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Home / Policy Information / Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) / Chapter 4

Office of Highway Policy Information
March 2013

Field Manual
Chapter 4: DATA REQUIREMENTS AND SPECIFICATIONS

Item 33: At_Grade_Other (Number of Intersections, Type -Other)

Description: A count of the intersections without stop sign or signal controls
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate capacity and estimate delay
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the number of at-grade intersections in the inventory direction where traffic is not controlled by either a signal or a stop sign; is controlled by other types of signage; or some other device.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

A continuously operating (i.e. all day), flashing yellow signal should be considered as an "at-grade/other" type of control.

Access points to large traffic generators (e.g., shopping centers, malls, large work sites, office parks, apartment complexes, etc.) should be included in the evaluation for this Data Item.

Special treatment is required when a Sample Panel section begins and/or ends with a traffic control device (i.e., Data Items 31, 32, and 33). This is accomplished by doing the following as illustrated in Figure 4.45:

  • Choose a statewide direction for inventory purposes (e.g., South to North, West to East, etc.);
  • Choose a statewide rule to either always count the beginning curb only or the ending curb only, but never both.
For divided roadways, continuous cross streets are to be counted as a single intersection. If the cross street is not continuous and is separated by at least 50 feet, then it should be counted as two intersections.

Roundabouts (see Figure 4.20) should be coded under this Data Item.

The sum of Data Items 31, 32, and 33 should be equal to the total number of intersections on the section.

Figure 4.43 At-Grade Other Example

Figure 4.43 shows an example of an uncontrolled intersection (i.e. at-grade other intersection).
Source: Puckett Pages

An Example of the Beginning or Ending Intersection Rule:

In the upper portion of Figure 4.45, the intersectio count is the same, '2', when using either the beginning only or ending only rule. In the lower portion of Figure 4.45, when using the beginning only rule, the count is '2'; when using the ending only rule the count is '1'.

Figure 4.44: Intersection Count Example

Figure 4.45 illustrates the manner in which the total number of intersections located on a sample section is to be determined using the beginning or ending intersection rule.  In the upper portion of Figure 4.44, the intersection count is the same, ‘2’, when using either the beginning only or ending only rule.  In the lower portion of Figure 4.44, when using the beginning only rule, the count is ‘2’; when using the ending only rule the count is ‘1’.

Item 34: Lane_Width (Lane Width)

Description: The measure of existing lane width
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate capacity, estimate needed improvements, and compute a safety index, for cost allocation pavement models
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the predominant through-lane width to the nearest whole foot.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

Lane width should be coded according to where the pavement/shoulder surface changes, or to the pavement lane striping (if the shoulder and pavement surface are the same).

Where there is no delineation between the through-traffic lane and the shoulder or parking lane, or where there is no centerline, estimate a reasonable split between the actual width used by traffic and the shoulder or parking lane based on State/local design guides.

When striping is placed inside the edge of the pavement (within approximately one foot) to keep traffic from breaking the pavement edge, ignore the striping and measure from the pavement edge to the center of a single centerline stripe. Or if double centerline striping exists, measure to the center of the two stripes.

If more than one lane exists, measure all lanes in the inventory direction and use the average value to the nearest foot. If lane widths vary over the extent of the sample section, use the predominant width(s) for measuring and reporting purposes.

In Figure 4.45, the number of through lanes is 2; deducting 10 feet for parking on each side, which is either striped or from design practices, would leave width for two 18 foot lanes.

Figure 4.45: An Example for Measuring Lane Width

Figure 4.45 illustrates the manner in which lane widths are to be measured for a given section of road.  This two-lane section of road has a total curb-to-curb distance of 56 feet, with 10-foot-wide parking lanes on both sides of the road.  This cross-section results in a remainder of 36 feet for the travel lanes. Therefore, each travel lane would have a width of 18 feet.

Item 35: Median_Type (Median Type)

Description: The type of median
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate capacity and estimate type of design and for national highway data base purposes
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Code the type of median using the following codes (Codes '5' through '7' are optional and should be used if the data is available.):

 

Code Description
1 None No median or unprotected area less than 4 feet wide.
2 Unprotected Median exists with a width of 4 feet or more.
3 Curbed Barrier or mountable curbs with a minimum height of 4 inches.
4 Positive Barrier- unspecified Prevents vehicles from crossing median.
5* Positive Barrier flexible Considerable deflection upon impact.
6* Positive Barrier semi-rigid Some deflection upon impact.
7* Positive Barrier rigid No deflection upon impact.

These definitions are summarized from AASHTO Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets 2004.
* Codes 5, 6, and 7 are optional.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

Median: The portion of a divided highway separating the traveled way for traffic in opposing directions.The principal functions of a median are to:

  • Minimize interference of opposing traffic;
  • Provide a recovery area for out-of-control vehicles;
  • Provide a stopping area in case of emergencies;
  • Provide open or green space;
  • Minimize headlight glare from opposing vehicles;
  • Provide width for future lanes;
  • Provide space for speed-change lanes and storage areas for left- and U-turn vehicles; and
  • Restrict left turns except where median openings are provided.
A positive barrier normally consists of a guardrail or concrete barrier, but could consist of thick, impenetrable vegetation.

Turning lanes or bays are not considered medians unless the turning lanes/bays are cut into an existing median at intersections, site entrances (e.g., a shopping center), etc; a continuous turning lane is not a median.

Figure 4.46: An Example of Median Type = 2, Unprotected

Figure 4.46 shows an example of a roadway section that has an unprotected median, which would be identified as a Code “2” for this Data Item.
Source: TxDOT, Transportation Planning and Programming Division.

