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Indiana Department of Transportation SEP 14 Report Alternate Pavement Type

Appendix D US 31 (IR-30889)

Eight (8) Contractors participated in the bidding (7 PCCP options and 2 HMA options were bid) and all bids were below the engineer's estimate. One (1) Contractor participated in both pavement types pay options. In this contract, there were four pay item options as follows:

  1. PCCP option on US 31 mainline, shoulders and ramps.
  2. HMA option on US 31 mainline, shoulders and ramps.
  3. PCCP option on US 35/SR 22/Markland Avenue.
  4. HMA option on US 35/SR 22/Markland Avenue.

The Contractor could bid on the following combinations:

  1. Section 1 & 3
  2. Section 1 & 4
  3. Section 2 & 3
  4. Section 2 & 4

All bids were either a and/or d.

INDOT provided the following pavement design thickness for this project:

  1. US 31 mainline and shoulders
    1. 10 inches of PCCP with Composite HMA shoulder (4.5 inches HMA on 6 inches of Compacted Aggregate) or
    2. 14 inches of HMA with Composite HMA shoulder (6 inches HMA on 8 inches of Compacted Aggregate)
  2. US 35/SR 22 ramps
    1. 8 inches of PCCP or
    2. 12.5 inches of HMA
  3. US 35/SR 22/Markland Avenue
    1. 9 inches of PCCP or
    2. 13.5 inches of HMA

Bid Analysis Summary

PCCP Pay item Options (US 31)
Bidders Initial Bid PW Cost for PCCP Bid Analysis
A $31,505,064.88 + $1,271,495.00 = $32,776,559.88
B $31,551,160.94 + $1,271,495.00 = $32,822,655.94
C $31,701,584.64 + $1,271,495.00 = $32,973,079.64
D $32,811,312.88 + $1,271,495.00 = $34,082,807.88
F $33,528,027.23 + $1,271,495.00 = $34,799,522.23
G $34,923,621.84 + $1,271,495.00 = $36,195,116.84
H $35,988,069.42 + $1,271,495.00 = $37,259,564.42
HMA Pay item Options (US 31)
Bidders Initial Bid PW Cost for HMA Bid Analysis
E $32,639,521.93 + $2,060,540.00 = $34,700,061.93
F $33,868,397.42 + $2,060,540.00 = $35,928,937.42
PCCP Pay item Options (US 35/SR 22/Markland Ave.)
Bidders Initial Bid PW Cost for PCCP Bid Analysis
B $7,387,466.06 + $515,677.00 = $7,903,143.06
C $7,452,787.84 + $515,677.00 = $7,968,464.84
A $7,804,387.66 + $515,677.00 = $8,320,064.66
H $7,906,937.29 + $515,677.00 = $8,422,614.29
G $7,969,370.16 + $515,677.00 = $8,485,047.16
F $8,152,610.83 + $515,677.00 = $8,668,287.83
D $8,167,795.12 + $515,677.00 = $8,683,472.12
HMA Pay item Options (US 35/SR 22/Markland Ave.)
Bidders Initial Bid PW Cost for HMA Bid Analysis
F $8,005,183.04 + $797,518.00 = $8,802,701.04
E $8,320,017.25 + $797,518.00 = $9,117,535.25
PCCP Pay item Options (Whole Contract)
Bidders US 31 US 35/SR 22 Bid Analysis
B $32,822,655.94 + $7,903,143.06 = $40,725.799.00
C $32,973,079.64 + $7,968,464.84 = $40,941,544.48
A $32,776,559.88 + $8,320,064.66 = $41,096,624.54
D $34,082,807.88 + $8,683,472.12 = $42,766,280.00
G $36,195,116.84 + $8,485,047.16 = $44,680,164.00
H $37,259,564.42 + $8,422,614.29 = $45,682,178.71
F $34,799,522.23 + $8,668,287.83 = $43,467,810.06
HMA Pay item Options (Whole Contract)
Bidders US 31 US 35/SR 22 Bid Analysis
E $34,700,061.93 + $9,117,535.25 = $43,817,597.18
F $35,928,937.42 + $8,802,701.04 = $44,731,638.46

The low bid amount for this contract was decided after adding respective combinations of US 31 and US 35/SR 22 pay items options. The low bid amount, out of all 8 bids, was for PCCP pay items option (Bidder B) and after adding PW cost of PCCP and HMA of US 31 and US 35/SR 22 to the respective combinations of pavement type options, PCCP option was also the low bid (Bidder B). PCCP pay items option was awarded for this contract.

INDOT compared the estimated cost with actual low bid costs of both pavement types. The following table shows the cost comparison with low bid of those pavement items that were relative to the mainline pavements and relative to this alternate bid for pavement type. All other items in the bids were common to both types of pavement. Shoulders and other "S" Lines are to be HMA.

