vehicles with less than 2 odometer readings, imputed using a regression estimate.
Updated: 12/19/2013
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