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Status of the Nation's Highways, Bridges, and Transit:
2004 Conditions and Performance
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Chapter 2 (Continued)

Highway System Characteristics

Highways are typically classified by either ownership or purpose, a distinction used in previous editions of the C&P report. Ownership can be determined by which jurisdiction has primary responsibility over a particular portion of the infrastructure, while purpose and level of service are identified by the item's function. This section presents highway miles by jurisdiction as well as system and use characteristics by functional classification.

Highways by Ownership

Ownership is largely split among the Federal, State, and local governments. Roads owned by these governments are considered "public."

States own almost 20 percent of the Nation's public road mileage. The Federal Government has control over about 3 percent, primarily in National parks and forests, on Indian reservations, and on military bases.

Over 77 percent of American roads are locally owned, although some intergovernmental agreements may authorize States to construct and maintain locally owned highways. About 1,050 counties in the United States have at least 1 mile of public roads owned by the Federal Government. Most of these counties are in the Western United States. Apache County, Arizona, has the highest percentage of Federal ownership (80 percent), followed by California's Siskiyou County and Montana's Lincoln County (70 percent each).

As Exhibit 2-2 demonstrates, the share of locally owned roads has grown over the past decade. The share of local public road mileage increased from 75.7 to 77.5 percent between 1993 and 2002. During that same period, the share of State-owned public road mileage declined slightly, from 19.7 to 19.5 percent.

Exhibit 2-2, highway mileage by owner, 1993 and 2002. Two pie charts, each with three segments. One indicates 4.6 percent Federal, 19.7 percent state, and 75.7 percent local highway ownership in 1993. The other indicates 3.0 percent Federal, 19.5 percent state, and 77.5 percent local highway ownership in 2002. Source: Highway Performance Monitoring System.

The dramatic decline in Federally owned public road mileage noted in the previous C&P report has leveled off, and the mileage is actually slightly higher for 2002 than it was for 2000. Yet, between 1993 and 2002 the share of Federal road mileage declined from 4.6 to 3.0 percent. Federal road mileage reached a peak in 1984, when 7 percent of all public roads were owned by the Federal Government, and had steadily decreased since then, until reaching the current 3 percent in 1999. As was noted in the previous C&P report, much of the change occurred as a result of Federal land management agencies reclassifying some of their mileage from public to nonpublic status.

Q. Why has Federally owned mileage increased substantially in urban areas since the last report?
A.

Federally owned mileage in urban areas nearly doubled between 2000 and 2002. This is a result of an emphasis that FHWA has placed on complete reporting of Federally owned mileage by agencies that are not primarily transportation oriented. In every case of a large mileage increase within a State, the data change results from more accurate reporting of Department of Defense mileage on military bases within urban areas, rather than from an increase in the mileage or roadways under Federal ownership.

A continuing trend is the increase in urban highway mileage. This is depicted in Exhibit 2-3, which shows that mileage in small urban areas grew by an average annual rate of 1.3 percent between 1993 and 2002. In larger urbanized areas with at least 50,000 residents, the annual growth rate was slightly smaller.

Exhibit 2-3 Highway Mileage by Owner and by Size of Area, 1993-2002
  1993 1995 1997 2000 2002 Annual Rate
of Change
2002/1993
Rural Areas (under 5,000 in population)
Federal179,603170,574167,368116,707117,775-4.6%
State660,241660,666661,473663,763664,8140.1%
Local2,257,0022,259,0642,280,0422,308,8422,295,0060.2%
Subtotal Rural3,096,8463,090,3043,108,8833,089,3123,077,595-0.1%
Small Urban Areas (5,000–49,999 in population)
Federal35549448245898011.9%
State27,16027,44227,45527,59627,6390.2%
Local136,538139,825143,848148,094154,8691.4%
Subtotal Small Urban Areas164,053167,761171,785176,148183,4881.3%
Urbanized Areas (50,000 or more in population)
Federal9439829801,0261,8407.7%
State80,74783,01683,42883,94484,1350.5%
Local566,125574,319587,426597,837632,0251.2%
Subtotal Urbanized Areas647,815658,317671,834682,807 718,000 1.1%
Total Highway Miles
Federal180,901172,050168,830118,191120,595-4.4%
State768,148771,124772,356775,303776,5880.1%
Local2,959,6652,973,2083,011,3163,054,7733,081,9000.5%
Total 3,908,7143,916,3823,952,5023,948,2673,979,083 0.2%
Percent of Total Highway Miles
Federal4.6%4.4%4.3%3.0%3.0% 
State19.7%19.7%19.5%19.6%19.5% 
Local75.7%75.9%76.2%77.4%77.5% 
Total100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 
Source: Highway Performance Monitoring System.

Q. Does the decrease in rural mileage signify roadway abandonment?
A.

Public road mileage rarely is abandoned. Rural mileage near metropolitan areas is routinely functionally reclassified as urban mileage as urban boundaries expand, resulting in a decrease in the rural mileage without an abandonment of any roadway.

Highways by Purpose

Another way to categorize roads is by purpose, which is commonly called functional classification. The Highway Functional Classification System (HFCS) is the basic organization used for most of this report. Exhibit 2-4 shows the hierarchy of the HFCS pictorially.

Review of Functional Classification Concepts

The overarching principle of functional classification is interconnectedness or system. That is, each segment of road other than the lowest classification (local) should connect at both ends only to another segment functionally classified at an equal or higher level. Exceptions to this principle typically occur because of unusual geographic or traffic conditions (e.g., connections to international borders, coastal cities, waterports, and airports).

Exhibit 2-4, highway functional classification hierarchy. Tree diagram. Top item is All U.S. roads, with two branches: Rural and Urban. Each branch subdivides into Arterials, Collectors, and Local. Arterials branch to Principal and Minor. Under Rural, Collectors branch to Major and Minor.

Roadways serve two important functions: land access and mobility. The better any individual segment is at serving one of these functions, the worse it is at serving the other. Thus, routes on the Interstate Highway System will allow a driver to travel long distances in a relatively short time, but will not allow the driver to enter each farm field along the way. Contrarily, a subdivision street will allow a driver access to any address along its length, but will not allow the driver to travel at a high rate of speed and will frequently be interrupted by intersections, often controlled by stop signs.

Arterials provide the highest level of mobility, at the highest speed, for long and uninterrupted travel. Arterials typically have higher design standards than other roads. They often include multiple lanes and have some degree of access control.

The rural arterial network provides interstate and intercounty service so that all developed areas are within a reasonable distance of an arterial highway. This network is broken down into principal and minor routes, of which principal roads are more significant. Virtually all urbanized areas with more than 50,000 people, and most urban areas with more than 25,000 people, are connected by rural principal arterial highways. The rural principal arterial network is divided into two subgroups, Interstate highways and other principal arterials.

Similarly, in urban areas the arterial system is divided into principal and minor arterials. The urban principal arterial system is the most important group; it includes (in descending order of importance) Interstate highways, other freeways and expressways, and other principal arterials. The urban principal arterial system serves major metropolitan centers, corridors with the highest traffic volume, and those with the longest trip lengths. It carries most trips entering and leaving metropolitan areas and provides continuity for rural arterials that cross urban boundaries. Urban minor arterial routes provide service for trips of moderate length at a lower level of mobility. They connect with the urban principal arterial system and other minor arterial routes.

Collectors provide a lower degree of mobility than arterials. They are designed for travel at lower speeds and for shorter distances. Generally, collectors are two-lane roads that collect travel from local roads and distribute it to the arterial system.

The rural collector system is stratified into two subsystems: major and minor collectors. Major collectors serve larger towns not accessed by higher order roads, and important industrial or agricultural centers that generate significant traffic but are not served by arterials. Rural minor collectors are typically spaced at intervals consistent with population density to collect traffic from local roads and to ensure that a collector road serves all small urban areas.

In urban areas, the collector system provides traffic circulation within residential neighborhoods and commercial and industrial areas. Unlike arterials, collector roads may penetrate residential communities, distributing traffic from the arterials to the ultimate destination for many motorists. Urban collectors also channel traffic from local streets onto the arterial system. Unlike rural collectors, the urban collector system has no subclassification.

Local roads represent the largest element in the American public road network in terms of mileage. For rural and urban areas, all public road mileage below the collector system is considered local. Local roads provide basic access between residential and commercial properties, connecting with higher order highways.

Functional Classification Data

In 2002, the rural principal arterial system accounted for about 3.3 percent of total miles in the United States, but carried 47.6 percent of rural travel, or 18.8 percent of total travel, in the United States. Rural minor arterials represented 3.5 percent of total U.S. miles while carrying 15.6 percent of rural travel, or 6.2 percent of total travel, in the United States.

In 2002, the urban principal arterial system accounted for 1.8 percent of total miles in the United States. However, this network carried 58.2 percent of urban travel, or 35.4 percent of total travel, in the United States. The urban minor arterial network represented 2.3 percent of total U.S. mileage. This system carried 19.6 percent of urban travel, or 11.9 percent of total travel, in the United States.

Rural major collectors accounted for 10.8 percent of total U.S. miles in 2002. They carried 18.9 percent of rural travel, or 7.5 percent of total travel, in the United States. The rural minor collector system accounted for 6.8 percent of total U.S. mileage in 2002. These roads carried 5.5 percent of rural travel, or 2.2 percent of total travel, in the United States.

In 2002, the urban collector network accounted for 2.2 percent of U.S. road mileage. It carried 8.2 percent of urban travel, or 4.9 percent of total travel, in the United States.

In 2002, rural local roads represented 52.9 percent of total U.S. road mileage. Local roads carried only 12.3 percent of rural travel, or 4.9 percent of total travel, in the United States. Urban local roads accounted for 16.2 percent of total U.S. road mileage and 13.9 percent of urban travel, or 8.4 percent of total travel, in the United States.

Exhibit 2-5 summarizes the percentage of highway miles, lane miles, and VMT stratified by functional system. The share of mileage on rural highways has decreased slightly since 2000, dropping from 78.2 to 77.3 percent, a trend shown earlier in Exhibit 2-3. The share of lane miles on rural highways also decreased slightly, from 76.6 to 75.7 percent; however, the share of VMT in rural areas remained constant at 39.4 percent from 2000 to 2002.

Exhibit 2-5 Percentage of Highway Miles, Lane Miles, and VMT by Functional System and by Size of Area, 2002
Functional System Miles Lane Miles VMT
Rural Areas (under 5,000 in population)
Interstate0.8%1.6%9.8%
Other Principal Arterial2.5%3.1%9.0%
Minor Arterial3.5%3.5%6.2%
Major Collector10.8%10.4%7.5%
Minor Collector6.8%6.5%2.2%
Local52.9%50.6%4.9%
Subtotal Rural77.3%75.7%39.4%
Small Urban Areas (5,000–49,999 in population)
Interstate 0.0%0.1%0.8%
Other Freeway and Expressway0.0%0.1%0.4%
Other Principal Arterial0.3%0.5%2.1%
Minor Arterial0.5%0.5%1.6%
Collector0.5%0.5%0.7%
Local3.2%3.0%1.2%
Subtotal Small Urban Area4.6%4.7%6.7%
Urbanized Areas (50,000 or more in population)
Interstate 0.3%0.8%13.6%
Other Freeway and Expressway0.2%0.5%6.3%
Other Principal Arterial1.0%1.8%12.2%
Minor Arterial1.8%2.3%10.3%
Collector1.7%1.8%4.2%
Local13.0%12.4%7.2%
Subtotal Urbanized Areas18.0%19.6%53.9%
Total 100.0%100.0%100.0%
Source: Highway Performance Monitoring System.

The share of urban mileage increased slightly between 2000 and 2002, from 21.8 to 22.6 percent. Urban lane mileage also increased, from 23.4 to 24.3 percent. Since the percentage of rural travel remained constant, that of urban travel did perforce, remaining at 60.6 percent from 2000 to 2002.

Exhibit 2-6 shows the total public road route mileage in the United States. In 2002, there were nearly 4 million route miles in the United States. About 77.3 percent of this mileage, or just under 3.1 million route miles, was in rural areas. The remaining 22.7 percent of route mileage, or 901,913 miles, was in urban communities. Overall route mileage increased by an average rate of about 0.2 percent between 1993 and 2002. On an average annual basis, mileage decreased by 0.1 percent in rural America and increased by 1.2 percent in metropolitan communities from 1993 to 2002.

Exhibit 2-6 Highway Route Miles by Functional System and by Size of Area, 1993-2002
Functional System 1993 1995 1997 2000 2002 Annual Rate
of Change
2002/1993
Rural Areas (under 5,000 in population)
Interstate 32,79532,70332,91933,15233,1070.1%
Other Principal Arterial 97,12798,03998,35899,02398,9450.2%
Minor Arterial 137,755137,440137,791137,863137,8550.0%
Major Collector 432,993432,492433,500433,926431,7540.0%
Minor Collector 282,853274,750273,043272,477271,371-0.5%
Local 2,123,8952,125,0542,141,1112,115,2932,106,725-0.1%
Subtotal Rural3,107,4183,100,4783,116,7223,091,7333,079,757-0.1%
Small Urban Areas (5,000–49,999 in population)
Interstate1,6941,7311,7441,7941,8080.7%
Other Freeway and Expressway1,2611,2821,2531,2191,227-0.3%
Other Principal Arterial12,57012,43212,47712,47412,5900.0%
Minor Arterial19,20019,53819,63519,80019,9260.4%
Collector20,97321,30121,33821,53521,8130.4%
Local108,440111,566115,420119,342126,1401.7%
Subtotal Small Urban Areas164,138167,850171,867176,163183,5031.2%
Urbanized Areas (50,000 or more in population)
Interstate11,31311,56911,65111,72911,8320.5%
Other Freeway and Expressway7,6567,7407,8647,9778,1500.7%
Other Principal Arterial40,43440,62240,99341,08441,0900.2%
Minor Arterial68,10269,47570,05070,50270,9960.5%
Collector64,40766,62367,31267,26368,0330.6%
Local456,134462,537474,044484,650518,3091.4%
Subtotal Urbanized Areas648,046658,566671,914683,205718,4101.2%
Total Highway Route Miles3,919,6023,926,8943,960,5033,951,1013,981,6700.2%
Source: Highway Performance Monitoring System.

Exhibit 2-7 shows the number of highway lane miles by functional system. In 2002, there were 8.3 million lane miles in the United States. Lane miles have grown at an average annual rate of about 0.2 percent since 1993, mostly in urban areas (lane mileage in rural areas having decreased overall by 0.1 percent per year during the same time period). In small urban areas (those with between 5,000 and 49,999 residents) and in urbanized areas (those with 50,000 or more residents), lane mileage grew at approximately equal rates, which was about 1.3 percent annually between 1993 and 2002.

Exhibit 2-7 Highway Route Miles by Functional System and by Size of Area, 1993-2002
Functional System 1993 1995 1997 2000 2002 Annual Rate
of Change
2002/1993
Rural Areas (under 5,000 in population)
Interstate 132,559132,346133,573135,000135,0320.2%
Other Principal Arterial 240,714245,164248,921253,586256,4580.7%
Minor Arterial 286,860288,222288,872287,750288,3910.1%
Major Collector 873,988872,767875,393872,672868,977-0.1%
Minor Collector 565,705549,500546,085544,954542,739-0.5%
Local 4,247,2394,250,1074,282,2224,230,5884,213,448-0.1%
Subtotal Rural6,347,0656,338,1066,375,0666,324,5506,305,044-0.1%
Small Urban Areas (5,000–49,999 in population)
Interstate7,1417,2697,3657,6267,7761.0%
Other Freeway and Expressway4,7414,8284,7474,6274,685-0.1%
Other Principal Arterial36,76837,13537,61837,80638,2750.4%
Minor Arterial42,93744,39044,98245,21245,6820.7%
Collector43,49143,75544,21644,52545,0950.4%
Local216,881223,132230,839238,684252,2791.7%
Subtotal Small Urban Areas351,959360,509369,767378,482393,7931.3%
Urbanized Areas (50,000 or more in population)
Interstate62,75464,86565,60367,02068,0880.9%
Other Freeway and Expressway34,86435,70536,65537,42838,7821.2%
Other Principal Arterial130,769143,572146,585149,224150,2501.6%
Minor Arterial176,130183,595185,273184,199187,5120.7%
Collector136,305143,517145,927145,313147,0200.8%
Local912,267925,073948,087969,3001,036,6191.4%
Subtotal Urbanized Areas1,453,0891,496,3271,528,1301,552,4841,628,2711.3%
Total Highway Lane Miles8,152,1138,194,9428,272,9638,255,5168,327,1080.2%
Source: Highway Performance Monitoring System.