Cost Comparison of Unique Items
Bid Item Bid Quantities Estimat ed Cost of Item Per Unit Low Bid Cost of Item Per Unit Range of Bid Costs of Item Per Unit Average Bid Cost of Item Per Unit HMA or PCCP Option
QC/QA PCCP, 10 IN. 91,709 yd2 $28.51 $23.47 $23.11 - $29.88 $25.03 PCCP
QC/QA PCCP, 9 IN. 55,145 yd2 $27.34 $25.10 $23.25 - $30.00 $26.12 PCCP
QC/QA PCCP, 8 IN. 25,511 yd2 $26.29 $20.40 $20.40 - $29.00 $23.93 PCCP
Subbase for PCCP 50,518 yd3 $30.63 $21.39 $21.00 - $35.00 $27.03 PCCP
D-1 Contraction Joint 91,499 ft $8.65 $8.08 $6.70 - $10.70 $8.12 PCCP
QC/QA-HMA, 4, 70, Surface 8,696 TON $70.51 $82.91 $67.50 - $82.91* $75.20 HMA
QC/QA-HMA, 3, 70, Surface 6,506 TON $67.54 $63.82 $63.82 - $70.00 $66.33 HMA
QC/QA-HMA, 4, 70, Intermediate 14,586 TON $49.40 $73.45 $48.50 - $73.45* $60.97 HMA
QC/QA-HMA, 3, 70, Intermediate 10,834 TON $53.10 $48.84 $48.84 - $62.45 $53.32 HMA
QC/QA-HMA, 4, 64, Base 41,319 TON $48.10 $71.45 $43.00 - $71.45* $57.22 HMA
QC/QA-HMA, 3, 64, Base 29,061 TON $47.90 $37.28 $37.28 - $49.00 $43.65 HMA
QC/QA-HMA, 5, 76, Intermediate, OG 28,709 TON $54.00 $56.48 $43.00 - $56.48* $50.02 HMA

* Bidder E was significantly and consistently higher on almost all HMA items.

The above table shows that pavement item bids are lower than the estimates used in the evaluation. This indicates that a true cost saving was realized by INDOT in this process.

The table below compares some common HMA items found in both PCCP and HMA options to check for unbalanced bids. These bids appear to be consistent and no anomalies were found.

Cost Comparison of Some Common Items Used in Both PCCP and HMA
Bid Item Bid Quantitie s Low Bid Cost of Item Per Unit Range of Bid Costs of Item Per Unit Average Bid Cost of Item Per Unit HMA or PCCP Bid
HMA Surface, Type A 75 TON $85.00 $70.00 - $85.00 $82.85 PCCP
HMA Surface, Type A 75 TON $84.41 $84.41 - $85.00 $84.70 HMA
HMA Surface, Type C 565 TON $84.00 $82.00 - $84.00 $83.71 PCCP
HMA Surface, Type C 565 TON $79.76 $79.76- $84.00 $81.88 HMA
HMA Intermediate, Type A 124 TON $65.00 $64.00 - $65.00 $64.85 PCCP
HMA Intermediate, Type A 124 TON $61.30 $61.30 - $65.00 $63.15 HMA
HMA Intermediate, Type C 503 TON $65.00 $65.00 - $66.00 $65.14 PCCP
HMA Intermediate, Type C 503 TON $51.96 $51.00 - $65.00 $58.48 HMA
HMA Base, Type C 265 TON $50.00 $50.00 - $73.00 $53.28 PCCP
HMA Base, Type C 265 TON $51.55 $50.00 - $51.55 $50.77 HMA

Conclusion

INDOT saved the tax payers approximately $1,951,912.18 immediately, at the bid opening, (HMA Low Bid - PCCP Low Bid). Using the Bid Analysis amounts (after PW costs applied); INDOT saved the tax payers approximately $3,022,798.18 over the 50 year service life of the pavement. These savings include the reduction of INDOT's consultant cost of $69,000.00 for producing two sets of typical plan sheets and quantities. The inhouse costs for INDOT were determined negligible.

The PW cost for future maintenance did not impact the bid and which contractor received the contract. INDOT believes using this process of alternate bids for pavement type selection on this project was very successful.

PW of Future Maintenance of the Pavement IR-30889 (US 31)

PW of PCCP Option (US 31 & Ramps, Section 1) = $1,271,495.00

PW of HMA Option (US 31 & Ramps, Section 2) = $2,060,540.00

PW of PCCP Option (US 35, Section 3) = $515,677.00

PW of HMA Option (US 35, Section 4) = $797,518.00

HMA PW for Future Rehab. Work (US 31 & Ramps)
Age in Years Rehab. Cost $ Present Worth Cost $
3 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $102,288.81
6 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $90,934.38
9 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $80,840.33
12 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $71,866.76
15 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $63,889.29
18 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $56,797.35
20 Mill and Functional Overlay 2,331,065.00 $1,063,867.64
23 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $46,683.28
26 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $41,501.26
29 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $36,894.47
32 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $32,799.05
35 Mill and Resurface 1,122,717.00 $284,513.86
38 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $25,921.57
41 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $23,044.18
44 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $20,486.19
47 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $18,212.15
Total HMA PW Cost $2,060,540.56
PCCP PW for Future Rehab. Work (US 31 & Ramps)
Age in Years Rehab. Cost $ Present Worth Cost $
8 Reseal the Joint 123,171.00 $89,999.84
16 Reseal the Joint 123,171.00 $65,762.00
24 Reseal the Joint 123,171.00 $48,051.65
30 Mill and Functional Overlay 2,350,638.00 $724,745.58
33 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $31,537.55
36 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $28,036.77
39 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $24,924.58
42 Mill and Resurface 1,148,787.00 $221,227.58
45 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $19,698.26
48 Joint Seal 115,061.00 $17,511.68
Total PCCP PW Cost $1,271,495.50

