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Home / Policy Information / Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) / Chapter 3

Office of Highway Policy Information
March 2014

Field Manual
Chapter 3: DATA MODEL & REQUIRED DATASETS

3.1 Overview

The HPMS data model has been developed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework, to take full advantage of the spatial relationships that exist between data elements which are both internal and external to HPMS. The data model is designed to be flexible in terms of compatibility with other data sources and expandable as additional data becomes available. In addition, the data model is designed to achieve independence with respect to the way in which the various data components relate to one another. This approach allows for future modification to a particular area of the model (e.g. a dataset, or data item) with little or no impact on other datasets or data items. For instance, if a change is needed to a roadway section's surface type (e.g. changing it from a code 1-unpaved to code 2-conventional asphalt concrete), it can be done so without impacting the value that is coded for that section's annual average daily traffic (AADT).

The data model's design is structured in a way that allows external data sources to be used to populate the various data fields in HPMS. For example, National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) boundary spatial data can be used to assign a pollutant standard to each roadway section for the purpose of generating area-wide totals (e.g. vehicle miles of travel).

This data model is organized conceptually into a group of six catalogs. Each catalog groups the various datasets by type and/or function. The types of data can be categorized as: (1) geospatial data, representing various highway systems, geographic boundaries etc., (2) roadway attribute data that can be linked to a related GIS dataset, which allows the attribute data to be represented spatially via linear referencing or (3) metadata, which provides additional global information about the data.

Figure 3.1 illustrates the structure of the HPMS data model. The HPMS attribute data that are submitted by the States are grouped within the Sections Catalog. The Sections dataset that is identified in this catalog stores all of the records for each data item as they are reported by the States. The Sample Panel Identification dataset stores the limits for each State's sample panel as identified by the States. The Data Item field in the Sections dataset specifies the type of record (e.g. AADT, Lane Width, etc.), with the corresponding data stored in the Value (Numeric, Text, or Date) fields. These records act independently of one another, as they indicate the properties of the attribute they portray. Furthermore, the records in both the Sections and Sample Panel Identification datasets are linked to each State's geospatial network (i.e. LRS network) via its attribute table, which is identified as the Routes dataset that is identified in the model's Shapes Catalog. Data associated with the lower functional systems (i.e. minor collectors in rural areas and local roads in all areas) are summarized and reported in the datasets identified in the Summaries Catalog. The level of data for these functional systems is commensurate with the Federal need for analyzing and reporting these data. The Estimates Catalog contains a dataset of pavement attributes that will be used as input to FHWA's pavement models. The Metadata Catalog contains data that describe the methods and tools that are used for the collection and reporting of traffic, pavement, and ramp data. The References Catalog identifies the geospatial data which will ultimately be maintained by FHWA or other non-State entities. The data in these datasets are available for use by the States throughout the year for reference.

Figure 3.1 HPMS Data Model Structure

Click for description

Note: Circled items in Figure 3.1 must be developed by the States and submitted to FHWA

3.2 Geospatial Component

The geospatial component of the data model provides the foundation for a national-level linear referencing system (LRS) that will serve primarily as a resource for HPMS, but will also be used to support a number of other interagency work program objectives.  It will also be used to facilitate analysis and research efforts, using HPMS data. 

Incorporating a geospatial component enhances the HPMS sampling process by providing an alternative methodology for sample selection and maintenance.  This component allows a GIS-based process to be used to identify sections of road that have homogenous (or uniform) characteristics for key data items, which can be used for sampling purposes.  More information on the GIS procedures associated with sampling is found in Chapter 6, Sampling.

The primary catalog used to identify the model’s geospatial data is the Shapes Catalog.  However, the Sections Catalog identifies the attribute data that is linked to the geospatial data, which can be spatially located on the network for mapping, analysis, and reporting purposes.

Furthermore, the geospatial component of the data model involves the use of a LRS, which links the HPMS attribute data to a series of shape files.  Both the geospatial and attribute data contain three referencing elements that are used to perform the linkage for linear features: (1) A unique Route ID, (2) a beginning milepoint, and (3) an ending milepoint.  Point features use a route milepoint in place of a beginning and ending milepoint for referencing purposes.  Data Items are identified in the Point References datasets of the model’s References Catalog and are linked to and spatially referenced in the same manner.

3.3 Catalogs and Associated Datasets

This section describes each of the following catalogs and their associated datasets, which will be stored as tables in FHWA's database. The datasets which are required to be developed by the States and provided to FHWA are circled in the figures for each catalog description contained in this section of the manual.

  1. Shapes
  2. Sections
  3. Summaries
  4. References
  5. Estimates
  6. Metadata
The datasets that are to be assembled by the States can either be submitted to FHWA as character separated value (CSV) files or entered manually on-screen via the HPMS software web application provided by FHWA.