Highway Travel

This section describes highway infrastructure use, which is typically defined by VMT. During the 1990s, Americans traveled at record levels, a phenomenon prompted by the booming economy, population growth, and other socioeconomic factors. As Exhibit 2-8 shows, VMT grew by an average annual rate of 2.5 percent between 1993 and 2002. By the end of that period, Americans were traveling almost 2.9 trillion vehicle miles annually. More than 1.13 trillion vehicle miles were on rural highways, and about 1.74 trillion vehicle miles were on urban roads.

While highway mileage is mostly rural, a majority of highway travel (over 60 percent) occurred in urban areas in 2002. Since 1993, however, rural travel has grown at a slightly faster average annual rate (2.8 percent) than overall urban travel (2.4 percent).

Exhibit 2-8 Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) and Passenger Miles Traveled (PMT), 1993-2002
(Millions of Miles)
Functional System
1993 1995 1997 2000 2002 Annual Rate
of Change
2002/1993
Rural (under 5,000 in population)
Interstate 209,470224,705241,451269,533281,4613.3%
Other Principal Arterial 203,149215,988229,133249,177258,0092.7%
Minor Arterial 148,023156,253164,129172,772177,1392.0%
Major Collector 185,611194,420202,588210,595214,4631.6%
Minor Collector 48,57950,38652,80958,18362,1442.8%
Local102,948105,819113,248127,560139,8923.5%
Subtotal Rural897,779947,5711,003,3581,087,8201,133,1072.6%
Small Urban Area (5,000–49,999 in population)
Interstate16,29717,31018,39321,05922,5783.7%
Other Freeway and Expressway8,3538,8549,2519,89210,4422.5%
Other Principal Arterial51,08853,20255,35958,17059,4901.7%
Minor Arterial36,46439,27040,84543,03544,5662.3%
Collector17,28218,71019,74920,41221,4922.5%
Local25,91927,97030,36833,27734,2413.1%
Subtotal Small Urban Area155,403165,317173,965185,845192,8082.4%
Urbanized Areas (50,000 or more in population)
Interstate303,324327,329346,376375,088389,9032.8%
Other Freeway and Expressway132,344141,980151,231167,833180,1993.5%
Other Principal Arterial298,558313,676332,448342,249351,4361.8%
Minor Arterial236,815251,470263,296283,078297,3932.6%
Collector96,102104,453111,874116,277122,1292.7%
Local175,917179,392176,268202,220207,4801.9%
Subtotal Urbanized Areas1,243,0601,318,3001,381,4951,490,8191,548,5402.5%
Total VMT2,296,2432,431,1882,558,8182,764,4842,874,4552.5%
Total PMT3,772,4923,868,0704,089,3664,390,0764,733,8242.6%
Source: Highway Performance Monitoring System and National Household Travel Survey.

Exhibits 2-9 and 2-10 expand on the information in Exhibit 2-8. They depict highway travel by functional classification and vehicle type. Three types of vehicles are identified: passenger vehicles (PV), including buses and 2-axle, 4-tire models; single-unit (SU) trucks having 6 or more tires; and combination (combo) trucks, including trailers and semi-trailers. The totals in Exhibit 2-9 include all vehicles, whereas those in Exhibit 2-10 exclude motorcycles.

Exhibit 2-9, highway travel by vehicle type, 1993-2002. Bar chart plotting values in trillions of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) for three vehicle types in 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2002. Passenger vehicles including buses account for 2.13 trillion VMT in 1993, while single unit trucks having 6 tires or more account for 0.06 trillion VMT and combination trucks account for 0.10 trillion VMT. Values for passenger vehicles increase steadily to 2.63 trillion in 2002, while values for trucks increase slightly. Values for 2002 are 0.08 trillion VMT for single-unit trucks and 0.14 trillion VMT for combination trucks. Source: Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, Table VM-201; Highway Statistics, Table VM-1, various years.

Exhibit 2-10 shows that, in rural areas, travel grew the fastest on the interstate among all vehicle types and, in urban areas, travel grew the fastest regardless of system among single-unit and combination trucks. Between 1993 and 2002, for example, combination truck traffic grew by 3.7 percent per year on rural interstates and 4.4 percent per year on urban interstates. Overall, passenger vehicle travel grew by an average annual rate of 2.4 percent between 1993 and 2002. Single-unit and combination truck travel grew by 3.3 percent per year.

