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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations
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|Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-2006-003 Vol. 69 No. 5 Date: March/April 2006|
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-2006-003 Vol. 69 No. 5
Date: March/April 2006
Line graph. Outlook for Highway Trust Fund. This line chart depicts the cumulative balance of the Highway Trust Fund (the fund), receipts, and expenditures from 1956 through 1962 expressed in billions of dollars. The y-axis starts at negative $3 billion dollars and ends at positive $4 billion dollars. Fiscal years 1956 through 1962 are on the x-axis.
The fund surplus starts at $0 in 1956 and rises steadily to $1 billion dollars in 1958. At this point the balance begins a steady decline. Three-quarters of the way through 1959 the fund cumulative balance is back to $0 and becomes a deficit that declines to about negative $2.2 billion dollars in 1962 where the chart ends.
The receipts to the fund are indicated by a solid line, which rises steadily from 1956 through 1958 to slightly more than positive $2 billion dollars. The receipts plateau and stay at this amount until 1960 when there is a very small rise in the line that continues as it leaves the chart in 1962 at $2.3 billion dollars.
The expenditures, denoted by a dashed line, rise steadily from $0 in 1956 through 1960 where it levels off for 1 year at positive $3.1 billion dollars then rises again to approximately $3.6 billion dollars where it leaves the chart in 1962. In conclusion, in 1962 the fund deficit is negative $2.2 billion dollars, the receipts are positive $2.3 billion dollars, and the expenditures are positive $3.6 billion dollars.
Photo 6b: Three Small Disparity Chips
This figure shows three small disparity chips representing different body parts of a pedestrian. The left image is shaped like an oval with a rectangle coming down out of the bottom right third of the oval about one-sixth of the way to the left. The image is gray surrounded by black. The middle image is shaped like a small oval connected to a very large oval by a rectangle about one-third the width of the small oval. The large oval is then connected to a small oval approximately twice the size of the upper small oval by a rectangle approximately one-half of its width. The rectangle is approximately one-sixth of the width of the large oval from the left of the large oval and about one-sixth of the width of the small oval from the left side of the small oval. The ovals and rectangles are again colored light gray with a background of black. The third image shows a trapezoid. The left side is approximately vertical, while the right side slopes from left to right. The top is a horizontal line approximately one-half the width of the bottom line. The trapezoid is surrounded on the left by a thin vertical black rectangle and on the right by a black upside down 30-60-90 triangle. The black triangle has its third longest side horizontally on the top and its second longest side vertically on the right. Its hypotenuse goes from upper left to lower right.
Photo 8: 4 Images
These photos show two consecutive images and their respective disparity maps, taken at a sampling time of 200 milliseconds. The upper left and lower left images are digital photographs of a crosswalk. The upper left digital photograph shows a pedestrian crosswalk with four pedestrians. Three pedestrians are walking toward the camera. Two of these are closer to the camera, and their images are almost twice the height of the others. One pedestrian is walking away from the camera. The crosswalk is delineated by white rectangles perpendicular to the long axis of the crosswalk. Most of these rectangles are worn in a variety of blotches so that only about half of each is white. The far curb and sidewalk are visible in the upper part of the image. A black rectangle above the curb and sidewalk appears to be the bottom of storefronts. The lower left digital photograph shows the same pedestrians as in the upper left. The images of the pedestrians approaching the camera are now slightly closer and larger. The pedestrian walking away from the camera is now slightly farther away and smaller.
The upper right and lower right gray-scale images show the outline of the upper portion of four pedestrians from about the knees to the head. The images represent two consecutive sets of data from the stereo camera. The portion of each pedestrian from the knees down blends into the gray of the street surface. The pedestrians are outlined on the right side by a white line representing pixels for which no disparity values are available. The area representing the street surface is a gentle gray going from a mildly light shade of gray to a mildly dark shade of gray. The background, where the far side of the office buildings are, is primarily black or very dark gray with occasional interruptions of white. The right third of the image is a mix of blotchy gray and white areas. In the upper right and lower right digital disparity images, the two pedestrians in the upper right of each image are slightly darker than the two nearer pedestrians in the lower left of the image. This increase in gray-scale intensity represents the increase in disparity values that occurs with greater distance from the stereo cameras.
Photo 9: Two Frames
These two frames show that all four pedestrians have been successfully detected. Each is windowed with a different color coding (red, green, yellow, or blue), indicating that the same pedestrian can be detected in consecutive frames. The digital photograph on the left side shows a pedestrian crosswalk with four pedestrians. Three pedestrians are walking toward the camera. Two of these are closer to the camera, and their images are almost twice the height of the others. One pedestrian is walking away from the camera. The crosswalk is delineated by white rectangles perpendicular to the long axis of the crosswalk. Most of these rectangles are worn in a variety of blotches so that only about half of each is white. The far curb and sidewalk are visible in the upper part of the image. A black rectangle above the curb and sidewalk appears to be the bottom of storefronts. The near pedestrian walking toward the camera is enclosed by a red rectangle. The next nearer pedestrian walking toward the camera is enclosed by a green rectangle. The third nearer pedestrian walking toward the camera is enclosed by a yellow rectangle. The pedestrian walking away from the camera is enclosed by a blue rectangle. The rectangles do not enclose the feet, indicating that the disparity images are not detecting the feet. The digital photograph on the right side shows that the same pedestrians as on the left but 200 milliseconds later. The images of the pedestrians approaching the camera are now slightly closer and larger. The pedestrian walking away from the camera is now slightly farther away and smaller. The pedestrian enclosed by the red rectangle is again enclosed by a red rectangle. The pedestrian enclosed by the green rectangle is again enclosed by the green rectangle. The pedestrian enclosed by the yellow rectangle is again enclosed by the yellow rectangle. The pedestrian enclosed by the blue rectangle is again enclosed by a blue rectangle. Thus, the pedestrians detected in the previous image frame have been detected in the current image frame. Again, the feet and lower legs are not enclosed by the rectangles, indicating that the disparity images are not detecting this area.