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HIS 2011
HPMS/Traffic Joint Session

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Traffic Data QA/QC
  VM-2, VM-4 and GIS Checks
  by
  Patrick Zhang and Steven Jessberger

 

Office of Highway Information Policy

 

 

What the VM-2 Data is

VM-2 data is a summary Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT) by roadway functional class data used in FHWA's Highway Statistics

For a given State, VMT data can also be grouped by roadway functional class; So VM2 data is VMT data by roadway functional classification

 

Overall Methodology

  • VM-2 data review focus on looking for dramatic changes from previous year and trends of past 7 years.
  • % of change from previous year is calculated and assigned a color of alert.
  • 7 years trends are plotted to further investigate the warning alert and this is done manually.

 

Alert Colors

  • 4 level of alert colors: red, orange, yellow and green. They are coded in the cells formats (conditioning format).
  • Those 4 colors represent serious warning, warning, caution and reasonable.
  • Criteria for VM-2 data is the same for all road types (Total VMTs are more strict).
  • Criteria for VM-4 data (Vehicle Summary Data) is different among 6 vehicle types.

 

VM-2 Data

  • VM-2 contains VMT data by 12 road classes (6 road types for Rural, and 6 road types for urban).
  • VMT data should be fairly stable from year to year at the national level as well as state level.
  • VM-2 review criteria is created based on past behavior of this type of data.

 

Data drop in

FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM TRAVEL – 2010 1/
ANNUAL VEHICLE – MILES