Item 36: Median_Width (Median Width)

Description: The existing median width
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate capacity and estimate type of design and for national highway data base purposes
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the predominant median width including left shoulders, if any, measured between the inside edges of the left-most through lanes in both directions, to the nearest foot.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

Enter '99' where the median width is 100 feet or greater.

The edge of through lane is determined by paint stripping, difference in pavement/shoulder construction material, or according to traffic use. If the median is raised or a ditch, do not add the contour as part of the median width measure.

For measurement purposes, ignore turning bays cut into the median.

Figure 4.47: An Example for Measuring Median Width

Figure 4.47 illustrates the manner in which median width is to be measured for a given section of road.  When measuring the median, the roadway’s left shoulders are to be included in the measurement.

Figure 4.48: Median Width Measurement

Figure 4.48 provides a visual for the manner in which median width is to be measured.
Source: FDOT RCI Field Handbook, Nov. 2008.

Item 37: Shoulder_Type (Shoulder Type)

Description: The type of shoulder
Use: For investment requirements modeling to estimate needed improvements
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the code for the type of shoulder on the section.

 

Code Description
1 None
2 Surfaced shoulder exists - bituminous concrete (AC)
3 Surfaced shoulder exists - Portland Cement Concrete surface (PCC)
4 Stabilized shoulder exists (stabilized gravel or other granular material with or without admixture)
5 Combination shoulder exists (shoulder width has two or more surface types; e.g., part of the shoulder width is surfaced and a part of the width is earth)
6 Earth shoulder exists
7 Barrier curb exists; no shoulder in front of curb

 

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

If the shoulder type varies over the extent of the section, code the predominant type. If left and right shoulder types differ on a divided facility, code the right shoulder type as the predominant type.

If there is a shoulder in front of a barrier curb, code this Data Item and Data Item 38 (Shoulder Width); do not code the area behind a barrier curb as a shoulder.

Disregard mountable curbs for HPMS reporting purposes. If there is a shoulder either in front of or behind a mountable curb, code this Data Item and Data Item 38 (Shoulder Width).

If a bike lane abuts the through lane, there cannot be a shoulder unless it is used as a combined shoulder/bike lane (sometimes indicated by signage or symbols on the pavement). If a bike lane or parking is completely separated from the roadway, it should not be considered.

If the section has parking abutting the through lane, there cannot be a shoulder. If there is parking on one side of a divided roadway and a shoulder or a curb on the other side, code this Data Item, Data Item 38 (Shoulder Width), and Data Item 40 (Peak Parking) accordingly. A shoulder cannot exist between a traffic lane and a parking lane.

Shoulder Type Examples:

Figure 4.49: Bituminous (Code '2')

xFigure 4.49 shows an example of a bituminous shoulder, which would be identified as Code "2" for this Data Item.

Figure 4.50: Stabilized (Code '4')

Figure 4.50 shows an example of a stabilized shoulder, which would be identified as Code "4" for this Data Item.

Figure 4.51: Combination (Code '5')

Figure 4.51 shows an example of a combination shoulder, which would be identified as Code "5" for this Data Item.

Figure 4.52: Earth (Code '6')

Figure 4.52 shows an example of an earth shoulder, which would be identified as Code "6" for this Data Item.

Item 38: Shoulder_Width_R (Right Shoulder Width)

Description: The existing right shoulder width
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate capacity and estimate needed improvements
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the width of the right shoulder to the nearest whole foot.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

Do not include parking or bicycle lanes in the shoulder width as further illustrated in Figures 4.56-4.58.

Code the predominant width where it changes back and forth along a roadway section.

Ensure that the total width of combination shoulders is reported.

Include rumble strips and gutter pans in shoulder width.

This width should be measured from the outer edge of the right-most through lane to the outer edge of the shoulder.

Examples of Measuring Shoulder Width:

Figure 4.53: Earth Shoulder Measurement

Figure 4.53 shows the appropriate limits for the measurement of an earth shoulder on a given section of road.  The width is to be measured from the outer edge of the roadway (i.e. white stripe) to the break point of the shoulder.
Earth Shoulder: Measure from the white stripe to the break point of the shoulder.

Figure 4.54: Bituminous Shoulder Measurement

Figure 4.54 shows the appropriate limits for the measurement of a bituminous shoulder on a given section of road.  The width is to be measured from the outer edge of the roadway (i.e. white stripe) to the edge of the paved area.
Bituminous Shoulder: Measure from the white stripe to the edge of the paved area.

Figure 4.55: Measuring Shoulders with Guardrails

Figure 4.55 shows the appropriate limits for the measurement of a shoulder with guardrails on given section of road.  The width is to be measured from the outer edge of the through-lane (i.e. white stripe) to the face of the guardrail.
Guardrail Present on Shoulder: Measure from the edge of through lane to the face of the guardrail.

Figure 4.56: Measuring Shoulders with Parking/Bike Lanes

Figure 4.56 illustrates the manner in which shoulder width is to be measured for a section of road that has parking and/or bike lanes present.  The 8-foot-wide parking lane and the 5-foot-wide bike lane shown in this illustration should be excluded from the measurement of the shoulder width.

Figure 4.57: Measuring Shoulders with Parking and Bike Lanes

Figure 4.57 illustrates the manner in which shoulder width is to be measured for a section of road that has a bike lane present.  The 5-foot-wide bike lane shown in this illustration should be excluded from the measurement of the shoulder width.

Figure 4.58: Measuring Shoulders with Combined Parking/Bike Lanes

Figure 4.58 illustrates the manner in which shoulder width is to be measured for a section of road that has a combined shoulder/bike lane.  The 5-foot-wide bike lane shown as part of the shoulder in this illustration should be excluded from the measurement of the shoulder width.

Item 39: Shoulder_Width_L (Left Shoulder Width)

Description: The existing left shoulder width
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate capacity and estimate needed improvements
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the width of the left (median) shoulder to the nearest whole foot. Left shoulders should only be coded for divided highway sections.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

Do not include parking or bicycle lanes in the shoulder width measurement.

Code the predominant width where it changes back and forth along a roadway section.

Ensure that the total width of combination shoulders is reported.

Include rumble strips and gutter pans in shoulder width.

This width should be measured from the outer edge of the left-most through lane to the left-most edge of the inside shoulder.

Item 40: Peak_Parking (Peak Parking)

Description: Specific information about the presence of parking during the peak period
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate capacity
Extent: All Sample Panel sections located in urban areas, optional for all other urban sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural                
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the code that best reflects the type of peak parking that exists using the following codes:

 

Code Description
1 Parking allowed on one side.
2 Parking allowed on both sides.
3 No parking allowed or none available.

 

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

Code this Data Item to reflect the permitted use, even if the section is not formally signed or striped for parking.

If parking is observed beyond the shoulder or the pavement-edge where there is no shoulder, use code '3.'

If parking lanes are legally used for through-traffic or turning lanes during the peak period, code the appropriate in-use condition.

Interstates and Freeways are usually assigned a code '3.'

Figure 4.59: Parking on One Side (Code '1') Example

Figure 4.59 shows an example of a street that has parking on one-side, which would be identified as a Code “1” for this Data Item.
Source: FDOT RCI Field Handbook, Nov. 2008.

Figure 4.60: Parking on Both Sides (Code '2') Example

Figure 4.60 shows an example of a street that has parking on both sides, which would be identified as a Code “2” for this Data Item.
Source: FDOT RCI Field Handbook, Nov. 2008.

Figure 4.61: No parking allowed (Code '3') Example

Figure 4.61 shows an example of a street where parking is prohibited, which would be identified as a Code “3” for this Data Item.
Source: TxDOT, Transportation Planning and Programming Division

Item 41: Widening_Obstacle (Widening Obstacle)

Description: Obstacles that prevent widening of the existing roadway for additional through lanes
Use: For administrative, legislative, analytical, and national highway database purposes
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Text: Code all conditions that apply in either direction on either side of the section and leave blank for unreported data using the following codes:

 

Code Definition Description
X No obstacles No obstacles to widening.
A Dense development Refers to the density and size of buildings to be acquired, the number of people that would need to be relocated, and the number of businesses that would need to be acquired. (Realizing dense development may be higher in urban areas; this should not be used as on obstacle for all urban areas and should be evaluated relative to the conditions in the area where the section is located).
B Major transportation facilities Includes major rail lines, canals, airports, major natural gas and oil pipe lines whose location relative to the roadway section would limit expansion of the existing roadway.
C Other public facilities Includes hospitals, museums, libraries, major public office buildings, schools, and universities.
D Terrain restrictions Relates to geographic features that would make it very difficult to add lanes, requiring significant excavation, fill, or tunneling. This applies to both horizontal and vertical terrain restrictions.
E Historic and archaeological sites Includes such things as historic buildings, historic land, large monuments, cemeteries, and known archaeological sites.
F Environmentally sensitive areas Includes such areas as scenic landmarks, wetlands, bodies of water, areas inhabited or used by protected species. Scenic routes and byways are included in the category and are those national and State routes that have been identified and listed as official designations.
G Parkland Includes National, State, and local parks.

 

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

Enter any combination of the codes (e.g. if there are Historic and Dense development obstacles, code "EA" or "AE" for this Data Item). There is no requirement for the ordering of the codes; a code should not be used more than once in a sequence of codes (e.g. "AEA").

Code "X" cannot be used with other codes (e.g. "XE")

This item provides for the coding of obstacles which may prevent or limit the ability to widen the roadway surface within approximately 100 feet of the outer edge of the through lanes that are present in either direction of the section.

Figure 4.62: Cemetery (Code "E") Obstacle Example

Figure 4.62 shows an example of a street that is bounded by a cemetery, which would be identified as a Code "E" for this Data Item.
Source: PennDOT.

Figure 4.63: Major Rail Line (Code "B")
Obstacle Example

Figure 4.63 shows an example of a street that is bounded by a major rail line, which would be identified as a Code "B" for this Data Item.
Source: TxDOT, Transportation Planning and Programming Division.

Item 42: Widening_Potential (Widening Potential)

Description: The number of through lanes that could be potentially added
Use: For investment requirements modeling to estimate needed capacity improvements
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Code the number of lanes (0-9) for which it is feasible to widen the existing road, in both directions. Code a '9,' if it is possible to add nine or more lanes.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

Code this item based on how feasible it is to widen the existing road based on the presence of obstacles as identified in Data Item 41 (Widening Obstacles), and the proximity of the obstacle to the roadway.  Consider medians, areas already within the existing right-of-way, and areas outside existing right- of- way to be available for widening.
Do not consider restrictions due to current right-of-way width, or projected traffic.
Narrowing lanes via restriping, resulting in an additional lane on a multilane facility does not constitute Widening Potential. 
The cost of adding capacity to sections or corridors with limited Widening Potential is assumed to be significantly more costly than other more routine capacity improvements.
If Data Item 41 (Widening Obstacle) is coded as “X”, then this data item should be coded as ‘9’ lanes.  If Data Item 41 (Widening Obstacle) is not coded as “X”, then this data item should be coded, at most, ‘8’ lanes.

Figure 4.64: Widening Potential of 9 lanes (Max)

Figure 4.64 shows a roadway which has no widening constraints on either side.  In this particular case, the widening potential for this roadway would be 9 lanes, which is the maximum allotted for HPMS purposes.
Source: PennDOT.