The remainder of this section describes the structure of the various datasets that are to be provided by the States, as well as those that will be developed and maintained by FHWA. Tables 3.1-3.21 include the identification of constraints (indicates if the field is part of a key field, either primary (PK) or unique (UK), and is used to establish relationships within the model), field name (identifies the field of information), data type (contains the format for each data item), and description (definition of the field). Valid values for the fields are also included in the tables, where appropriate. Furthermore, the data types used in the tables are as follows:

Shapes Catalog

The Shapes Catalog identifies the geographic data that are used for geospatial analysis in HPMS. This catalog is comprised of seven datasets which are as follows:

The Shapes catalog is used to group seven geospatial datasets that provide the framework for spatial analysis and mapping procedures within the HPMS database. The datasets grouped in this catalog are as follows: urban area boundaries, State boundaries, county boundaries, climate zone boundaries, soil type boundaries, NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards) boundaries, and the Routes dataset. The Routes dataset is the national Linear Referencing System (LRS) network, which is comprised of each State's LRS network. For this reason, each State is responsible for developing and providing their LRS network data to FHWA as part of their annual submittal.  In addition, the States must provide their adjusted Census Urban Area Boundaries dataset to FHWA each year that adjustments are performed.

The information in these datasets is derived from Federal, State and local geospatial data sources. It is preferred that the States submit their data to FHWA in an ESRI shapefile, ESRI geodatabase, or Intergraph GeoMedia Access Warehouse format. However, other formats will be accommodated provided that they are in compliance with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards: Well Known Text (WKT), Well Known Binary (WBT), and/or Geography Markup Language (GML). [1]

The Routes dataset will be stored in FHWA's database per the following specifications:

The spatial boundaries and associated data in many of these datasets will not change from year to year, but are expected to be updated as needed to reflect any changes made over the course of the year. Furthermore, some of these datasets will be maintained by FHWA using data provided by the States and other Federal Agencies.

The States must submit their Routes and adjusted Urban Area Boundaries (if applicable) spatial data to FHWA annually. The State Boundaries, County Boundaries, Climate Zone Boundaries, Soil Type Boundaries, Census Urban Area Boundaries, and NAAQS Area Boundaries datasets are maintained by FHWA and used for display and data management/analysis purposes.

Tables 3.1-3.7 contain information on the structure of each dataset identified in the Shapes Catalog.

The States must include the field names, which are specified in Tables 3.5-3.8, 3.10, 3.11-3.15, 3.17, and 3.19, in the datasets that are to be submitted to FHWA.

Table 3.1 State Boundaries

Table 3.1 describes the polygon shapes dataset representing each of the US States. This data will be maintained by FHWA.

STATE BOUNDARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description
PK State Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code
  State Abbreviation Text State abbreviation
  State Name Text State name
  Shape Geometry Polygon feature

Table 3.2 County Boundaries

Table 3.2 describes the polygon shapes dataset representing all counties for each State. This data will be maintained by FHWA.

COUNTY BOUNDARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description
PK State Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code
PK County Code Numeric(3) County FIPS code
  County Name Text County name
  Shape Geometry Polygon feature

 

Table 3.3 Climate Zone Boundaries

Table 3.3 describes the polygon shapes dataset representing the different climate zones for each State. This data will be maintained by FHWA.

CLIMATE ZONE BOUNDARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description
PK Climate Zone Numeric(1) Climate zone code
  Climate Zone Name Text Climate zone description
  Shape Geometry Polygon feature

Table 3.4 Soil Type Boundaries

Table 3.4 describes the polygon shapes dataset representing the AASHTO soil zones for each State. This data will be maintained by FHWA.

SOIL TYPE BOUNDARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description
PK Soil Type Numeric(5) Soil type code
  Soil Type Name Text Soil type description
  Shape Geometry Polygon feature

Table 3.5 Routes

Table 3.5 describes the State's linear referenced network dataset. HPMS attribute data (i.e. Sections data) are linked to the network through the Route ID field in this dataset. The Route IDs, which must be unique in character, are to be defined by the States and must be in concert with the Route IDs that are contained in the Sections data. Furthermore, the submitted LRS must include, at a minimum, all Federal-aid highways, with its component National Highway System (NHS) routes and NHS intermodal connectors. The LRS may also include roads that are classified as local or rural minor collector if the submitting State maintains a valid LRS for these functional systems.

ROUTES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Year for which the data apply The four digits of the year that the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list.
PK Route_ID VarChar(60) ID for the linear feature Up to 60 alpha-numeric digits that identify the route. This ID must be unique within the State.
  Comments (optional) Text(50) Text descriptor for the route Up to 50 text characters to be used for specifying an English descriptor for the route (e.g. Interstate 70, I-70, I-70 from Exit 2 to Exit 4, etc.).
  Shape* Geometry Line feature This field is automatically generated when the State's LRS network is developed.
Coordinates for geometries have 3 dimensions - Longitude(x), Latitude(y), and Measure/Station (m).
The LRS network is expected to contain lines with valid X and Y points.

*Automatically generated when the dataset is created.

Extent - All Federal-aid highways and ramps located within grade-separated interchanges (including NHS routes).

Specific Requirements for Routes dataset:

  1. File Format - ESRI Shapefile, ESRI geodatabase, or Intergraph GeoMedia Access Warehouse
  2. Single Centerline or Dual Carriageway geometry
  3. Spatial Reference with either projected or unprojected X/Y coordinates must be assigned
  4. Linear units - miles, feet, etc.
  5. Resolution - 1:100,000 or better

Figure 3.2 is an illustration of the road network for State of Massachusetts. The red (bold) line represents the route for Interstate-90 (I-90), which is represented as a single record in the example Routes dataset excerpt (shown below Figure 3.2). It should be noted that a route can consist of a single polyline feature (i.e. one record) or multiple polyline features (i.e. multiple records).

