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A Summary of Vehicle Detection and Surveillance Technologies use in Intelligent Transportation Systems

A Summary of Vehicle Detection and Surveillance Technologies used in Intelligent Transportation Systems

Funded by the Federal Highway Administration's Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Office

Produced by

The Vehicle Detector Clearinghouse

A multi-state, pooled-fund project managed by the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI) at New Mexico State University (NMSU), and sponsored in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration

August 31, 2007

Summary of Vehicle Detection and Surveillance Technologies Used In Intelligent Transportation Systems

SUBMITTED TO:

Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Office

PREPARED BY:

Luz Elena Y. Mimbela

Project Manager

The Vehicle Detector Clearinghouse

New Mexico State University

P.O. Box 30001 Las Cruces , NM 88003-8001

and

Lawrence A. Klein , Ph.D., P.E.

Klein & Associates

3 Via San Remo

Rancho Palos Verdes , CA 90275

With Assistance From:

Perry Kent , VDC Project Consultant

John L. Hamrick , VDC Project Consultant

Karen M. Luces , NMSU

Sylvia Herrera , NMSU

August 31, 2007

(Latest version of this handbook can be found at http://www.nmsu.edu/~traffic/)

Disclaimer Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use.

The contents of this summary document reflect the views of the contractor and subcontractors, who are responsible for the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official policy of the Department of Transportation.

This document does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The United States Government and the Vehicle Detector Clearinghouse do not endorse products or manufacturers. Vendor and manufacturer's names appear herein only because they are considered essential to the purpose of this document.

Table of contents

List of Figures

  • Figure 1. Combination technology sensors
  • Figure 2. Road tube configurations for single and multilane highways
  • Figure 3. Front panel display of JAMAR TRAX-III counter
  • Figure 4. Principal components of an inductive loop detector installation
  • Figure 5. Magnetic anomaly in the Earth's magnetic field induced by magnetic dipoles in a ferrous metal vehicle
  • Figure 6. Distortion of Earth's magnetic field created as a vehicle enters and passes through the detection zone of a magnetic sensor
  • Figure 7. Two- and three-axis fluxgate magnetometer sensors
  • Figure 8. Induction magnetometer sensors
  • Figure 9. Vibracoax piezoelectric sensor mounted in aluminum channel as installed in a roadbed
  • Figure 10. Roadtrax piezoelectric BLC sensor mounted in aluminum channel as installed in a roadbed
  • Figure 11. Bending plate sensor
  • Figure 12. Bending plate or load cell WIM system (typical)
  • Figure 13. WIM installation with full-length piezoelectric sensors
  • Figure 14. LINEAS quartz sensor
  • Figure 15. Capacitance mat sensor connected to data analysis equipment
  • Figure 16. Video image processors (also referred to as machine vision processors)
  • Figure 17. Video image processors (continued)
  • Figure 18. Conceptual image processing for vehicle detection, classification, and tracking
  • Figure 19. Vehicle count comparison from four VIPs and inductive loop detectors
  • Figure 20. Vehicle speed vs. lighting VIP test results
  • Figure 21. Vehicle count vs. lighting VIP test results
  • Figure 22. Vehicle count vs. speed VIP test results
  • Figure 23. Microwave radar operation
  • Figure 24. Speed measurement with an FMCW microwave presence-detecting radar
  • Figure 25. Side-mounted configuration of an FMCW microwave presence-detecting radar illustrating multilane vehicle detection
  • Figure 26. Constant frequency waveform
  • Figure 27. Doppler microwave radar sensors
  • Figure 28. Presence-detecting microwave radar sensors
  • Figure 29. Laser radar beam geometry
  • Figure 30. Laser radar sensors
  • Figure 31. Passive infrared sensors
  • Figure 32. Emission and reflection of energy by vehicle and road surface
  • Figure 33. Multiple detection zone configuration in a passive infrared sensor
  • Figure 34. Ultrasonic sensor
  • Figure 35. Mounting of ultrasonic range-measuring sensors
  • Figure 36. Acoustic array sensors

List of Tables

  • Table 1. Strengths and weaknesses of commercially available sensor technologies
  • Table 2. Traffic output data (typical), communications bandwidth, and cost of commercially available sensors
  • Table 3. Recommended tests for determining bonding ability of agents used with piezoelectric sensors
  • Table 4. WIM System Categories, Applications, and Data Items
  • Table 5. ASTM performance requirements for WIM systems. 4- 20
  • Table 6. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) performance requirements for WIM systems. 4- 20
  • Table 7. Inherent variance component of system accuracy (1 standard deviation confidence interval) 4- 21
  • Table 8. Accuracy specifications for bending plate and load cell WIM scales (1 standard deviation confidence interval). 4- 22
  • Table 9. Budgetary initial capital costs of WIM systems.. 4- 30
  • Table 10. Life-cycle maintenance costs of WIM systems.. 4- 31
  • Table 11. Video image processor characteristics in upstream and downstream viewing. 5- 8
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