Figure 4.65: No Widening Potential

Figure 4.65 shows a roadway that is bounded by dense development on both sides.  In this particular case, the widening potential for this roadway would be 0 lanes.
Source: PennDOT.

Item 43: Curves_A through Curves_F (Curve Classification)

Description: Curve classification data
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate horizontal alignment adequacy and estimate running speed and operating costs
Extent: All paved principal arterial and rural minor arterial Sample Panel sections; optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural   SP SP SP SP      
Urban   SP SP SP        
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the total length of the segments that apply to each individual curve class, using the degree of curvature ranges listed in the table below. Each Sample Panel section will need to be subdivided to report the extent of each applicable curve class.

 

Curve Classification Degrees
A Under 3.5 degrees (i.e., 0.061 radians)
B 3.5 - 5.4 degrees (i.e.,0.061 - 0.094 radians)
C 5.5 - 8.4 degrees (i.e., 0.096 - 0.147 radians)
D 8.5 - 13.9 degrees (i.e., 0.148 - 0.243 radians)
E 14.0 - 27.9 degrees (i.e., 0.244 - 0.487 radians)
F 28 degrees (i.e., 0.489 radians) or more

 

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

This information may be available from construction plans, GIS databases, and contracts for other data collection activities such as International Roughness Index (IRI) or pavement data, and video log.

The primary goal is to populate curve data for each paved sample on the applicable functional system. There are 6 classes of curvature (i.e., Curve Class A through Curve Class F). The beginning and ending points will remain constant for each of the data items; however the values for these data items will reflect the length of that particular curve class. Furthermore, the sum of the values for each of the 6 curve class Data Items must be equal to the total length of the entire sample.

Each curve and tangent segment is coded as a separate curve; segments are summed by curve class to obtain the total length in each class. Report the sum of the class lengths for each of the six curve classes (in units of miles); the sum of all curve lengths must equal the Sample Panel section length.

Example:
Milepoint 0.00 1.75 3.00 3.75 4.57 5.69

A

B

C

E

C

Curve Length 1.75 1.25 0.75 0.821.12

This example depicts a Sample Panel section for which the HPMS software would expect 4 records reported in the Sections dataset as depicted below:

2009|45|SCXXX|0|5.69|CURVES_A|5.69|1.75|||

2009|45|SCXXX|0|5.69|CURVES_B|5.69|1.25|||

2009|45|SCXXX|0| 5.69|CURVES_C|5.69|1.87|||

2009|45|SCXXX|0| 5.69|CURVES_E|5.69|0.82|||

Since no data exists for curve classes D and F in this example, there would not be a record reported for either class. Moreover, the value for Curve Class C is calculated by adding the values for both Curve Class C parts together. The beginning and ending points are consistent throughout all records within the sample. The sum of all of the Curve Class lengths must equal the total length of the Sample Panel section.

Figure 4.66 Curve Classification Example

Figure 4.66 illustrates the procedure for computing curve classification lengths based on the degree of curvature for each section on a given sample.  In this particular example, the length of the sample is 3.715 miles.  Curve classes A, B and C are represented on sample. The total lengths for curve classes A, B, and C are 1.45, 1.14, and 1.125 miles, respectively.  The sum of these individual curve class lengths is 3.715 miles, which is equivalent to the length of the sample.
Source: TxDOT, Transportation Planning and Programming Division

Item 44: Terrain_Type (Terrain Type)

Description: The type of terrain
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate capacity and estimate needed capacity improvements and in the truck size and weight analysis process
Extent: All Sample Panel sections located in rural areas, optional for all other rural sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural   SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban                
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the code that best describes the terrain according to the following table:

 

Code Description
1 Level: Any combination of grades and horizontal or vertical alignment that permits heavy vehicles to maintain the same speed as passenger cars; this generally includes short grades of no more than 2 percent.
2 Rolling: Any combination of grades and horizontal or vertical alignment that causes heavy vehicles to reduce their speeds substantially below those of passenger cars but that does not cause heavy vehicles to operate at crawl speeds for any significant length of time.
3 Mountainous: Any combination of grades and horizontal or vertical alignment that causes heavy vehicles to operate at extremely low speeds for significant distances or at frequent intervals.

 

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

When coding this Data Item, consider the terrain of an extended length of the roadway upon which the sample is located rather than the grade on the specific Sample Panel section by itself. The extended roadway section may be several miles long and contain a number of upgrades, downgrades, and level sections. For long samples, such as rural freeway samples extending between interchanges, the extended roadway section and the Sample Panel section may be the same.

Figure 4.67 Level Terrain (Code '1') Example

Figure 4.67 shows an example of a roadway that has level terrain, which would be identified as a Code "1" for this Data Item.
Source: PennDOT.

Figure 4.68 Rolling Terrain (Code '2') Example

Figure 4.688 shows an example of a roadway that has rolling terrain, which would be identified as a Code "2" for this Data Item.
Source: PennDOT.

Figure 4.69 Mountainous Terrain (Code '3') Example

Figure 4.69 shows an example of a roadway that has mountainous terrain, which would be identified as a Code "3" for this Data Item.
Source: PennDOT.

Item 45: Grades_A through Grades_F (Grade Classification)

Description: Grade classification data
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate vertical alignment adequacy and estimate running speed and operating costs and in the truck size and weight analysis process
Extent: All paved interstate, other freeway and expressway, other principal arterial, and rural minor arterial Sample Panel sections; optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural   SP SP SP SP      
Urban   SP SP SP        
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the total length of the segments that apply to each individual grade class, using the percent grade ranges listed in the table below. Each sample will need to be subdivided to report the extent of each applicable grade class.

 

Grade Classification Percent Grade
A 0.0 - 0.4
B 0.5 - 2.4
C 2.5 - 4.4
D 4.5 - 6.4
E 6.5 - 8.4
F 8.5 or greater

 

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

This information may be available from construction plans, GIS databases, and contracts for other data collection activities.

Each grade and flat segment is to be coded as a separate segment; segments are typically measured between vertical points of intersection (VPI) and summed by grade class to obtain the total length in each class. The sum of all of the Grade Class lengths must equal the total length of the Sample Panel section.

Figure 4.70 Grade Classification Example

Figure 4.70 illustrates the procedure for computing grade classification lengths based on the percent grade for each section on a given sample. In this particular example, the length of the sample is 2.615 miles. Grade classes A, B and C are represented on sample. The total lengths for grade classes A, B, and C are 1.306, 0.605, and 0.90 miles, respectively.  The sum of these individual grade class lengths is 2.615 miles, which is equivalent to the length of the sample.
Source: TxDOT, Transportation Planning and Programming Division.

Item 46: Pct_Pass_Sight (Percent Passing Sight Distance)

Description: The percent of a Sample Panel section meeting the sight distance requirement for passing
Use: For investment requirements modeling to calculate capacity and estimate running speed and for truck size and weight analysis purposes
Extent: All rural, paved two-lane Sample Panel sections; optional for all other rural sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban                
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the percent of the section length that is striped for passing.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance: When there is a discernable directional difference, code for the more restrictive direction.

Item 47: IRI (International Roughness Index)

Description: A statistic used to estimate the amount of roughness in a measured longitudinal profile. The IRI is computed from a single longitudinal profile using a quarter-car simulation as described in the report "On the Calculation of IRI from Longitudinal Road Profile" (Sayers, M.W., Transportation Research Board 1501, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC 1995)
Use: >For investment requirements modeling to estimate pavement deterioration, section deficiencies, and necessary improvements, in cost allocation studies, in pavement condition trends, and for other analysis purposes including NHS performance
Extent: All NHS and principal arterial sections, and rural minor arterial Sample Panel sections; optional for urban minor arterial, major collector, and minor collector Sample Panel sections and rural major collector Sample Panel sections

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural FE FE FE FE SP SP*    
Urban FE FE FE FE SP* SP* SP*  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections  SP* = Sample Panel Sections (optional)

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Code IRI to the nearest inch per mile.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: Report the month and year for which the data was collected. A default date may be used for new pavement surface. If the month is unknown, use a default month.

Guidance:

IRI should be measured on an annual cycle for the NHS and on the 2-year maximum cycle for all other required sections. Existing IRI values should continue to be reported until they are replaced by new measured values.

Structures and railroad grade crossings are to be included in the measurement of surface roughness.

IRI should be consistently measured and reported for the same direction and lane, which typically is the outermost (right) lane. The practice of measuring the "worst" lane is discouraged in cases where the outermost (right) lane is not measured.

For purposes of national-level data consistency, IRI sections reported in HPMS should not exceed 0.10 mile in length. It is understood and acceptable that sections less than 0.10 mile be reported in HPMS which can result from short collection sections, route termini, and intersections, etc.

The average of the right and left quarter-car IRI should be reported as Mean Roughness Index (MRI) for this data item. This is not to be confused with the half-car IRI, which is computed by averaging the profile data for the left and right wheel paths, and then applying the quarter-car simulation to the average data.

Default values or values obtained by other means or conversions that are not directly obtained from measured road profiles are not to be used. However, when a pavement improvement is made on an applicable section, a temporary value for the improved section reflecting a reasonable average value for new pavement may be provided until replaced by a measured value. States are encouraged to use data from State or local pavement management systems when they are available, are current, and when they meet HPMS reporting requirements.

If a measured IRI value is reported for a section, a PSR value for that section is not required. A Sample Panel section must have either PSR or IRI reported.

FHWA has adopted AASHTO Standard R 43-07 as the preferred method of providing IRI data for the HPMS. Additional guidelines, including R 43-07, are found in the Pavement Data Guidance contained in Chapter 5.

Metadata: See Chapter 3 for a description of the metadata reporting requirements for this Data Item

Item 48: PSR (Present Serviceability Rating)

Description:
Use: For investment requirements modeling to estimate pavement deterioration, section deficiencies, and needed improvements, in cost allocation studies, in pavement condition trends, and for other analysis purposes including NHS performance
Extent: All urban minor arterial, major collector, and minor collector Sample Panel sections and rural major collector Sample Panel sections where IRI is not reported; optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural           SP*    
Urban         SP* SP* SP*  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections 

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Code a PSR or equivalent to the nearest tenth.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

PSR is not required if IRI is reported for a section. A Sample Panel section must have either PSR or IRI reported.

If sufficiency ratings of pavement condition are available, they may be used after a correlation between the sufficiency rating scale and the PSR scale or other rating factors has been developed.

If there are no current PSR, PSI, or sufficiency ratings that can be adapted, the section can be rated using values in the following Table 4.4. Estimates to the nearest tenth within the applicable range should be made (e.g., 2.3 as opposed to 2.323). Where different lanes have different pavement condition ratings, code PSR consistent with IRI data collection practices.