Figure 3.2 Example Routes File

Figure 3.2 is an illustration of the road network for State of Massachusetts.  The red (bold) line represents the route for Interstate-90 (I-90), which is represented as a single record in the example Routes dataset excerpt (shown below Figure 3.2).

The following is an example record for this route (I-90) as it would appear in the Routes dataset:

Year_ Record State_Code Route_ID Shape  
2007 25 0000I90 Polyline M Where M indicates that there are individual measures for each line segment embedded in the record for this dataset.

Table 3.6 Urban Area Boundaries

Table 3.6 describes the polygon shapes dataset representing either the Census urban area boundaries, or the adjusted Census urban area boundaries for each State. Each time the Census generates new urban boundaries, the FHWA will acquire and use them for mapping and analysis purposes. If a State makes adjustments to their urban area boundaries that are approved by the FHWA Division Office, they are required to submit their adjusted urban boundaries as part of their next annual submittal. States are cautioned to submit only approved urban boundaries, not boundaries that are pending approval.

URBAN AREA BOUNDARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Year for which the data apply
PK Urban_Code Numeric(5) Census urban code
  Urban_Name Text Urban name
  Census_Pop Numeric(8) Census population
  Census_Land_Area Numeric(4) Census land area (in square miles)
  Shape Geometry Polygon feature

Table 3.7 NAAQS Area Boundaries

Table 3.7 describes the polygon shapes dataset representing the EPA-defined non-attainment and maintenance areas for each State. This dataset will be maintained by FHWA.

The definition of a Maintenance Area is any geographic region of the Unites States previously designated as non-attainment pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 and subsequently re-designated to attainment subject to the requirement to develop a maintenance plan under Section 175A of the CAA, as amended. The national HPMS database is used for tracking travel for air quality assurance purposes in non-attainment and maintenance areas as required by EPA under the 1990 CAA (Section 187) and the Transportation Conformity Rule, 40 CFR parts 51 and 93. More specifically, the database is used primarily for establishing regional transportation-related emissions for transportation conformity purposes. Estimated travel based on these data is used for the calibration and validation of base-year network travel models when required for non-attainment or maintenance areas.

NAAQS AREA BOUNDARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description
  NAAQS Area Name Text NAAQS area name
PK Pollutant Standard Text Pollutant standard
  Shape Geometry Polygon feature

Sections Catalog

The Sections Catalog identifies the HPMS attribute data that are submitted by the States. The data identified in this catalog are spatially linked to the Routes network file, using a unique identifier (i.e. Route ID). In general, these data are required for all Federal-aid highways and NHS routes. This requirement excludes the need to report data for any roads functionally classified as minor collector in rural areas or local in any area. Moreover, these data are optional for non-Federal-aid highways. This catalog is comprised of two datasets, Sections and Sample Panel Sections. The Sections dataset stores each State's entire HPMS attribute dataset as they provide it to FHWA. The Sample Panel Identification dataset stores the limits for each State's sample panel as identified by the States. The descriptions for each of the data items that are to be reported in the Sections dataset are listed in Chapter 4. The data items that are only required on a Sample Panel basis are identified as such in the individual data item descriptions (Chapter 4).

The Sections catalog is used to group two datasets that contain a variety of roadway attribute data pertaining to each State's road network. These datasets are identified as the Sections and Sample Panel Identification datasets.  For the purposes of this catalog, each State must develop and submit both datasets to FHWA as part of their annual submittal.

Sections data can either be imported as a file in Character Separated Value (CSV) format, or entered manually on-screen via the HPMS software web application. The data requirements for each dataset identified in this catalog are listed below.

Table 3.8 Sections

Table 3.8 describes the State reported HPMS Section dataset representing all Federal-aid highways and other applicable sections. Table 3.9 contains the list of valid Data Items which will be stored as part of the records in this dataset. The specific requirements for the Data Item field are defined in detail in Chapter 4.

SECTIONS TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Year for which the data apply The four digits of the year the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list.
PK Route_ID VarChar(60) ID for the linear feature Up to 60 alpha-numeric digits that identify the route. This ID must match a record in the Routes dataset.
PK Begin_Point Decimal(8,3) Beginning Milepoint Decimal value in thousandths of a mile.
PK End_Point Decimal(8,3) Ending Milepoint Decimal value in thousandths of a mile.
PK Data_Item Text HPMS Data Items See Chapter 4 for detailed Data Item descriptions and valid values. Table 3.9 shows the Data Item names that can be entered in this field.
  Section_Length Decimal(8,3) Section length Decimal value in thousandths of a mile. This length must be consistent with the difference between End_Point and Begin_Point.
  Value_Numeric Numeric Numeric value for data item Must be numeric value as specified in the detailed Data Item descriptions (see Chapter 4).
  Value_Text VarChar(50) Text value for data item Must be text value as specified in the detailed Data Item descriptions (see Chapter 4). This field is available for State use where data is not required for a particular Data Item. This field is limited to 50 characters.
  Value_Date Date Date Value for data item Must be a date value as specified in the detailed Data Item descriptions (see Chapter 4). This field is available for State use where data is not required for a particular Data Item.
  Comments VarChar(100) Comment for State use Variable Text up to 100 characters. This field is optional.

Extent: All Federal-aid highways and ramps located within grade separated interchanges and applicable items on other sections where a toll facility exists; optional for other sections.

