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Status of the Nation's Highways, Bridges, and Transit:
2002 Conditions and Performance Report

Executive Summary
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Index
Introduction
Highlights
Executive Summary
Part I: Description of Current System
Ch1: The Role of Highways and Transit
Ch2: System and Use Characteristics
Ch3: System Conditions
Ch4: Operational Performance
Ch5: Safety Performance
Ch6: Finance

Part II: Investment Performance Analyses
Ch7: Capital Investment Requirements
Ch8: Comparison of Spending and Investment Requirements
Ch9: Impacts of Investment
Ch10: Sensitivity Analysis

Part III: Bridges
Ch11: Federal Bridge Program Status of the Nation's Bridges

Part IV: Special Topics
Ch12: National Security
Ch13: Highway Transportation in Society
Ch14: The Importance of Public Transportation
Ch15: Macroeconomic Benefits of Highway Investment
Ch16: Pricing
Ch17: Transportation Asset Management
Ch18: Travel Model Improvement Program
Ch19: Air Quality
Ch20: Federal Safety Initiatives
Ch21: Operations Strategies
Ch22: Freight

Part V: Supplemental Analyses of System Components
Ch23: Interstate System
Ch24: National Highway System
Ch25: NHS Freight Connectors
Ch26: Highway-Rail Grade Crossings
Ch27: Transit Systems on Federal Lands

Appendices
Appendix A: Changes in Highway Investment Requirements Methodology
Appendix B: Bridge Investment/Performance Methodology
Appendix C: Transit Investment Condition and Investment Requirements Methodology
List of Contacts

Ch 7: Capital Investment Requirements

Highway and Bridge

The average annual Cost to Improve Highways and Bridges for the 20-year period 2001-2020 is projected to be $106.9 billion. This represents the investment by all levels of government required to implement all cost-beneficial improvements on highways and bridges. This level of investment would address the existing backlog of highway ($271.7 billion) and bridge ($54.7 billion) deficiencies, as well as new deficiencies as they arise during the 20-year period, when it is cost-beneficial to do so.

Investment requirements for system preservation make up 45.4 percent of the total Cost to Improve Highways and Bridges. This includes all capital investment required to preserve the condition of the pavement and bridge infrastructure, such as resurfacing, rehabilitation, and reconstruction. This does not include the costs of routine maintenance.

Investment requirements for system expansion make up 46.7 percent of the total Cost to Improve Highways and Bridges. The remaining 7.9 percent of the Cost to Improve is not directly modeled; this represents the current share of capital spending on system enhancements such as safety, operational, and environmental investments.

Cost to Improve Highways and Bridges Distribution by Improvement Type
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The Cost to Maintain Highways and Bridges represents the investment required by all levels of government so that critical indicators of overall conditions and performance in the year 2020 will match their year 2000 values. For bridge preservation, it represents the level of investment required to maintain the existing backlog of bridge deficiencies at its current level. For system expansion, and pavement preservation, it represents the investment required to prevent average highway user costs (including travel time costs, vehicle operating costs, and crash costs) from rising in the future. Agency costs, such as maintenance, and societal costs, such as emissions, are also considered in the analysis, although they are not directly targeted. The average annual investment required for the Cost to Maintain Highways and Bridges is projected to be $75.9 billion.

Cost to Maintain Highways and bridges Distribution by Improvement Type
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The scope of user costs has been expanded from those considered in previous reports to include an estimate for delays resulting from incidents, as well as for recurring daily congestion. A reliability premium has also been added to reflect the additional costs that unpredictable delays impose beyond those of expected delays for which drivers can plan. Including these items in the analysis makes it considerably more expensive to maintain average user costs.

Transit

Estimated transit capital investment requirements have increased substantially since the 1999 Report. These requirements are estimated for the period 2001-2020 for four scenarios. The Maintain Conditions scenario projects the level of transit capital investment necessary to maintain average asset conditions over this 20-year period, and the Improve Conditions scenario projects the investment necessary to raise the average condition of each major asset type to at least a level of "good." The Maintain Performance scenario assumes investment in new capacity to maintain current vehicle occupancy levels as transit passenger travel increases and the Improve Performance scenario assumes that additional investment will be undertaken to increase average vehicle speeds and reducing average vehicle occupancy rates.

Summary of Transit Average Annual Investment Requirements, 2001-2020 (Billions of 2000 Dollars)

CONDITIONS PERFORMANCE AVERAGE ANNUAL COST
1997 2000
Maintain
Maintain
$10.8
$14.8
Improve
Maintain
$14.4
$16.0
Maintain
Improve
$11.1
$19.5
Improve
Improve
$16.0
$20.6


Average annual investment requirements are estimated to be $14.8 billion to Maintain Conditions and Performance ($10.8 billion in 1997) and $20.6 billion to Improve Conditions and Performance ($16.0 billion in 1997). Under the Maintain scenario, $9.2 billion annually would be needed for asset rehabilitation and replacement and $5.6 billion for asset expansion. Under the Improve scenario, $10.3 billion would be needed annually for replacement and rehabilitation, $5.7 billion for asset expansion, and $4.6 billion for performance improvements.

Annual Cost to Maintain and Improve Conditions and Performance by Investment Type (Billions of 2000 Dollars)
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Vehicles, i.e., rolling stock, account for the largest percentage of investment requirements, followed by guideway elements-tracks, tunnels and bridges.

Average Annual Transit Investment Requirements by Asset Type to Maintain Conditions and Performance, 2001-2020 (Billions of 2000 Dollars)

Guideway Elements $4.1
Facilities $1.4
Systems $1.4
Stations $0.9
Vehicles $6.2
Other Project Costs $0.9


Distribution of Costs by Asset Type to Maintain Conditions and Performance, 2001-2020
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