Exhibit 2-10 Highway Travel by System and Vehicle Type, 1993-2002
  (Millions of VMT)  
Functional System
Vehicle Type
1993 1995 1997 2000 2002 Annual Rate
of Change
2002/1993
Rural Interstate
PV168,282178,973189,869214,532224,3753.2%
SU5,9826,7087,6718,2368,7454.3%
Combo32,82736,64341,66544,24845,6333.7%
Other Arterial
PV312,924330,029351,313377,270389,7582.5%
SU11,37512,98013,68813,64414,6062.8%
Combo23,72524,07625,50528,00527,8181.8%
Other Rural
PV302,986314,158341,323366,433383,7242.7%
SU12,51012,94813,69813,72214,9632.0%
Combo11,94112,67612,47112,55514,0901.9%
Total Rural
PV784,192823,160882,505958,235997,8572.7%
SU29,86732,63635,05735,60238,3142.8%
Combo68,49373,39579,64184,80887,5412.8%
Urban Interstate
PV293,045314,422331,343359,592373,9572.7%
SU6,5137,1487,9068,7169,1063.8%
Combo16,18318,49120,64323,46523,8874.4%
Other Urban
PV1,049,7101,097,1611,146,2891,213,1091,259,8592.0%
SU20,40322,92123,93026,18228,4673.8%
Combo18,45023,56524,30026,74727,2154.4%
Total Urban
PV1,342,7551,411,5831,477,6321,572,7011,633,8162.2%
SU26,91630,06931,83634,89837,5733.8%
Combo34,63342,05644,94350,21251,1024.4%
Total
PV2,126,9472,234,7432,360,1372,530,9362,631,6732.4%
SU56,78362,70566,89370,50075,8873.3%
Combo103,126115,451124,584135,020138,6433.3%
PV=Passenger Vehicles (including buses and 2-axle, 4-tire vehicles)
SU=Single-Unit Trucks (6 tires or more)
Combo=Combination Trucks (trailers and semi-trailers).
Source: Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, Table VM-201; Highway Statistics, Table VM-1, various years.

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)

All of the previous exhibits represent a traditional look at the highway system—its mileage, ownership, functional classification, and use. This section looks at the extent of ITS on the highway network. ITS uses advanced technology to improve highway safety and efficiency. The deployment of ITS for operations and freight management are discussed more fully in Chapters 12 and 13.

Exhibit 2-11 describes the deployment of ITS devices in 78 metropolitan regions, based on a survey by the FHWA Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office. More regions are using computer-aided emergency management vehicles (75 percent) followed by electronic tolling (73 percent in 2002). While Intelligent Transportation Systems continue to grow in acceptance and use, the number of arterial miles covered by on-call service patrols remains low at 9 percent in 2002.

Exhibit 2-11, deployment of intelligent transportation systems in 78 largest metropolitan areas, 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2002. Bar chart plotting values for 10 features of intelligent transportation systems. Most widespread features are emergency management vehicles under computer-aided dispatch, increasing from 43 in 1997 to 75 in 2002, and toll collection lanes with electronic toll collection capability, increasing from 36 in 1997 to 73 in 2000 and 2002. Least widespread are highway-rail intersections under electronic surveillance, increasing from 5 in 1997 to 16 in 2000 and dropping to 6 in 2002, and arterial miles covered by on-call service patrols, increasing from 0 in 1997 to 9 in 2002. Source: Tracking the Deployment of the Integrated Metropolitan Intelligent Transportation Infrastructure in the USA: FY 2002 Results, April 2004.

Exhibit 2-12 shows the level of ITS deployment in 75 of the nation's largest metropolitan areas. Progress has been made in the number of cities with medium or high level ITS. The number of cities with high or medium level ITS has increased from 36 in 1997 to 57 in 2002.

Exhibit 2-12, integrated metropolitan deployment progress. Bar chart plotting values for 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2002 for metropolitan areas designated as low, medium, and large. Values for low trend downward from 39 to 18. Values for medium increase slightly from 25 to 30. Values for large trend upward from 11 to 27. Source: Tracking the Deployment of the Integrated Metropolitan Intelligent Transportation Infrastructure in the USA: FY 2002 Results, April 2004.
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