Table 3.9 Data Items

Item Number Data_Item Item Number Data_Item Item Number Data_Item
1 F_System 24 AADT_Combination 47 IRI
2 Urban_Code 25 Pct_Peak_Combination 48 PSR
3 Facility_Type 26 K_Factor 49 Surface_Type
4 Structure_Type 27 Dir_Factor 50 Rutting
5 Access_Control 28 Future_AADT 51 Faulting
6 Ownership 29 Signal_Type 52 Cracking_Percent
7 Through_Lanes 30 Pct_Green_Time 53 Cracking_Length
8 HOV_Type 31 Number_Signals 54 Year_Last_Improv
9 HOV_Lanes 32 Stop_Signs 55 Year_Last_Construction
10 Peak_Lanes 33 At_Grade_Other 56 Last_Overlay_Thickness
11 Counter_Peak_lanes 34 Lane_Width 57 Thickness_Rigid
12 Turn_Lanes_R 35 Median_Type 58 Thickness_Flexible
13 Turn_Lanes_L 36 Median_Width 59 Base_Type
14 Speed_Limit 37 Shoulder_Type 60 Base_Thickness
15 Toll_Charged 38 Shoulder_Width_R 61 Climate_Zone
16 Toll_Type 39 Shoulder_Width_L 62 Soil_Type
17 Route_Number 40 Peak_Parking 63 County_Code
18 Route_Signing 41 Widening_Obstacle 64 NHS
19 Route_Qualifier 42 Widening_Potential 65 STRAHNET_Type
20 Alternative_Route_Name 43 Curves_A...Curves_F 66 Truck
21 AADT 44 Terrain_Type 67 Future_Facility
22 AADT_Single_Unit 45 Grades_A...Grades_F 68 Maintenance_Operations
23 Pct_Peak_Single 46 Pct_Pass_Sight 69 Capacity

The following is an example AADT record as it would appear in the Sections dataset:

Year_ Record State_ Code Route_ ID Begin_ Point End_ Point Data_ Item Section_ Length Value_ Numeric Value_ Text Value_ Date Comments(optional)
2007 25 0000I90 0 10.5 AADT 10.5 25000 This is a 2006 factored AADT 2007 This record represents the traffic volume data on I90 for the section extending from milepoint 0.0 to milepoint 10.5

Table 3.10 Sample Panel Identification

Table 3.10 describes the dataset containing the geographic limits for each States' Sample Panel. Therefore, the States must provide FHWA with the geographic limits for their sample data for the purposes of this table. The Sample Panel Identification dataset will be used to properly identify the Sample Panel data that is contained within the Sections dataset. Each Sample Panel data item must be, at the very least, reported for the entire extent of the Sample Panel, where applicable. The data in Table 3.10 should represent only the samples resulting from the random selection process discussed in Chapter 6, Sampling. This dataset will be used in conjunction with the Sections and References datasets to create a View or Export of the sample data for use in various national models, such as the HERS (Highway Economic Requirements System) model. As this view/export is generated, each sample will have a single attribute for each data item corresponding to the Data Item field in the Sections dataset. The single attribute will be calculated based on a particular Calculation Method, as discussed in Appendix G.

SAMPLE PANEL IDENTIFICATION TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Year for which the data apply The four digits of the year the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list.
PK Route_ID VarChar(60) ID for the linear feature Up to 60 alpha-numeric digits that identify the route.
PK Begin_Point Decimal(8,3) Beginning Milepoint Enter a decimal value.
PK End_Point Decimal(8,3) Ending Milepoint Enter a decimal value.
  Section_Length Decimal(8,3) Section length Enter a decimal value. This could be calculated from End MP - Beg MP.
UK Sample_ID VarChar(12) Sample Identifier 12-character unique ID
  Comments VarChar(100) Comment for State use Variable Text up to 100 characters. This field is optional.

Extent: All Sample Panel Sections.

Summaries Catalog

The Summaries Catalog identifies the datasets that store a variety of data for a defined area, such as a State or an Urban Area. The datasets that comprise this catalog are provided by the States to FHWA as a supplement to the data that is identified in the Sections Catalog. These datasets consist of summarized data for the local and rural minor collector roads, as these roads do not require section-level detail and can be generalized from State and local sources. Moreover, the datasets identified in this catalog store summary-level data for travel, highway system length, and demographics. These datasets capture travel by vehicle type, since only State estimates are required.

Summary data can either be imported as a file in Character Separated Value (CSV) format, or entered manually on-screen via the HPMS software web application. The data requirements and specifications for each dataset identified in this catalog are listed below.

The Summaries catalog is used to group five datasets that contain various data attributes for roadways that are functionally classified as rural minor collectors and locals.  These datasets are identified as follows: statewide summaries, vehicle summaries, urban summaries, county summaries, and NAAQS summaries.  For the purposes of this catalog, the each State must develop and submit all five datasets to FHWA as part of their annual submittal.

This catalog is comprised of the following five datasets:

The data requirements for each dataset are identified in the following pages.

Table 3.11 Statewide Summaries

Table 3.11 describes the dataset which contains demographic and system length estimates for all Urban and Rural public roads, functionally classified as minor collector in rural areas or local in any area, summarized by State. In addition, this dataset contains daily vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) estimates for all public roads located in Small Urban areas, functionally classified as minor collector or local. This includes NHS roads located on these functional systems.

STATEWIDE SUMMARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Calendar year for the data The four digits of the year the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list.
  RMC_VMT Numeric(8) Daily Travel for Rural Minor Collectors Report total daily vehicle-miles of travel as a whole number (round to the nearest 1,000 if preferred).
  RL_VMT Numeric(8) Daily Travel for Rural Locals Report total daily vehicle-miles of travel as a whole number (round to the nearest 1,000 if preferred).
  SU_VMT Numeric(8) Daily Travel for Small Urban Locals Report total daily vehicle-miles of travel as a whole number (round to the nearest 1,000 if preferred).
  Rural_Pop Numeric(8) Rural Population (> 5,000) Estimate/report rural population as a whole number (in thousands)
  Rural_Land_Area Numeric(8) Rural Land Area Estimate of rural land area to the nearest square mile.
  SU_Pop Numeric(8) Small Urban Population (5,000 to 49,000) Estimate/report rural population as a whole number (in thousands)
  SU_Land_Area Numeric(8) Small Urban Land Area Estimate of small urban land area to the nearest square mile.
  Paved_RMC_Length Decimal(8,3) Paved Rural Minor Collectors Report total miles of paved roads to the nearest mile.
  Paved_RL_Length Decimal(8,3) Paved Rural Locals Report total miles of paved roads to the nearest mile.
  Paved_UL_Length Decimal(8,3) Paved Urban Locals Report total miles of paved roads to the nearest mile.
  Unpaved_RMC_Length Decimal(8,3) Unpaved Rural Minor Collectors Report total miles of unpaved roads to the nearest mile.
  Unpaved_RL_Length Decimal(8,3) Unpaved Rural Locals Report total miles of unpaved roads to the nearest mile.
  Unpaved_UL_Length Decimal(8,3) Unpaved Urban Locals Report total miles of unpaved roads to the nearest mile.

Extent: All public roads functionally classified as Rural Minor Collector/Local and Small Urban Local. Any NHS routes or toll roads on these functional systems should be included.

Metadata: See Metadata Catalog

Table 3.12 Vehicle Summaries

Table 3.12 describes the dataset which contains Travel Activity data summarized by Highway System Group and Vehicle Type.

VEHICLE SUMMARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Calendar year for the data The four digits of the year the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list.
PK FS_Group Numeric(3) Highway System Group Code Description
100 Rural Interstate
200 Rural Other Arterial (includes Other Freeways & Expressways, Other Principal Arterials, and Minor Arterials)
300 Rural Other (includes Major Collectors, Minor Collectors, and Locals)
110 Urban Interstate
210 Urban Other Arterial (includes Other Freeways & Expressways, Other Principal Arterials, and Minor Arterials)
310 Urban Other (includes Major Collectors, Minor Collectors, and Locals)
  Pct_MC Decimal(5,2) Percent of motorcycle VMT (Vehicle Class 1) Code percentage as 0.00 to 100.00.
  Pct_Cars Decimal(5,2) Percent of passenger car VMT (Vehicle Class 2) Code percentage as 0.00 to 100.00.
  Pct_Lgt_Trucks Decimal(5,2) Percent of light truck VMT (Vehicle Class 3) Code percentage as 0.00 to 100.00.
  Pct_Buses Decimal(5,2) Percent of bus VMT (Vehicle Class 4) Code percentage as 0.00 to 100.00.
  Pct_SU_Trucks Decimal(5,2) Percent of single-unit truck VMT (Vehicle Classes 5-7) Code percentage as 0.00 to 100.00.
  Pct_CU_Trucks Decimal(5,2) Percent of combination-unit truck VMT (Vehicle Classes 8-13) Code percentage as 0.00 to 100.00.

Extent: All public roads
Metadata: See Metadata Catalog.
Reporting cycle: Review annually; update as needed.
Collection requirements: Percentages for each FS Group reported to the nearest hundredth of a percent (i.e., 45.33).

Table 3.13 Urban Area Summaries

Table 3.13 describes the dataset which contains daily travel and demographics data for all local functional system roads for each adjusted urbanized area.

URBAN AREA SUMMARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Calendar year for the data The four digits of the year the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list of FIPS codes.
PK Urban_Code Numeric(5) Census Urban code Up to five digits for the Census Urban code. See Appendix I for the complete list of codes.
  Local_VMT Numeric(8) Local (daily) travel Report total daily vehicle-miles of travel as a whole number (round to the nearest 1,000 if preferred).
Metadata: See Metadata Catalog
  State_Portion_Pop Numeric(8) Population for State portion Estimate/report current population as a whole number (in thousands)
  State_Portion_Land Numeric(8) Land area for State portion Estimate of current land area to the nearest square mile.

Extent: All urbanized area public roads functionally classified as Local. Any NHS routes or toll roads on these functional systems should be included.

County Summaries

Table 3.14 describes the dataset which contains system length data for all roads functionally classified as minor collector in rural areas or local in any area, summarized by county.

COUNTY SUMMARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Calendar year for the data The four digits of the year the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list.
PK County_Code Numeric(3) County FIPS code Up to three digits for the Census county code.
PK F_System Numeric(1) Functional System Report only for roads functionally classified as Local (7) and Minor Collector (rural only) (6). NHS roads on these systems should be included in this summary.
Code Description
6 Minor Collector (Rural only)
7 Local
PK Urban_Code Numeric(5) Urban Code Up to five digits for the Census urban code. See Appendix I for a complete list of valid values. Code 99999 for rural sections and 99998 for small urban sections (not within the adjusted urbanized area and with an urban population of at least 5,000).
PK Ownership Numeric(2) Ownership Code Code Description
1 State Highway Agency
2 County Highway Agency
3 Town or Township Highway Agency
4 City or Municipal Highway Agency
11 State Park, Forest, or Reservation Agency
12 Local Park, Forest, or Reservation Agency
21 Other State Agency
25 Other Local Agency
26 Private (other than Railroad)
27 Railroad
31 State Toll Authority
32 Local Toll Authority
40 Other Public Instrumentality (e.g., Airport, School, University)
50 Indian Tribe Nation
60 Other Federal Agency
62 Bureau of Indian Affairs
63 Bureau of Fish and Wildlife
64 U.S. Forest Service
66 National Park Service
67 Tennessee Valley Authority
68 Bureau of Land Management
69 Bureau of Reclamation
70 Corps of Engineers
72 Air Force
73 Navy/Marines
74 Army
80 Other
  RMC_L_System_Length Decimal(8,3) Rural minor collector and local roadways length within county Total length to the nearest thousandth of a mile.

Extent: All public roads functionally classified as Minor Collector (Rural) and Local. Any NHS routes or toll roads on these functional systems should be included.

Reporting cycle: Report annually; update as needed.

Table 3.15 NAAQS Summaries

Table 3.15 describes the dataset which contains system length and travel data for all roads functionally classified as minor collector in rural areas or local in any area summarized by EPA Non‐Attainment or Maintenance Area, and the relative pollutant standard.

NAAQS SUMMARIES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Calendar year for the data The four digits of the year the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list.
PK Pollutant_Stnd Text Pollutant Standard See Appendix K for a complete list of the applicable pollutant standards.
  RMC_L_System Length Decimal(8,3) Rural minor collector and local system length Report total miles to the nearest mile.
  RMC_L_System Travel Numeric(8) Rural minor collector and local system daily travel Report total daily vehicle-miles of travel as a whole number (round to the nearest 1,000 if preferred).

Extent: All public roads functionally classified as minor collector in rural areas or local in any area. Any NHS routes or toll roads on these functional systems should be included.

Reporting cycle: Review annually; update as needed.

Collection requirements: Travel and system length data for each pollutant standard within the applicable NAAQS area within the State.

References Catalog

The References Catalog identifies the reference data that will be maintained by FHWA or other Non-State DOT entities at some point in the future. This catalog identifies the Point References dataset, which contains data for grade‐separated interchanges that are located on the Federal‐aid system, excluding roads functionally classified as minor collector in rural areas or local in any area.

The References catalog is used to group the location information for all grade-separated interchanges that are located on the Federal-aid highway system. The dataset that tracks this information is identified as the Point References dataset.

Table 3.16 Point References

Table 3.16 describes the dataset which contains data for grade‐separated interchanges that are located on the Federal‐aid system, excluding roads functionally classified as minor collector in rural areas or local in any area. Currently, this dataset only contains the location and type of grade-separated interchanges. This dataset will be populated by FHWA for the States that do not currently have these data.

POINT REFERENCES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Year for which the data apply The four digits of the year the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list.
PK Route_ID VarChar(60) Route identifier Up to 60 alpha-numeric digits that identify the route. This ID must match a record in the Routes dataset.
PK Route_Point Decimal(8,3) Route Milepoint Enter a decimal value that falls between the beginning and ending MPs of the Route's section as referenced by the Route ID.
PK Data_Item Text Attribute Future use
  Value_Numeric Numeric Numeric value for data item Must be numeric as specified under Data Items with their Value Numeric descriptions.
  Value_Text Varchar(50) Text value for data item Text information as specified under the Data Items with their Value Text descriptions. This field is available for State use where data is not required for a particular Data Item. This field is limited to 50 characters.
  Value_Date Date Date value for data item Date value as specified under the Data Items with their Value Date descriptions. This field is available for State use where data is not required for a particular Data Item.

Estimates Catalog

The dataset identified in this catalog stores information which describes the estimated values associated with the various pavement-related data items reported in the Sections dataset. The data identified in this catalog are used only for national-level analysis and are not used for reporting purposes. The data contained in the Estimates dataset represents the State's best estimate of current conditions or construction practices where measured data are not available for reporting purposes.

The Estimates catalog is used to group a single dataset that is referred to as the Estimates dataset. This dataset contains estimate data for various pavement-data related items to be used for national-level analysis where measured data is not available.  For the purposes of this catalog, each State must develop and submit their Estimates dataset to FHWA as part of their annual submittal.

Table 3.17 Estimates

Table 3.17 describes the dataset which contains statewide estimates to be used as default inputs for FHWA's pavement deterioration models. Table 3.18 contains a list of the valid entries for the Estimate Type Field and their associated values.

ESTIMATES TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Calendar year for the data The four digits of the year the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list.
PK Estimate_Type* Text Estimates Type A detailed list of the estimate types is provided in Table 3.18 below.
PK F_System Numeric(1) Functional System Code Description
1 Interstate
2 Principal Arterial - Other Freeways and Expressways
3 Principal Arterial - Other
4 Minor Arterial
5 Major Collector
6 Minor Collector
7 Local
PK Is_Urban Text Rural or Urban Code Description
Y Urban (Population of at least 5,000)
N Rural
PK Is_State_Owned** Text On State/Off State System Code Description
Y On-State System
N Off-State System
  Value_Numeric Decimal(5,1) Numeric Value Must be numeric as specified (in Table 3.18) under the Value Numeric descriptions.

Extent: All Federal-aid highways

*Determine and code the predominant Estimate Type value when multiple Estimates Types apply.
**This field is intended to communicate to FHWA what each State considers to be their off-state system vs. on-state system.

Table 3.18 Estimate Types and Valid Values.

ESTIMATE TYPES AND VALUE NUMERIC
Type Description Value Numeric
Last_Overlay_Thickness Typical design or construction last overlay thickness. Last overlay thickness to the nearest 0.5 inch.
Thickness_Rigid Typical design or construction thickness of rigid pavement. Rigid pavement thickness to the nearest 0.5 inch.
Thickness_Flexible Typical design or construction thickness of all AC (asphalt concrete) pavement layers. Flexible pavement thickness to the nearest 0.5 inch.
Base_Type Base Type Code Description
1 No base
2 Aggregate
3 Asphalt or cement stabilized
5 Hot mix AC (Bituminous)
6 Lean concrete
7 Stabilized open-graded permeable
8 Fractured PCC
Base_Thickness Typical design or construction thickness Base thickness to the nearest whole inch.
Binder_Type Binder Type See following table below.
Dowel_Bar Presence of Dowel Bars Code Description
1 No - Dowel Bars not typically used
2 Yes - Dowel Bars are typically used
Joint_Spacing Typical joint spacing Joint spacing to the nearest whole foot.

 

CODES FOR VISCOSITY GRADED BINDERS
1 Less than AC-2.5
2 AC-2.5 to AC-4
3 AC-5 to AC-9
4 AC-10 to AC-19
5 AC-20 to AC-29
6 AC-30 to AC-39
7 AC-40 to AC-49
8 AC-50 or more

 

CODES FOR SUPER PAVE BINDERS
  Low Temperature Grade
Less than -4 -4 to -9 -10 to -15 -16 to -21 -22 to -27 -28 to -33 -34 to -39 -40 to -45 -46 or more
High Temperature Grade Less than 40 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
40 to 45 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91
46 to 51 12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92
52 to 57 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93
58 to 63 14 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94
63 to 69 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95
70 to 75 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96
76 to 81 17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97
82 to 87 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98
88 or more 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99

Metadata Catalog

This catalog consists of metadata, which is data that describes the other datasets and data items in the State's HPMS dataset. Metadata within HPMS are used to describe data collection procedures and post-processing that may impact the consistency or quality of the data. Metadata applies to an entire data item or group of data items, and not any single data item entry. Some Metadata may be published annually in the Highway Statistics publication and may be provided to data users as requested. FHWA will not use Metadata to modify or alter a State's HPMS data submittal.

The Metadata catalog is used to group a single dataset that is referred to as the Metadata. This dataset contains information on the various procedures associated with the collection and assembly of various traffic and pavement data elements, which may impact the accuracy and quality of the data.  For the purposes of this catalog, each States must develop and submit their Metadata to FHWA as part of their annual submittal.

Table 3.19 Metadata

Table 3.19 describes the dataset which contains data that captures and explains variability in the collection and reporting of traffic and pavement data in HPMS. Table 3.20 lists the valid entries for the Metadata Type Field and their associated values.

METADATA TABLE
Constraint Field Name Data Type Description Valid Values
PK Year_Record Numeric(4) Calendar year for the data The four digits of the year the data represents.
PK State_Code Numeric(2) State FIPS code Up to two digits for the FIPS code. See Appendix C for a complete list.
PK Metadata_Type* Text Metadata Type A detailed list of the metadata types is provided in Table 3.20 below. Multiple metadata types are permitted per data item.
PK F_System Numeric(1) Functional System Code Description
1 Interstate
2 Principal Arterial - Other Freeways and Expressways
3 Principal Arterial - Other
4 Minor Arterial
5 Major Collector
6 Minor Collector
7 Local
PK Is_Urban Text Rural or Urban Code Description
Y Urban (population of at least 5,000)
N Rural
PK Is_State_Owned** Text On State/Off State System Code Description
Y On-State System
N Off-State System
  Value_Numeric Numeric(5) Numeric Value Must be numeric as specified (in Table 3.20) under the Value Numeric descriptions.

Extent: All Federal-aid highways; optional for other sections.

*Determine and code the predominant Metadata Type value when multiple Metadata Types apply.
**This field is intended to communicate to FHWA what each State considers to be their off-state system vs. on-state system.

Table 3.20 Metadata Types and Valid Values.

METADATA TYPES AND VALUE NUMERIC
Type Description Value Numeric
AADT_Pct_Actual Percent total section-level AADTs reported that are based on actual counts for the reported data year Enter value to the nearest whole percent.
AADT_24 Number of permanent and portable counter locations that were counted for a duration of 24 hours or more Integer
AADT_48 Number of permanent and portable counter locations that were counted for a duration of 48 hours or more Integer
AADT_Season AADT Seasonal Adjustment Code Description
1 AADT is not seasonally adjusted
2 AADT is seasonally adjusted
3 AADT is from counts taken throughout the year
AADT_Week AADT Day-of-Week Adjustment Code Description
1 AADT is not adjusted for day-of-week
2 AADT is adjusted for day-of-week
3 AADT is from counts taken throughout the week
AADT_Axle AADT Axle Adjustment Code Description
1 AADT is not adjusted for number of axles
2 AADT is adjusted for number of axles
3 AADT is from vehicle count data
AADT_Growth AADT Growth Adjustment Code Description
1 AADT is not adjusted for annual growth/change
2 AADT is adjusted for annual growth/change
3 AADT is from current year (i.e., data year) counts
Class_Pct_Actual Percent of class AADTs reported that are based on actual counts for the reported data year or factored prior year class AADTs Enter value to the nearest whole percent.
Class_24 Number of permanent and portable classification count locations that were counted for a duration of 24 hours or more Integer.
Class_48 The number of permanent and portable classification count locations that were counted for a duration of 48 hours or more Integer.
Class_Season Class Seasonal Adjustment Code Description
1 No adjustment
2 With adjustment
Class_Week Class Weekly Adjustment Code Description
1 No adjustment
2 With adjustment
Class_Growth Class Growth Adjustment Code Description
1 No adjustment
2 With adjustment
Travel_Source Source of Travel Data Code Description
1 State traffic database only
2 State traffic database and local governments (MPO, Cities, and Counties)
3 Other
Travel_Volume_Type Type of volume counts used for reporting purposes Code Description
1 Short-term counts only (>= 24 hrs in duration)
2 Continuous permanent class counts only
3 Both short term and continuous counts
Travel_Class_Type Type of classification counts used for reporting purposes Code Description
1 Short-term counts only (>= 24 hrs in duration)
2 Continuous permanent class counts only
3 Both short term and continuous counts
Travel_QA Quality assurance program exists for any traffic data Code Description
1 No existing traffic data quality assurance program
2 State traffic data only
3 State and Local traffic data
4 Local traffic data only
IRI_Equip_Type Type of equipment used predominately for measuring the international roughness index (IRI) Code Description
1 Sonar
2 Mix of sonar and laser devices
3 Laser
4 Scanning laser
5 Other
IRI_Interval IRI reporting interval (not to be confused with device sampling interval) Reporting interval to the nearest foot.
Rutting_Method Method (Manual or Automated) used to collect most of the rutting data. Code Description
1 Manual
2 Automatic
Rutting_Equip_Type Type of equipment used predominately for collection of rutting data. Code Description
1 Sonar
2 Mix of sonar and laser devices
3 Laser
4 Scanning laser
5 Other/Manual
Rutting_Num_Sensors Number of sensors for the equipment used predominately for collection of rutting data Code Description
1 Three (3) sensors
2 Five (5) sensors
3 Greater than five (>5) sensors
4 Scanning laser
5 Other
Rutting_Interval Rutting reporting interval (not to be confused with device sampling interval) Reporting interval to the nearest foot.
Faulting_Interval Faulting reporting interval (not to be confused with device sampling interval) Reporting interval to the nearest foot.
Faulting_Method Method (Manual or Automated) used to collect most of the faulting data. Code Description
1 Manual
2 Automatic
Faulting_Equipment_Type Type of equipment used predominately for measuring the faulting data Code Description
1 Manual
2 Laser
3 Scanning laser
4 Other
Cracking_Pct_Equip Type of equipment used predominately for measuring the percent of cracking (Cracking_Percent). Code Description
1 Windshield survey
2 Visual distress survey (side of road)
3 Manually identify cracking from video
4 Automated crack identification to detect cracking from video
5 Combined manual and automatic crack identification from video
6 Other
Cracking_Length_Equip Type of equipment used predominately for measuring the length of cracking (Cracking_Length, Data Item 53, Table 3.9). Code Description
1 Windshield survey
2 Visual distress survey (side of road)
3 Manually identify cracking from video
4 Automated crack identification to detect cracking from video
5 Combined manual and automatic crack identification from video
6 Other
Cracking_Method Protocol used to identify pavement distresses Code Description
1 Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP)
2 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
3 Modified LTPP
4 Modified AASHTO
5 State developed protocol
6 Other
Ramp_Termini_Desc Ramp Termini Code Description
1 Gore to Gore
2 Taper to Taper
3 Other
Ramp_Traf_Est_Method Ramp Traffic Estimation Method Code Description
1 Manual counts
2 Portable counts
3 Permanent count equipment
4 ITS equipment
5 Ramp metering equipment
6 Ramp balancing
7 Turning or ramp movement estimation software
8 Estimation based on fixed percent of mainline volumes
9 Other estimation method not described above

 


Endnote:

1 Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI), Shapefile Technical Description: an ESRI White Paper, July 1998


[1] A Linear Referencing System is based on a set of procedures for determining and retaining a record of specific points along a highway. Typical methods used are milepoint, milepost, reference point, and link-node.

2 Open Geospatial Consortium Inc, OpenGIS Implementation Specification for Geographic information - Simple feature access - Part 1:Common Architecture Version 1.1.0, Pg 28, Nov 2005

3 Open Geospatial Consortium Inc, OpenGIS Implementation Specification for Geographic information - Simple feature access - Part 1:Common Architecture Version 1.1.0, Pg 29, Nov 2005

4 http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml

 

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