Table 4.4: Present Serviceability Rating

PSR Description
4.0 - 5.0 Only new (or nearly new) superior pavements are likely to be smooth enough and distress free (sufficiently free of cracks and patches) to qualify for this category. Most pavements constructed or resurfaced during the data year would normally be rated in this category.
3.0 - 4.0 Pavements in this category, although not quite as smooth as those described above, give a first class ride and exhibit few, if any, visible signs of surface deterioration. Flexible pavements may be beginning to show evidence of rutting and fine random cracks. Rigid pavements may be beginning to show evidence of slight surface deterioration, such as minor cracks and spalling.
2.0 - 3.0 The riding qualities of pavements in this category are noticeably inferior to those of new pavements, and may be barely tolerable for high-speed traffic. Surface defects of flexible pavements may include rutting, map cracking, and extensive patching. Rigid pavements in this group may have a few joint failures, faulting and/or cracking, and some pumping.
1.0 - 2.0 Pavements in this category have deteriorated to such an Extent that they affect the speed of free-flow traffic. Flexible pavement may have large potholes and deep cracks. Distress includes raveling, cracking, rutting and occurs over 50 percent of the surface. Rigid pavement distress includes joint spalling, patching, cracking, scaling, and may include pumping and faulting.
0.1 - 1.0 Pavements in this category are in an extremely deteriorated condition. The facility is passable only at reduced speeds, and with considerable ride discomfort. Large potholes and deep cracks exist. Distress occurs over 75 percent or more of the surface.

Item 49: Surface_Type (Surface Type)

Description: Surface type on a given section
Use: For investment requirements modeling to estimate pavement deterioration and loading history, for the cost allocation pavement model, and for the national highway database
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Enter the following code which best represents the type of surface:

 

Code Description
1 Unpaved
2 Bituminous
3 JPCP - Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement
4 JRCP ;- Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement
5 CRCP - Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement
6 Asphalt-Concrete (AC) Overlay over Existing AC Pavement
7 AC Overlay over Existing Jointed Concrete Pavement
8 AC (Bituminous Overlay over Existing CRCP)
9 Unbonded Jointed Concrete Overlay on PCC Pavement
10 Bonded PCC Overlay on PCC Pavement
11 Other (includes "whitetopping")

 

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance: For codes '7' through '9', if the existing PCC pavement is fractured (rubblized or crack-and-seated) prior to overlaying, treat the broken PCC as a base and select the surface type that best describes the new surface. For example, AC (Bituminous) surface placed over rubblized PCC is code '2' with fractured PCC as the base type

Table 4.5: Data Item Requirements by Surface Type

Code IRI PSR Rutting Faulting Cracking Percent Cracking Length Thickness Rigid Thickness Flexible
1                
2 in/mi 0.1-5.0 0.1"   Fatigue % area Transverse ft/mi   0.5"
3 in/mi 0.1-5.0   0.1" % cracked slabs   0.5"  
4 in/mi 0.1-5.0   0.1" % cracked slabs   0.5"  
5 in/mi 0.1-5.0     Punchout/‌long./patch % area   0.5"  
6 in/mi 0.1-5.0 0.1"   Fatigue % area Transverse/‌reflective ft/mi   0.5"
7 in/mi 0.1-5.0 0.1"   Fatigue % area Transverse/‌reflective ft/mi 0.5" 0.5"
8 in/mi 0.1-5.0 0.1"   Fatigue % area Transverse ft/mi 0.5" 0.5"
9 in/mi 0.1-5.0   0.1" % cracked slabs   0.5"  
10 in/mi 0.1-5.0   0.1" % cracked slabs/ punchout % area   0.5"  
11 in/mi 0.1-5.0            

Item 50: Rutting (Rutting)

Description: Average depth of rutting
Use: For pavement modeling purposes
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Code to the nearest 0.1 inch. Reporting should be consistent with IRI inventory direction and lane.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: Report the month and year for which the data was collected.  A default date may be used for new pavement surface.  If the month is unknown, use a default month.

Guidance:

This data is to be collected on a two year cycle.   
For purposes of national-level data consistency, rutting sections reported in HPMS should not exceed 0.10 mile in length.  It is understood and acceptable that sections less than 0.10 mile be reported in HPMS which can result from short collection sections, route termini, and intersections, etc.
A rut is defined as a longitudinal surface depression in the wheel path and it may have associated transverse displacement.
Rutting is to be reported for all AC surface types as identified in Table 4.5.

Figure 4.71 Rutting

Figure 4.71 is a plan view and cross-section schematic illustrating rutting for asphalt surfaced pavements.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.72 Rutting Example

Figure 4.73 shows an example of rutting on a roadway with an asphalt-concrete (AC) surface.
Source: TxDOT, Construction Division.

Report the average of both wheel paths. Average all values, but the results for each wheel path are reported separately in the AASHTO method (i.e., 2 numbers are reported, the average rut depth for both wheel paths).

AASHTO R 48-10 (and the associated PP 69-10 and PP 70-10 as applicable) specifications or the LTPP protocol are to be followed for the collection of these data. Reporting should be consistent with IRI inventory direction and lane.

Metadata: See Chapter 3 for a description of the metadata reporting requirements for this Data Item.

Item 51: Faulting (Faulting)

Description: The average vertical displacement (difference in elevation) between adjacent jointed concrete panels in the direction of travel
Use: For pavement modeling purposes
Extent: All Sample Panel sections, optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Report the average/mean faulting to the nearest 0.1 inch. Reporting should be consistent with IRI inventory direction and lane.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: Report the month and year for which the data was collected.  A default date may be used for new pavement surface.  If the month is unknown, use a default month.

Guidance:

This data is to be collected on a two year cycle.

Every joint should be measured in the right wheel-path over a section and the average reported.

AASHTO R36-04 specifications or the LTPP protocol are to be followed for the collection of these data.

Faulting is to be reported for Surface Type codes '3', '4', '9', and '10' as identified in Table 4.5.

Figure 4.73: Faulting

Figure 4.73 is a plan view and section view schematic illustrating positive and negative faulting conditions for jointed concrete surfaced pavements.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.74: Faulting Example

Figure 4.74 shows an example of faulting on a roadway with a jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) surface.
Source: TxDOT, Construction Division.

Metadata:

See Chapter 3 for a description of the metadata reporting requirements for this Data Item.

Item 52: Cracking_Percent (Cracking Percent) 

Description: Estimate of percent area with fatigue type cracking for all severity levels for AC pavements (in wheel path) and percent of slabs with cracking for PCC (jointed and continuous) pavements.
Use: For pavement modeling purposes
Extent: Required for all AC, PCC, and composite paved Sample Panel sections; optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Report the percent of total AC section area and percent of PCC slabs (jointed and continuous) cracked to the nearest 5% at a minimum.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: Report the month and year for which the IRI data reported was collected.  A default date may be used for new pavement surface.  If the month is unknown, use a default month.

Guidance:

Reporting should be consistent with IRI inventory direction and lane.

This data is to be collected on a two year cycle.

All severity levels of associated cracking should be considered and reported.

This should be reported as the percent of actual pavement with fatigue cracking. The LTPP protocol says to include fatigue cracking and longitudinal cracking in the wheel path that has associated random cracking (any cracks in the wheel path that have a quantifiable area). For jointed PCC sections, exclude corner breaks, D-cracking, and Alkali Silica Reactivity (ASR) cracking that may occur on a slab.

This should be the best estimate of the area with fatigue cracking and it is not expected that each portion of fatigue cracking in a section will actually be measured.

Examples of Procedures to Estimate Cracking Percent

If this data is not readily available or part of States' pavement management systems, then they may want to estimate it using a procedure that can be used repeatedly. One method could be to review and measure some sections based on three severity levels (Low, Medium, High) by counting the number of cracks per mile, multiply by the pavement width, and divide by the total area (63,360 for a mile section 12 feet wide) to get a percent. These three percentage values can then be assigned to all sections based on severity level for HPMS reporting.

For AC pavements an estimate of the total area of fatigue cracking for the Sample Panel section should be reported. As an example, if the Sample Panel section is a single lane, 12 foot in width, 1 mile in length; total area = 63,360 sq. ft.

The fatigue cracking in the sample is 500 foot in length and 2 foot in width in each wheel path:

500 ft. * 2 ft * 2 wheelpaths = 2,000 sq. ft.
2,000 sq. ft. / 63,360 sq. ft. = 3.2 percent area of fatigue cracking which can be reported as 5 percent
For JPCP and JRCP slab cracking, the key factor to be captured is whether or not a slab is cracked. So, if a slab contains a fatigue crack (which may extend as little as 2 to 3 ft from an edge), that slab should be counted as a cracked slab. In determining the percent of slabs cracked, a slab with multiple cracks should still be counted as one cracked slab. If the joint spacing is variable, the number of slabs may be estimated by dividing the section length by the average joint spacing.

As an example, if 4 slabs of 10 having some fatigue cracking, you would report 40% slab cracking. This is not a percent of Sample Panel section length or wheel path measurement.

For CRCP pavements, the area should be reported for which punch-outs, longitudinal cracking, and/or patching occurs in the section (at any severity level).

AASHTO R 55-10 (and associated PP 67-10 and PP 68-10 as applicable) or the LTPP distress identification manual should be followed as a guide for use in reporting cracks at any and all severity levels (sealed and unsealed). Reporting should be consistent with IRI inventory direction and lane.

Figure 4.75: AC Fatigue Type Cracking

Figure 4.75 is a plan view schematic of low, moderate, and high severity fatigue type cracks in asphalt surfaced pavements.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.76: AC Longitudinal Cracking (Inside and Outside of Wheel path)

Figure 4.76 is a plan view schematic of wheel path and non-wheel path longitudinal cracking in asphalt surfaced pavements.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.77: AC Moderate Severity Longitudinal Cracking (Wheel path)

Figure 4.77 shows an example of moderate severity longitudinal cracking (wheel path) on a roadway with an asphalt-concrete (AC) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.78: AC Chicken Wire/Alligator Fatigue Type Cracking in Wheel path

Figure 4.78 shows an example of chicken wire/alligator fatigue type cracking in wheel path on a roadway with an asphalt-concrete (AC) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.79: AC Low Severity Fatigue Type Cracking

Figure 4.79 shows an example of low severity fatigue type cracking on a roadway with an asphalt-concrete (AC) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.80: AC Moderate Severity Fatigue Type Cracking

Figure 4.81 shows an example of moderate severity fatigue type cracking on a roadway with an asphalt-concrete (AC) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.81: AC High Severity Fatigue Type Cracking

Figure 4.82 shows an example of high severity fatigue type cracking on a roadway with an asphalt-concrete (AC) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.82: CRCP Fatigue Type Cracking (Punchouts)

Figure 4.82 is a plan view schematic illustrating three types of typical punch-out fatigue type cracking for continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP).
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.83: Low Severity CRCP Punchout Cracking

Figure 4.83 shows an example of low severity punch-out cracking on a roadway with a continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.84: Moderate Severity CRCP Punchout Cracking

Figure 4.84 shows an example of moderate severity punch-out cracking on a roadway with a continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.85: High Severity CRCP Punchout Cracking

Figure 4.85 shows an example of high severity punch-out cracking on a roadway with a continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.86: JCP Longitudinal Cracking

Figure 4.86 is a plan view (with two cross section views of spalling) of typical longitudinal cracking in jointed concrete pavements (JCP).
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.87: JCP Low Severity Longitudinal Cracking

Figure 4.87 shows an example of low severity longitudinal cracking on a roadway with a jointed concrete pavement (JCP) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.88: JCP Moderate Severity Longitudinal Cracking

Figure 4.88 shows an example of moderate severity longitudinal cracking on a roadway with a jointed concrete pavement (JCP) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.89: JCP High Severity Longitudinal Cracking

Figure 4.90 shows an example of high severity longitudinal cracking on a roadway with a jointed concrete pavement (JCP) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.90: JCP Transverse Cracking

Figure 4.90 is a schematic plan view (with two cross section views of spalling) of typical transverse cracking for jointed concrete pavements (JCP).
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.91: JCP Moderate Severity Transverse Cracking

Figure 4.91 shows an example of moderate severity transverse cracking on a roadway with a jointed concrete pavement (JCP) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.92: JCP High Severity Transverse Cracking

Figure 4.92 shows an example of high severity transverse cracking on a roadway with a jointed concrete pavement (JCP) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Metadata: See Chapter 3 for a description of the metadata reporting requirements for this Data Item

.

Item 53: Cracking_Length (Cracking Length)

Description: Estimate of relative length in feet per mile (ft/mi) of transverse cracking for AC pavements and reflection transverse cracking for composite pavements where AC is the top surface layer.
Use: For pavement modeling purposes
Extent: Optional for all AC (transverse cracking), and composite (transverse reflection cracking) paved Sample Panel sections and all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: Code the length of transverse cracking in feet per mile (ft/mi). The ft/mi section of AC transverse and transverse reflection cracking for composite pavements to the nearest foot is to be coded. Reporting should be consistent with IRI inventory direction and lane.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Guidance:

This data is to be collected on a two year cycle.

This is a summation of the lengths of all of the transverse cracks in each mile section. Transverse cracking is a length per mile value; fatigue cracking is an area. This should be the best estimate of the length with transverse cracking and it is not expected that each portion of transverse cracking in a section will actually be measured. Note that transverse reflection cracks may occur in composite, AC surfaced sections over transverse joints as well as over transverse cracks-either case should be considered and reported for this data item.

A crack should be at least 6 feet long to be counted.

AASHTO R 55-10 (and associated PP 67-10 and PP 68-10 as applicable) or the LTPP distress identification manual should be followed as a guide for use in reporting cracks at any and all severity levels (sealed and unsealed). Reporting should be consistent with IRI inventory direction and lane.

Examples of Procedures to Estimate Cracking Length

Consider only the primary cracking and not smaller transverse cracking that may occur adjacent to main transverse crack when estimating the length of transverse cracking in a segment. To convert to length per mile, using an example of 500 ft of transverse cracking in a 2,000 foot section converts to 1,300 feet of transverse cracking.

[(5,280/2,000)*500 ft = approximately 2.6 (rounded) * 500 ft = approximately 1,300 ft.]

Rounding in feet is acceptable.

AASHTO PP44-01 or the LTPP distress identification manual should be used in identifying and reporting cracks at any and all severity levels. Reporting should be consistent with IRI inventory direction and lane.

Figure 4.93: AC/Composite Cracking Length

Figure 4.93 is a schematic plan view and section view of various transverse type cracks for asphalt surfaced/composite type pavements.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.94: High Severity AC/Composite Reflection Cracking

Figure 4.94 shows an example of high severity reflection cracking on a roadway with an asphalt-concrete (AC)/composite surface.

Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.95: Low Severity AC Transverse Cracking

Figure 4.95 shows an example of low severity transverse cracking on a roadway with an asphalt-concrete (AC) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.96: Moderate Severity AC Transverse Cracking

Figure 4.96 shows an example of moderate severity transverse cracking on a roadway with an asphalt-concrete (AC) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Figure 4.97: High Severity AC Transverse Cracking

Figure 4.97 shows an example of high severity transverse cracking on a roadway with an asphalt-concrete (AC) surface.
Source: LTPP Distress and Identification Manual, June 2003

Metadata: See Chapter 3 for a description of the metadata reporting requirements for this Data Item.

Item 54: Year_Last_Improv (Year of Last Improvement)

Description: The year in which the roadway surface was last improved
Use: For the cost allocation pavement model
Extent: All paved Sample Panel sections; optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: Enter the 4-digit year (in format YYYY) when the last surface improvement was completed.

Guidance:

Reporting should be consistent with IRI inventory direction and lane.

0.5 inch or more of compacted pavement material must be put in place for it to be considered a surface improvement.

Completion date is the actual date the construction ended or the date when the project was opened to traffic.

Retain the coded improvement year until another improvement affecting the surface is completed.

Figure 4.98: Resurfaced Roadway

Figure 4.98 shows a recently resurfaced roadway section.
Source: FDOT RCI Field Handbook, Nov. 2008.

Item 55: Year_Last_Construction (Year of Last Construction)

Description: The year in which the roadway was constructed or reconstructed
Use: For pavement modeling purposes
Extent: All paved Sample Panel sections; optional for all other sections beyond the limits of the Sample Panel

Functional System   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NHS Int OFE OPA MiA MaC MiC Local
Rural SP SP SP SP SP SP    
Urban SP SP SP SP SP SP SP  
FE = Full Extent  SP = Sample Panel Sections

 

Coding Requirements for Fields 8, 9, and 10:

Value_Numeric: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Text: No entry required. Available for State Use.

Value_Date: Enter the 4-digit year (in format YYYY) when the roadway was last constructed or reconstructed.

Guidance:

Reporting should be consistent with IRI inventory direction and lane.

Reconstruction is the replacement of the existing pavement structure with an equivalent or increased structure. Although recycled materials may be used in the new pavement structure, reconstruction usually requires the complete removal and replacement of at least the old pavement surface, and often also the base.

If a new pavement surface were placed without first removing the old pavement surface, the resulting pavement should be considered an overlay (surface improvement, not construction), even if the existing pavement was rubblized prior to placing the new pavement surface.

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