Nov-11
(MILLIONS)
RURAL URBAN TOTAL download
date
Ralph's
List
 
STATE INTERSTATE OTHER
PRINCIPAL
ARTERIAL
MINOR ARTERIAL MAJOR COLLECTOR MINOR
COLLECTOR
LOCAL TOTAL INTERSTATE OTHER
FREEWAY
EXPRESSWAY
OTHER
PRINCIPAL
ARTERIAL
MINOR
ARTERIAL
MAJOR
COLLECTOR
LOCAL TOTAL
Alabama 2/ 5745 6513 4800 4982 1686 6851 30576 7552 591 7451 6192 3273 8526 33586 64162 10/3/2011   10/14/2011
Alaska 860 308 121 456 151 420 2316 663 0 484 835 343 292 2617 4933      
Arizona 3/ 7133 3269 1687 2963 479 1718 17249 6065 7268 12133 7608 3076 6066 42216 59465 9/28/2011    
Arkansas 4328 4595 2968 4190 718 1991 18792 4093 965 3622 3185 1360 2426 15651 34442 9/28/2011    
California 17565 15958 9493 9558 2635 2851 58060 68207 53407 58436 48607 18465 17666 264789 322849 9/28/2011    
Colorado 4149.261 4030.5 2497.415 1834.814 735.84 1472.045 14719.87 7488.893 4514.215 9047.155 5257.413 2690.156 3222.22 32220.05 46939.927 9/28/2011    
Connecticut 711 803 500 938 156 794 3902 9633 3887 3646 5091 2607 2528 27393 31294 9/28/2011    
Delaware 0 1356 323 592 106 402 2779 1191 440 1830 958 733 1017 6169 8948 10/3/2011    
Dist. of Columbia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 971 496 997 740 292 734 4230 4230     10/14/2011
Florida 9459.399 9919.999 4112.415 3711.857 1807.48 6391.515 35402.66 25371.13 11666.67 38744 27906.86 20200.25 36463.14 160352 195754.71 9/28/2011    
Georgia 10007 6282 6281 5848 1530 6821 36770 19088 2931 12655 15436 4811 20032 74953 111722 10/3/2011    
Hawaii 109 507 646 275 37 851 2424 1746 521 1867 702 928 1807 7571 9995 9/28/2011    
Idaho 2204 2201 930 1431 243 2222 9232 1271 0 2230 1531 667 871 6570 15801 9/28/2011    
Illinois 9066 3868 4665 5026 426 3777 26827 23053 1213 21027 15748 8279 9641 78961 105788 9/28/2011    
Indiana 4/ 6997 4615 3497 6214 1916 4907 28146 9223 1324 10051 7355 4108 12933 44995 73140 10/3/2011   10/14/2011
Iowa 4858 5681 2552 3482 877 1570 19019 2592 0 3630 3271 963 3193 13649 32668 10/6/2011    
Kansas 3192 4454 2266 2725 254 1677 14568 3641 1765 3566 2778 1177 2404 15331 29900 9/28/2011    
Kentucky 6875 7403 2775 4677 2538 3473 27742 6178 800 6103 3165 1578 2213 20037 47779 9/28/2011    
Louisiana 5404 2543 2846 4088 1467 2705 19052 7569 572 7709 6196 2807 1571 26423 45475 10/3/2011    
Maine 2249 1883 1800 2277 852 1424 10486 838 143 746 947 962 318754 322390 332876     10/14/2011
Maryland 3555 3477 2369 1990 1237 1659 14287 13485 5732 10025 6200 3385 3011 41839 56126 9/28/2011    
Massachusetts 1373 706 559 653 155 691 4139 15092 5573 10817 8645 2666 7430 50223 54362 9/28/2011    
Michigan 5792 7390 7239 8152 948 2402 31923 15435 5271 17313 15519 5363 6744 65645 97567 9/28/2011    
Minnesota 4108 7324 4947 4263 1343 2601 24586 8260 3597 4557 8569 2647 4415 32045 56632 9/28/2011    
Mississippi 3835 5462 3514 4267 6 452 17535 3382 515 5202 2313 1656 3329 16397 33932 10/3/2011    
Missouri 6329 8485 3594 5279 685 6185 30556 11642 5183 4703 1793 516 8843 32680 63237 10/3/2011   10/14/2011
Montana 2393 2305 1182 1076 386 1058 8401 355 0 970 527 262 674 2789 11190 10/3/2011   10/14/2011
Nebraska 2624 3312 2298 1547 241 1091 11112 1376 843 2326 2115 574 1096 8331 19443 9/28/2011    
Nevada 1959 1486 512 458 155 522 5092 3407 1759 2575 3934 1104 2583 15362 20454      
New Hampshire 1297 1396 978 1090 579 402 ++ 1597 963 1284 1842 905 733 7324 13065 9/28/2011    
New Jersey 1583 1924 771 1206 299 642 6423 13513 11825 16170 11083 4904 9108 66604 73028 9/28/2011    
New Mexico 4406 3235 1482 1331 520 1942 12917 2643 21 4074 1623 1066 1474 10901 23818 9/28/2011    
New York 6135 3839 4784 4155 9399 4614 32926 20317 16859 18827 19652 7961 14711 98326 131252 9/28/2011    
North Carolina 5/ 5996 7566 5183 8722 3455 10602 41524 14907 5355 12611 11878 5415 14251 64418 105942 9/28/2011    
North Dakota 1527 1977 691 875 0 889 5959 422 0 680 571 244 386 2303 8263 9/28/2011    
Ohio 9137 6596 4344 8396 1954 5732 36158 22652 5589 12847 13203 8523 12864 75678 111836 9/28/2011    
Oklahoma 5143 5074 2967 5669 181 2738 21773 4885 2822 5776 5596 1292 5603 25973 47746 9/28/2011    
Oregon 0 51 532 1664 536 1483 4266 0 39 1639 3376 2248 2211 9513 13779 9/28/2011    
Pennsylvania 6/ 10372 6073 6984 4492 2095 72422 102439 13154 6291 16690 12838 7990 29930 86893 189331 9/28/2011   10/14/2011
Rhode Island 407 133 124 26 36 23 749 0 0 2148 88 40 567 2842 3591 9/28/2011   10/14/2011
South Carolina 7596 3519 4982 4970 292 2332 23691 6144 919 7304 5590 3497 2094 25548 49239 9/28/2011    

 

Criteria for VMT warning alerts

Compare with previous year
<=5% >5%,<=10% >10%,<=20% >20%

 

  Compare with previous year  
FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM TRAVEL – 2009 1/   <=5% >5%,<=10% >10%,<=20% >20%  
ANNUAL VEHICLE – MILES  
JANUARY 2011 (MILLIONS) TABLE VM
RURAL URBAN TOTAL
STATE INTERSTATE OTHER
PRINCIPAL
ARTERIAL
MINOR ARTERIAL MAJOR COLLECTOR MINOR
COLLECTOR
LOCAL TOTAL INTERSTATE OTHER
FREEWAY
EXPRESSWAY
OTHER
PRINCIPAL
ARTERIAL
MINOR
ARTERIAL
MAJOR
COLLECTOR
LOCAL TOTAL
Alabama 2/ 6.75% 3.86% 5.45% 25.05% 1.79% 1.91% 7.03% 4.91% 18.30% 12.83% 55.50% 78.67% 15.58% 22.16% 14.45%
Alaska -0.12% 0.71% -5.50% -22.81% -0.65% -0.23% -4.81% 0.02%   1.49% -4.40% 1.99% -0.25% -0.89% -2.73%
Arizona 3/ 0.55% 21.31% -23.89% 7.64% -9.46% -40.96% -5.24% 0.26% -0.37% 0.82% -3.29% -0.03% -6.95% -1.42% -2.55%
Arkansas 2.97% 1.95% 1.83% -1.80% -4.42% -2.13% 0.60% 2.69% -0.91% 3.04% 1.99% -6.74% 0.22% 1.19% 0.86%
California 0.14% -2.24% 5.69% -2.75% -0.76% -0.78% -0.25% 0.02% -1.69% -0.93% -0.39% -0.11% 0.94% -0.56% -0.50%
Colorado -3.21% 3.57% -0.06% 7.68% 1.10% 1.13% 1.06% 3.15% 4.66% 1.58% -1.63% -1.07% 1.74% 1.61% 1.44%
Connecticut -0.95% -1.01% 2.64% -8.46% 1.20% 2.30% -1.74% 0.74% 0.16% -2.09% -1.91% 2.81% -1.10% -0.21% -0.40%
Delaware   1.99% 19.81% -3.66% -1.99% -4.40% 1.34% -3.14% -0.69% 1.61% -1.07% -3.06% -10.80% -2.67% -1.46%
Dist. of Columbia               125.40% 40.42% -5.34% 0.00% -1.57% -0.05% 17.24% 17.24%
Florida -0.48% -0.95% -1.86% 0.52% 0.98% -0.42% -0.59% 4.54% -4.99% -0.20% -2.45% -1.08% 5.23% 0.82% 0.56%
Georgia 3.48% 3.55% -3.84% -1.71% -12.70% -21.67% -4.94% -0.60% 0.50% 1.85% -0.28% -1.33% 27.78% 6.20% 2.26%
Hawaii -3.71% -3.48% 3.55% -3.63% 7.35% 1.05% 0.03% -2.21% 1.61% -0.54% 1.27% 0.53% 2.77% 0.28% 0.22%
Idaho 0.50% 1.03% -12.99% -0.72% 0.19% -4.96% -2.44% -1.54%   7.05% 17.68% 46.26% -7.09% 8.27% 1.74%
Illinois 2.51% 1.22% 0.27% -7.79% 1.99% -3.05% -0.94% 1.69% 1.46% -0.06% 1.20% -3.44% -0.86% 0.25% -0.05%
Indiana 4/ -0.24% -0.84% 4.88% -7.69% 0.01% -0.36% -1.50% -5.03% 1.52% -5.41% -4.15% -32.50% 2.22% -6.37% -4.55%
Iowa 3.82% 1.13% -2.54% 2.19% 1% 1% 1% 2%   1% 0% -6% 68% 11% 5%
Kansas 0.80% 1.45% 0.85% 0.34% 0.14% -0.20% 0.79% 0.78% -0.55% -0.90% -5.08% -0.56% 23.36% 1.90% 1.36%
Kentucky 4.29% 5.67% -3.20% -5.11% 5.41% -0.56% 1.63% 3.82% 0.95% 7.48% -10.96% 2.05% -4.03% 1.03% 1.38%
Louisiana -0.23% 1.61% -4.86% -5.51% -1.17% 2.52% -1.58% 5.31% 2.18% 2.49% 2.86% -0.12% 12.05% 3.60% 1.37%
Maine 3.61% -0.35% 3.12% -3.13% -0.36% -0.43% 0.42% 4.11% -8.34% 0.53% -0.27% -0.94% 0.57% 0.36% 0.40%
Maryland 0.44% 0.39% 7.31% -0.21% -0.67% 1.09% 1.39% 0.44% 3.19% 1.22% 2.84% 2.33% 1.08% 1.55% 1.51%
Massachusetts -0.01% -10.12% -5.01% -5.33% 0.32% 0.04% -3.39% -0.04% -2.00% 0.02% -0.38% -6.62% 0.47% -0.60% -0.82%
Michigan 9.78% 9.32% 2.92% -9.84% -0.91% 1.12% 1.52% 0.30% -3.41% 2.49% -1.87% 9.68% -2.01% 0.49% 0.83%
Minnesota -1.37% 0.52% 0.33% -0.07% -0.24% 0.68% 0.03% -1.80% 0.12% 0.07% -1.41% 1.57% -0.54% -0.77% -0.42%
Mississippi -0.09% -0.15% -3.27% 0.09% 1134.90% -93.03% -3.00% -0.13% 5.36% 1.17% -1.79% 1.02% 2.52% 0.85% -1.45%
Missouri 6.35% 3.40% -0.04% 4.98% 1.35% 11.30% 5.32% -3.99% 7.97% -33.46% -65.78% -81.63% 11.29% -18.28% -8.36%
Montana -1.39% 1.96% 3.97% -6.57% 3.25% 7.61% 0.80% -1.30%   -0.05% 0.62% 7.72% 16.43% 4.18% 1.62%
Nebraska 1.91% 5.04% -5.16% 0.62% -0.04% 2.02% 1.04% 0.90% 67.69% -13.47% -1.20% -1.33% 1.18% -0.36% 0.43%
Nevada -4.52% 6.34% -10.07% -11.30% -99.76% -0.08% -4.96% 2.16% -5.29% 14.04% 14.00% 86.17% -35.86% 5.97% 3.25%
New Hampshire 2.91% -0.35% 1.45% -1.09% 0.63% 0.73% 0.71% 1.79% 2.43% 1.49% -0.67% -1.41% 0.70% 0.68% 0.69%
New Jersey -0.37% 5.77% -3.07% 3.74% -0.14% 11.79% 2.97% 0.05% 1.68% -0.44% -0.36% -2.39% -1.70% -0.28% 0.00%
New Mexico 0.52% 2.56% -6.30% 13.13% -12.82% -49.81% -12.51% -1.44% 1.23% -2.47% 6.48% -13.28% -8.85% -3.10% -8.44%
New York 0.77% 0.85% -0.33% -1.38% -0.27% -0.37% -0.11% -0.60% -0.14% -1.28% -4.88% -9.71% 0.36% -2.19% -1.68%
North Carolina 5/ -2.23% -0.52% -2.31% -1.36% -0.13% 35.11% 5.95% 2.25% -6.88% 0.27% -1.09% -1.97% -2.56% -1.00% 1.61%
North Dakota 4.24% 10.62% -5.16% -16.11%   0.65% 0.89% 6.79%   0.44% 3.65% 3.44% -0.47% 2.50% 1.33%
Ohio 1.63% 3.89% 0.38% -5.64% -1.51% -1.50% -0.58% 2.17% 3.23% 1.91% -1.07% 10.23% -1.09% 1.89% 1.08%
Oklahoma 1.08% 2.42% 3.10% 1.26% 0.81% -0.28% 1.53% 2.59% 2.96% 2.58% 0.94% 1.12% 0.08% 1.65% 1.59%
Oregon 0.10% 0.30% -1.19% -9.36% 0.56% 2.95% -1.14% 1.44% -1.61% -2.48% 1.39% -1.88% 2.15% -0.14% -0.58%
Pennsylvania 6/ -0.01% -3.41% -0.78% -1.32% -3.26% 886.40% 171.30% -6.07% 0.72% -2.30% -1.25% -1.17% 288.50% 31.41% 82.26%
Rhode Island 0.67% 3.84% -7.31% -82.29% 0.37% -1.61% -14.23% -100.00% -100.00% -0.29% -92.55% -94.85% 95.46% -61.47% -56.47%
South Carolina 2.49% 0.81% -0.35% -13.46% -1.02% 0.47% -2.35% 2.59% -3.07% 0.14% 6.57% 1.79% 0.88% 2.27% -0.01%
South Dakota 1.66% 1.51% 1.35% -62.17% 3.52% -19.99% -9.79% 1.80% -0.98% -29.19% -75.06% -69.03% -24.35% -45.69% -21.95%
Tennessee -0.88% 2.08% -0.76% 8.65% -0.10% 1.46% 1.06% -0.75% -0.24% 0.23% 0.98% -0.35% -1.35% -0.20% 0.30%
Texas 4.11% 2.14% 2.52% 2.42% -2.10% -2.99% 2.10% 1.18% 3.32% -0.03% 0.38% 4.15% -1.13% 1.34% 1.56%
Utah -0.03% -1.66% 3.64% -7.61% 23.39% 7.29% 0.72% 1.87% -4.94% 1.23% 3.02% -2.15% 1.39% 1.44% 1.22%
Vermont 5.26% -0.80% -11.47% -23.99% 0.46% -1.69% -7.74% 3.83% -10.85% 0.71% -10.17% -14.59% 10.38% -1.47% -6.21%
Virginia 3.46% 4.05% -2.56% -8.35% -3.01% -0.55% -0.22% -0.33% -10.23% 12.69% 1.52% 2.66% -1.19% 2.55% 1.53%
Washington 2.04% 1.02% 9.66% 1.70% 5.85% 2.94% 2.93% 0.85% 0.69% 2.38% 1.85% -6.71% 0.58% 0.71% 1.37%
West Virginia -2.78% 0.89% 5.85% -9.29% -1.80% 1.25% -2.15% -1.29% -12.04% 0.36% -3.74% -1.54% -5.04% -1.93% -2.06%
Wisconsin 0.40% -1.25% -0.20% 53.22% -7.42% 71.59% 14.95% -1.34% 8.84% -11.77% -26.56% -8.78% -16.99% -10.54% 1.56%
Wyoming 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
U.S. Total 1.50% 1.75% -0.04% -0.89% 9.07% 43.46% 7.09% 0.27% -0.34% -0.21% -1.88% -1.70% 11.33% 1.00% 3.02%

 

Additional Reviews

  • Warning colors in the excel are generated automatically.
  • Comparing to the previous year warning alert is good only if the previous year has perfect data.
  • The 2010 data is compared to the data from 2004 to 2010 by graphics to further check the stability of the data (manual).
  • Charts are grouped by state for individual state review.
  • Charts are grouped by the 2009 values for easier comparisons.
  • State VM-1 tables for 2009 and 2010 are also created for review.
  • Total state VMT is also review with more strict criteria.

 

Grouped by State

In order to review the changes, historical trends are further grouped sorting the Values of 2009.

 

Sorted by Value

The total VMT for each state is also calculated for the historical trend.

 

Summary Sheet

 

Issues identified

  1. Dramatic changes: the most common issue is dramatic changes.
  2. Identical data: 2010 is the same data as 2009.
  3. Manual reviews could upgrade or downgrade the warning alert levels and that leads to a final recommendation.

 

VM-4 data review

  • VM-4 data contains HPMS Vehicle Summary Data
  • 6 Vehicle types:
    • FHWA Class 1 – motorcycles
    • FHWA Class 2 – passenger vehicles
    • FHWA Class 3 – light duty trucks
    • FHWA Class 4 – buses
    • FHWA Classes 5-7 – single unit vehicles
    • FHWA Classes 8-13 – combination vehicles
  • 6 Road types: Rural Interstate, other arterial (rural), and other rural, urban interstate, other arterial (urban), other urban.
  • Average of Light Duty Trucks is approximately 65%
  • Bus and Motorcycle is accounted .7% and .6% of all vehicles.
  • Bus and Motorcycle tend to be more unstable from year to year

 

VM-4 Warning Alerts

Alert Levels Green Yellow Orange Red
Motorcycle <=50% >50%and<=100% >100%and<=200% >200%
Passenger Vehicles <=5% >5%and>=10% >10%and<=15% >15%
Light Duty Trucks <=10% >10%and<=20% >10%and<=20% >30%
Bus >=50% >50%and<=100% >100%and<=200% >200%
Single Unit Truck >=20% >20%and<=40% >40%and<=60% >60%
Combination Truck <=20% >20%and<=40% >40%and<=60% >60%

 

VM-4 Review Procedures

  • Vehicle Summary data have different behaviors for different vehicles.
  • High % alert does not always lead a serious warning (true for motorcycle and bus). VM-4 review relies more on a manual visual review.
  • Occasionally low level alerts are upgraded to higher level of alerts based on visual examination, most of them are downgrading
  • The final recommendations are based on manual reviews

 

VM-4 Example – dramatic change

VM-4 Example - Dramatic Change

 

More example w/ dramatic change

More example with dramatic change

 

Identical data

Identical Data

 

Summary

  • Combination of comparison to the previous year and trend analysis appears to be an effective method to identify potential data issue.
  • More detailed reviews such as neighboring state comparisons and state VM-1 tables will be used in the future.

 

Traffic Engineering Checks

  • SU AADT vs. % Peak SU
  • CU AADT vs. % Peak CU
  • Adjacent Section Checks
    • AADT – large changes over 50%
    • Samples with K values with difference of 5
    • Samples with D values with 10% difference

 

GIS Adjacent AADT Example (good)

GIS Adjacent AADT Example (good)

 

GIS Adjacent AADT Example (questioned)

GIS Adjacent AADT Example (questioned)

 

D Factor Example (good)

D Factor Example (good)

 

Adjacent D Factor Example (questioned)

Adjacent D Factor Example (questioned)

 

K Factor Example (good)

K Factor Example (good)

 

Adjacent K Factor Example (questioned)

Adjacent K Factor Example (questioned)

 

Future AADT (20 years) > AADT

Future AADT (20 years) > AADT

 

SU AADT + CU AADT (ugly)

SU AADT + CU AADT (ugly)

 

What is happening next with 2012

  • Built in QC checks
  • State to State roadway checks
  • Ramps data QC
  • TMAS growth factor and classification system check with the HPMS submittals
  • Automated Processes
  • QC Reports
  • Feedback on submittals completed quicker

 

Questions

Steven Jessberger

202-366-5052
steven.jessberger@dot.gov
Note of thanks to Tom Roff and Brad Gudzinas for
their help with working thru this QC process