PW = F [1/(1+i)n]

Where: F = Future Construction Cost
i = Discount rate (4%)
n = Number of years from year zero

HMA PW for Future Rehab. Work (US 35)
Age in Years Rehab. Cost $ Present Worth Cost $
3 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $44,256.02
6 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $39,343.44
9 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $34,976.17
12 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $31,093.69
15 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $27,642.18
18 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $24,573.80
20 Mill and Functional Overlay 849,266.00 $387,593.92
23 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $20,197.87
26 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $17,955.83
29 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $15,962.67
32 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $14,190.75
35 Mill and Resurface 401,726.00 $101,803.58
38 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $11,215.16
41 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $9,970.24
44 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $8,863.50
47 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $7,879.62
Total HMA PW Cost $797,518.43
PCCP PW for Future Rehab. Work (US 35)
Age in Years Rehab. Cost $ Present Worth Cost $
8 Reseal the Joint 68,976.00 $50,400.09
16 Reseal the Joint 68,976.00 $36,826.85
24 Reseal the Joint 68,976.00 $26,909.02
30 Mill and Functional Overlay 870,391.00 $268,357.79
33 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $13,644.96
36 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $12,130.32
39 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $10,783.81
42 Mill and Resurface 418,152.00 $80,525.59
45 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $8,522.60
48 Joint Seal 49,782.00 $7,576.56
Total PCCP PW Cost $515,677.58

PW = F [1/(1+i)n]

Where: F = Future Construction Cost
i = Discount rate (4%)
n = Number of years from year zero

Total Cost (US 31 & Ramps)
Total Cost Alternative 1: 10 inches PCCP Alternative 2: 14 inches HMA
Agency Cost ($1000) User Cost ($1000) Agency Cost ($1000) User Cost ($1000)
Undiscounted Sum $4,444.24 $0.00 $5,064.64 $0.00
Present Value $1,271.50 $0.00 $2,060.54 $0.00
EUAC $59.19 $0.00 $95.92 $0.00
Lowest Present Value Agency Cost Alternative 1: 10 inches PCCP
Lowest Present Value User Cost Alternative 1: 10 inches PCCP
Expenditure Stream
Year Alternative 1: 10 inches PCCP Alternative 2: 14 inches HMA
Agency Cost ($1000) User Cost ($1000) Agency Cost ($1000) User Cost ($1000)
0
1
2
3 $115.06
4
5
6 $115.06
7
8 $123.17
9 $115.06
10
11
12 $115.06
13
14
15 $115.06
16 $123.17
17
18 $115.06
19
20 $2,331.06
21
22
23 $115.06
24 $123.17
25
26 $115.06
27
28
29 $115.06
30 $2,350.64
31
32 $115.06
33 $115.06
34
35 $1,122.72
36 $115.06
37
38 $115.06
39 $115.06
40
41 $115.06
42 $1,148.79
43
44 $115.06
45 $115.06
46
47 $115.06
48 $115.06
49
50
Total Cost (US 35)
Total Cost Alternative 1: 9 inches PCCP Alternative 2: 13.5 inches HMA
Agency Cost ($1000) User Cost ($1000) Agency Cost ($1000) User Cost ($1000)
Undiscounted Sum $1,744.38 $0.00 $1,947.94 $0.00
Present Value $515.68 $0.00 $797.52 $0.00
EUAC $24.00 $0.00 $37.12 $0.00
Lowest Present Value Agency Cost Alternative 1: 9 inches PCCP
Lowest Present Value User Cost Alternative 1: 9 inches PCCP
Expenditure Stream
Year Alternative 1: 9 inches PCCP Alternative 2: 13.5 inches HMA
Agency Cost ($1000) User Cost ($1000) Agency Cost ($1000) User Cost ($1000)
0
1
2
3 $49.78
4
5
6 $49.78
7
8 $68.98
9 $49.78
10
11
12 $49.78
13
14
15 $49.78
16 $68.98
17
18 $49.78
19
20 $849.27
21
22
23 $49.78
24 $68.98
25
26 $49.78
27
28
29 $49.78
30 $870.39
31
32 $49.78
33 $49.78
34
35 $401.73
36 $49.78
37
38 $49.78
39 $49.78
40
41 $49.78
42 $418.15
43
44 $49.78
45 $49.78
46
47 $49.78
48 $49.78
49
50

Contact

Jerry Yakowenko
Office of Program Administration
202-366-1562
E-mail Jerry

 
 
Updated: 07/27/2011
 

FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration