U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
2023664000
Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations
Public Roads This magazine is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information. 

Publication Number: FHWAHRT08004 Date: May/Jun 2008 
Publication Number:
FHWAHRT08004
Issue No: Vol. 71 No. 6 Date: May/Jun 2008 
Driver Contributing Factors Based on Annual Average (2001–2005) Pedestrian Fatal Crashes
This bar graph depicts the major driver contributing factors in the pedestrian fatal crashes from 2001–2005, in each of the four focus cities. The 13 driver behaviors appear side by side on the x, or horizontal, axis. A colorcoded key for the cities appears below the xaxis: Chicago is the leftmost bar, in orange; Los Angeles is next, in blue; New York is purple; and Phoenix at the far right, in green. The yaxis shows the number of fatal crashes in increments of 5, starting at 0 and going up to 40. For DUI, Chicago is 3.6 percent, Los Angeles is 3.8 percent, New York is 5.2 percent, and Phoenix is 3.4 percent. For inattention, Los Angeles is 1.4 percent and New York is 21.6 percent; Chicago and Phoenix are not represented. For run off road, Chicago is 3.0 percent and Los Angeles is 2.0 percent; New York and Phoenix are not represented. For unattended vehicle, Los Angeles is 2.8 percent and Phoenix is 0.8 percent; Chicago and New York are not represented. For not in proper lane, Chicago is 1.6 percent, Los Angeles is 2.8 percent, New York is 5.2 percent, and Phoenix is 0.8 percent. For negligent driving, Chicago is 4.0 percent; none of the other cities are represented. For failure to yield, Chicago is 39.0 percent, Los Angeles is 23.8 percent, New York is 16.4 percent, and Phoenix is 4.6 percent. For disobeying traffic signs, Chicago is 3.0 percent, Los Angeles is 5.4 percent, New York is 4.8 percent, and Phoenix is 0.8 percent. For speeding, Chicago is 11.4 percent, Los Angeles is 14.6 percent, New York is 14.2 percent, and Phoenix is 7.4 percent. For vision obscured, Chicago is 5.4 percent, Los Angeles is 2.6 percent, New York is 9.2 percent, and Phoenix is 5.6 percent. For vehicle skidding, Chicago is 2.0 percent and New York is 5.6 percent; Los Angeles and Phoenix are not represented. For hit and run, Chicago is 27.2 percent, Los Angeles is 27.0 percent, New York is 25.8 percent, and Phoenix is 15.4 percent. For nontraffic violation, Los Angeles is 5.4 percent, New York is 8.2 percent, and Phoenix is 0.6 percent; Chicago is not represented.
Credit: ADOT
Pedestrian Contributing Factors Based on Annual Average (2001–2005) Pedestrian Fatal Crashes
This bar graph depicts the major pedestrian contributing factors in the pedestrian fatal crashes from 2001–2005, in each of the four focus cities. The nine pedestrian behaviors appear side by side on the x, or horizontal, axis. A colorcoded key for the cities appears below the xaxis: Chicago is the leftmost bar, in orange; Los Angeles is next, in blue; then New York is in purple; and Phoenix is at the far right, in green. The yaxis shows the number of fatal crashes in increments of 5, starting at 0 and going up to 40. For not visible, Chicago is 12.6 percent, Los Angeles is 3.6 percent, New York is 3.2 percent, and Phoenix is 0.2 percent. For darting/running into road, Chicago is 8.6 percent, Los Angeles is 10.2 percent, New York is 13.2 percent, and Phoenix is 8.0 percent. For improper crossing, Chicago is 18.2 percent, Los Angeles is 35.8 percent, New York is 36.8 percent, and Phoenix is 28.0 percent. For walking with or against traffic, Chicago is 25.0 percent, Los Angeles is 10.6 percent, New York is 6.0 percent, and Phoenix is 5.8 percent. For inattentive, Chicago is 0.2 percent, Los Angeles is 0.8 percent, New York is 2.6 percent, and Phoenix is 1.4 percent. For physical impairment, Chicago is 7.2 percent, Los Angeles is 1.2 percent, New York is 1.8 percent, and Phoenix is 2.0 percent. For failure to yield, Los Angeles is 38.0 percent and Phoenix is 11.6 percent; Chicago and New York are not represented. For disobeying traffic signs, Los Angeles is 6.0 percent, New York is 4.6 percent, and Phoenix is 2.0 percent; Chicago is not represented. For vision obscured, New York is 0.6 percent and Phoenix is 3.0 percent; Chicago and Los Angeles are not represented.
Credit: ADOT
Pedestrian Fatal Crashes by Time of Day, Annual Average (2001–2005)
This line graph records the frequency of fatal crashes experienced by pedestrians by time of day in the four focus cities for the period 2001–2005. The x, or horizontal, axis is labeled Time of Day (Hour) and is numbered 0 through 23. A colorcoded key for the cities appears below the xaxis: Chicago is represented by orange triangles, Los Angeles is shown in blue circles, New York is in purple squares, and Phoenix is in green diamonds. The y, or vertical, axis is labeled Number of Fatal Crashes and is numbered 0 through 12 in increments of 2. At midnight, Chicago is 2.6, Los Angeles is 3.0, New York is 5.2, and Phoenix is 3.4. At 1 a.m., Chicago is 3.4, Los Angeles is 2.8, New York is 3.8, and Phoenix is 2.8. At 2 a.m., Chicago is 2.8, Los Angeles is 1.6, New York is 3.0, and Phoenix is 1.0. At 3 a.m., Chicago is 2.4, Los Angeles is 0.8, New York is 6.2, and Phoenix is 0.8. At 4 a.m., Chicago is 1.2, Los Angeles is 1.0, New York is 4.4, and Phoenix is 2.0. At 5 a.m., Chicago is 1.0, Los Angeles is 6.0, New York is 5.4, and Phoenix is 1.2. At 6 a.m., Chicago is 3.6, Los Angeles is 2.6, New York is 4.8, and Phoenix is 1.6. At 7 a.m., Chicago is 1.8, Los Angeles is 5.0, New York is 5.0, and Phoenix is 1.0. At 8 a.m., Chicago is 1.4, Los Angeles is 2.0, New York is 6.8, and Phoenix is 0.4. At 9 a.m., Chicago is 2.4, Los Angeles is 2.8, New York is 6.4, and Phoenix is 0.4. At 10:00 a.m., Chicago is 2.0, Los Angeles is 3.4, New York is 7.4, and Phoenix is 0.4. At 11:00 a.m., Chicago is 2.6, Los Angeles is 2.4, New York is 7.4, and Phoenix is 0.6. At noon, Chicago is 1.8, Los Angeles is 2.2, New York is 7.4, and Phoenix is 0.8. At 1 p.m., Chicago is 1.8, Los Angeles is 3.4, New York is 6.6, and Phoenix is 1.2. At 2 p.m., Chicago is 3.4, Los Angeles is 3.4, New York is 9.0, and Phoenix is 0.4. At 3 p.m., Chicago is 3.6, Los Angeles is 3.6, New York is 8.2, and Phoenix is 1.6. At 4 p.m., Chicago is 2.8, Los Angeles is 3.8, New York is 6.4, and Phoenix is 1.8. At 5 p.m., Chicago is 3.8, Los Angeles is 8.0, New York is 10.6, and Phoenix is 2.0. At 6 p.m., Chicago is 4.8, Los Angeles is 6.2, New York is 8.0, and Phoenix is 6.0. At 7 p.m., Chicago is 3.6, Los Angeles is 7.2, New York is 8.6, and Phoenix is 4.8. At 8 p.m., Chicago is 3.0, Los Angeles is 6.8, New York is 6.4, and Phoenix is 6.6. At 9 p.m., Chicago is 2.8, Los Angeles is 8.4, New York is 7.8, and Phoenix is 4.8. At 10:00 p.m., Chicago is 3.2, Los Angeles is 5.8, New York is 6.6, and Phoenix is 5.0. At 11:00 p.m., Chicago is 3.8, Los Angeles is 4.0, New York is 8.8, and Phoenix is 2.8.
Credit: ADOT
Pedestrian Fatal Crashes by Functional and Operational Classifications, Annual Average (2001–2005)
This bar graph depicts average pedestrian fatalities that occurred on roadways with given characteristics for the period 2001–2005 in each of the four focus cities. On the x, or horizontal, axis are 15 roadway attributes organized into four groups. The first group, Roadway Functional Classification, includes Urban Other Principal, Urban Minor Arterial, and Urban Local Road or Street. The second group, Relation to Junction, consists of Nonjunction, Intersection, and Intersection Related. The third group, Traffic Flow, consists of Not Physically Divided, Median Strip, Traffic Barrier, TwoWay Continuous LeftTurn, and Unknown. The fourth group, Light Condition, consists of Daylight, Dark, Dark but Lighted, and Dusk. A colorcoded key for the cities appears below the xaxis: Chicago is at the far left, in orange; Los Angeles is next, in blue; New York is in purple; and Phoenix is at the far right, in green. The y, or vertical, axis shows the number of fatal crashes under the given roadway conditions, going upward in increments of 10 from 0 to 100. For fatalities on urban other principal arterials, Chicago’s rate is 7.0 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 46.2 percent, New York’s rate is 73.4 percent, and Phoenix’s rate is 27.8 percent. For fatalities on urban other principal arterials, Chicago’s rate is 4.6 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 28.0 percent, New York’s rate is 31.6 percent, and Phoenix’s rate is 15.4 percent. For fatalities on urban local roads or streets, Chicago’s rate is 46.4 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 7.6 percent, New York’s rate is 20.2 percent, and Phoenix’s rate is 3.2 percent. For fatalities at nonjunctions, Chicago’s rate is 43.4 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 49.6 percent, New York’s rate is 61.0 percent, and Phoenix’s rate is 34.6 percent. For fatalities at intersections, Chicago’s rate is 15.6 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 8.2 percent, New York’s rate is 87.2 percent, and Phoenix’s rate is 2.6 percent. For fatalities at intersectionrelated sites, Chicago’s rate is 6.0 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 35.2 percent, New York’s rate is 9.4 percent, and Phoenix’s rate is 13.4 percent. For fatalities where traffic flow was not physically divided, Chicago’s rate is 38.2 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 49.6 percent, New York’s rate is 83.8 percent, and Phoenix’s rate is 7.4 percent. For fatalities where there was a median strip, Chicago’s rate is 14.6 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 21.0 percent, and New York’s rate is 43.2 percent; Phoenix is not represented. For fatalities where there was a traffic barrier, Chicago’s rate was 7.6 percent and Phoenix’s was 9.0 percent; New York and Los Angeles are not represented. For fatalities where there was a twoway continuous left turn, Los Angeles’s rate was 11.8 percent and Phoenix’s was 35.4 percent; New York and Chicago are not represented. For fatalities involving unknown traffic flow, New York’s rate was 13.6 percent; the other cities are not represented. For fatalities in daylight, Chicago’s rate is 29.2 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 38.2 percent, New York’s rate is 81.6 percent, and Phoenix’s rate is 11.8 percent. For fatalities when it was dark, Chicago’s rate is 4.6 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 9.0 percent, and New York’s rate is 9.6 percent; Phoenix is not represented. For fatalities on dark but lighted roadways, Chicago’s rate is 30.6 percent, Los Angeles’s rate is 45.8 percent, New York’s rate is 59.8 percent, and Phoenix’s rate is 38.0 percent. For fatalities at dusk, Phoenix’s rate is 1.8 percent; the other cities are not represented.
Credit: ADOT
Deterioration Cycles of Bridge Decks
This graph depicts an unspecified bridge element’s progression over time, with deterioration and recovery relative to observed maintenance (OM). The vertical yaxis is labeled Condition and is numbered 0, at the bottom, up through 9, at the top. The horizontal xaxis is labeled Data Year and is marked at 2year intervals, beginning in 1983 and ending in 2006. At the top, parallel to the xaxis, is a line labeled Cycle 1 without OM, spanning data years 1983–1993. To the right of that line is another line, also parallel to the xaxis, labeled Cycle 2 with OM, spanning data years 1993–2001. To the right of that is another line labeled Cycle 3 with OM, spanning 2001–2006. The first data point for the element is in 1983, in condition 9. In 1984 and 1985, the element also is in condition 9. A short vertical line is on the 1985 data point, indicating a subsequent change in condition. In 1986 the element is in condition 7, as it is in 1987 and 1988 as well. A short vertical line is on the 1988 data point, indicating a subsequent change in condition. In 1989 the element is in condition 6. In 1990 the element is in condition 6, and there is a short vertical line on the data point. In 1991 the element is in condition 5, and there is a short vertical line on the data point. In 1992 the element is in condition 5. There is a short vertical line on the data point indicating a transition in condition state, and a box labeled A indicating the lower condition state within a deterioration cycle, followed by OM at that time. In 1993 the element is in condition 8. There is also a box labeled B at the data point that indicates the start of a new deterioration cycle. In 1994 the element is in condition 8, and there is a short vertical line on the data point, indicating a subsequent change in condition. In 1995 the element is in condition 7. In 1996 the element is in condition 7. In 1997 the element is in condition 7, and there is a short vertical line on the data point, indicating a subsequent change in condition. In 1998 the element is in condition 6. In 1999 the element is in condition 6. In 2000 the element is in condition 6; there is a short vertical line on the data point and a box labeled A, indicating that OM occurred at that time. In 2001 the element is in condition 8. There is also a box labeled B at the data point that indicates the start of a new deterioration cycle. In 2002 the element is in condition 8, and there is a short vertical line on the data point, indicating a subsequent change in condition. In 2003 the element is in condition 6. In 2004 the element is in condition 6, and there is a short vertical line on the data point, indicating a subsequent change in condition. In 2005 and 2006, the element is in condition 5.
Credit: Source: FHWA.
Deck Survival Curves for Decks in Different Deck Conditions Without Observed Maintenance
This graph depicts the survival curves for decks in various conditions without observed maintenance. At the bottom is a colorcoded key for the various conditions: Condition 0 is light blue, condition 1 is dark blue, condition 2 is dark purple, condition 3 is light purple, condition 4 is black, condition 5 is red, condition 6 is light green, condition 7 is medium blue, condition 8 is orange, and condition 9 is magenta. Immediately above the key is the xaxis, labeled Time in Condition, with intervals numbered 0–23 for the years covered in the study. The yaxis is labeled Survival and is marked off in tenths, 0–1 (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and so on).
For condition 0, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.329, at year 2 is 0.083, at year 3 is 0.047, at year 4 is 0.028, at year 5 is 0.019, at year 6 is 0.013, at year 7 is 0.009, at year 8 is 0.004, at year 9 is 0.000, at year 10 is 0.000, at year 11 is 0.000, at year 12 is 0.000, at year 13 is 0.000, at year 14 is 0.000, at year 15 is 0.000, at year 16 is 0.000, at year 17 is 0.000, at year 18 is 0.000, at year 19 is 0.000, at year 20 is 0.000, at year 21 is 0.000, at year 22 is 0.000, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 1, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.235, at year 2 is 0.049, at year 3 is 0.049, at year 4 is 0.025, at year 5 is 0.012, at year 6 is 0.000, at year 7 is 0.000, at year 8 is 0.000, at year 9 is 0.000, at year 10 is 0.000, at year 11 is 0.000, at year 12 is 0.000, at year 13 is 0.000, at year 14 is 0.000, at year 15 is 0.000, at year 16 is 0.000, at year 17 is 0.000, at year 18 is 0.000, at year 19 is 0.000, at year 20 is 0.000, at year 21 is 0.000, at year 22 is 0.000, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 2, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.349, at year 2 is 0.088, at year 3 is 0.032, at year 4 is 0.007, at year 5 is 0.004, at year 6 is 0.004, at year 7 is 0.004, at year 8 is 0.000, at year 9 is 0.000, at year 10 is 0.000, at year 11 is 0.000, at year 12 is 0.000, at year 13 is 0.000, at year 14 is 0.00, at year 15 is 0.000, at year 16 is 0.000, at year 17 is 0.000, at year 18 is 0.000, at year 19 is 0.00, at year 20 is 0.000, at year 21 is 0.000, at year 22 is 0.000, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 3, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.299, at year 2 is 0.102, at year 3 is 0.062, at year 4 is 0.036, at year 5 is 0.019, at year 6 is 0.010, at year 7 is 0.005, at year 8 is 0.004, at year 9 is 0.004, at year 10 is 0.002, at year 11 is 0.002, at year 12 is 0.002, at year 13 is 0.002, at year 14 is 0.001, at year 15 is 0.001, at year 16 is 0.001, at year 17 is 0.001, at year 18 is 0.001, at year 19 is 0.001, at year 20 is 0.000, at year 21 is 0.000, at year 22 is 0.000, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 4, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.418, at year 2 is 0.227, at year 3 is 0.172, at year 4 is 0.099, at year 5 is 0.078, at year 6 is 0.060, at year 7 is 0.052, at year 8 is 0.037, at year 9 is 0.030, at year 10 is 0.023, at year 11 is 0.021, at year 12 is 0.017, at year 13 is 0.013, at year 14 is 0.009, at year 15 is 0.006, at year 16 is 0.005, at year 17 is 0.003, at year 18 is 0.003, at year 19 is 0.002, at year 20 is 0.001 , at year 21 is 0.001, at year 22 is 0.000, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 5, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.596, at year 2 is 0.419, at year 3 is 0.368, at year 4 is 0.252, at year 5 is 0.202, at year 6 is 0.158, at year 7 is 0.129, at year 8 is 0.098, at year 9 is 0.085, at year 10 is 0.066, at year 11 is 0.059, at year 12 is 0.049, at year 13 is 0.042, at year 14 is 0.029, at year 15 is 0.019, at year 16 is 0.011, at year 17 is 0.008, at year 18 is 0.005, at year 19 is 0.003, at year 20 is 0.002, at year 21 is 0.001, at year 22 is 0.000, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 6, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.731, at year 2 is 0.580, at year 3 is 0.526, at year 4 is 0.460, at year 5 is 0.324, at year 6 is 0.268, at year 7 is 0.239, at year 8 is 0.120, at year 9 is 0.174, at year 10 is 0.144, at year 11 is 0.126, at year 12 is 0.106, at year 13 is 0.091, at year 14 is 0.072, at year 15 is 0.060, at year 16 is 0.047, at year 17 is 0.039, at year 18 is 0.032, at year 19 is 0.027, at year 20 is 0.021, at year 21 is 0.017, at year 22 is 0.012, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 7, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.903, at year 2 is 0.779, at year 3 is 0.734, at year 4 is 0.676, at year 5 is 0.633, at year 6 is 0.497, at year 7 is 0.447, at year 8 is 0.400, at year 9 is 0.364, at year 10 is 0.310, at year 11 is 0.280, at year 12 is 0.249, at year 13 is 0.222, at year 14 is 0.195, at year 15 is 0.171, at year 16 is 0.147, at year 17 is 0.126, at year 18 is 0.101, at year 19 is 0.084, at year 20 is 0.065, at year 21 is 0.054, at year 22 is 0.035, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 8, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.965, at year 2 is 0.915, at year 3 is 0.890, at year 4 is 0.857, at year 5 is 0.613, at year 6 is 0.557, at year 7 is 0.480, at year 8 is 0.434, at year 9 is 0.397, at year 10 is 0.362, at year 11 is 0.333, at year 12 is 0.303, at year 13 is 0.266, at year 14 is 0.241, at year 15 is 0.216, at year 16 is 0.191, at year 17 is 0.169, at year 18 is 0.148, at year 19 is 0.131, at year 20 is 0.112, at year 21 is 0.096, at year 22 is 0.077, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 9, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.929, at year 2 is 0.862, at year 3 is 0.827, at year 4 is 0.403, at year 5 is 0.325, at year 6 is 0.256, at year 7 is 0.200, at year 8 is 0.148, at year 9 is 0.119, at year 10 is 0.103, at year 11 is 0.087, at year 12 is 0.081, at year 13 is 0.067, at year 14 is 0.062, at year 15 is 0.052, at year 16 is 0.046, at year 17 is 0.040, at year 18 is 0.035, at year 19 is 0.028, at year 20 is 0.022, at year 21 is 0.019, at year 22 is 0.017, and at year 23 is 0.000.
Credit: Source: FHWA.
Deck Survival Curves for Decks in Different Deck Conditions After Having Observed Maintenance
This graph depicts the survival curves for decks in various conditions with observed maintenance. At the bottom is a colorcoded key for the various conditions: Condition 0 is light blue, condition 1 is dark blue, condition 2 is dark purple, condition 3 is light purple, condition 4 is black, condition 5 is red, condition 6 is light green, condition 7 is medium blue, condition 8 is orange, and condition 9 is magenta. Immediately above the key is the xaxis, labeled Time in Condition, with intervals numbered 0–23 for the years covered by the NBI. The yaxis is labeled Survival and is marked off in tenths, 0–1 (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and so on).
For condition 0, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.780, at year 2 is 0.498, at year 3 is 0.393, at year 4 is 0.334, at year 5 is 0.276, at year 6 is 0.248, at year 7 is 0.198, at year 8 is 0.177, at year 9 is 0.147, at year 10 is 0.114, at year 11 is 0.095, at year 12 is 0.086, at year 13 is 0.077, at year 14 is 0.065, at year 15 is 0.048, at year 16 is 0.045, at year 17 is 0.043, at year 18 is 0.042, at year 19 is 0.041, at year 20 is 0.038, at year 21 is 0.038, at year 22 is 0.036, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 1, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.741, at year 2 is 0.416, at year 3 is 0.302, at year 4 is 0.189, at year 5 is 0.123, at year 6 is 0.078, at year 7 is 0.063, at year 8 is 0.048, at year 9 is 0.043, at year 10 is 0.033, at year 11 is 0.030, at year 12 is 0.023, at year 13 is 0.023, at year 14 is 0.018, at year 15 is 0.018, at year 16 is 0.010, at year 17 is 0.008, at year 18 is 0.005, at year 19 is 0.005, at year 20 is 0.003, at year 21 is 0.003, at year 22 is 0.000, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 2, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.744, at year 2 is 0.447, at year 3 is 0287 at year 4 is 0.181, at year 5 is 0.131, at year 6 is 0.086, at year 7 is 0.064, at year 8 is 0.043, at year 9 is 0.034, at year 10 is 0.025, at year 11 is 0.023, at year 12 is 0.018, at year 13 is 0.016, at year 14 is 0.013, at year 15 is 0.010, at year 16 is 0.009, at year 17 is 0.007, at year 18 is 0.005, at year 19 is 0.004, at year 20 is 0.003, at year 21 is 0.003, at year 22 is 0.002, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 3, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.820, at year 2 is 0.612, at year 3 is 0.438, at year 4 is 0.310, at year 5 is 0.243, at year 6 is 0.181, at year 7 is 0.140, at year 8 is 0.104, at year 9 is 0.084, at year 10 is 0.067, at year 11 is 0.056, at year 12 is 0.047, at year 13 is 0.039, at year 14 is 0.032, at year 15 is 0.026, at year 16 is 0.021, at year 17 is 0.018, at year 18 is 0.014, at year 19 is 0.011, at year 20 is 0.009, at year 21 is 0.007, at year 22 is 0.006, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 4, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.865, at year 2 is 0.691, at year 3 is 0.568, at year 4 is 0.407, at year 5 is 0.335, at year 6 is 0.260, at year 7 is 0.216, at year 8 is 0.169, at year 9 is 0.146, at year 10 is 0.119, at year 11 is 0.103, at year 12 is 0.084, at year 13 is 0.072, at year 14 is 0.056, at year 15 is 0.043, at year 16 is 0.034, at year 17 is 0.029, at year 18 is 0.024, at year 19 is 0.021, at year 20 is 0.017, at year 21 is 0.014, at year 22 is 0.011, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 5, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.891, at year 2 is 0.725, at year 3 is 0.626, at year 4 is 0.460, at year 5 is 0.372, at year 6 is 0.298, at year 7 is 0.248, at year 8 is 0.197, at year 9 is 0.167, at year 10 is 0.137, at year 11 is 0.120, at year 12 is 0.100, at year 13 is 0.082, at year 14 is 0.064, at year 15 is 0.049, at year 16 is 0.038, at year 17 is 0.031, at year 18 is 0.026, at year 19 is 0.021, at year 20 is 0.017, at year 21 is 0.014, at year 22 is 0.010, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 6, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.894, at year 2 is 0.742, at year 3 is 0.674, at year 4 is 0.513, at year 5 is 0.426, at year 6 is 0.355, at year 7 is 0.306, at year 8 is 0.248, at year 9 is 0.216, at year 10 is 0.179, at year 11 is 0.157, at year 12 is 0.134, at year 13 is 0.112, at year 14 is 0.095, at year 15 is 0.081, at year 16 is 0.068, at year 17 is 0.058, at year 18 is 0.049, at year 19 is 0.043, at year 20 is 0.037, at year 21 is 0.033, at year 22 is 0.026, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 7, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.946, at year 2 is 0.791, at year 3 is 0.728, at year 4 is 0.629, at year 5 is 0.512, at year 6 is 0.436, at year 7 is 0.380, at year 8 is 0.323, at year 9 is 0.288, at year 10 is 0.239, at year 11 is 0.214, at year 12 is 0.185, at year 13 is 0.159, at year 14 is 0.137, at year 15 is 0.117, at year 16 is 0.099, at year 17 is 0.086, at year 18 is 0.073, at year 19 is 0.064, at year 20 is 0.054, at year 21 is 0.048, at year 22 is 0.039, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 8, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.935, at year 2 is 0.820, at year 3 is 0.774, at year 4 is 0.701, at year 5 is 0.440, at year 6 is 0.365, at year 7 is 0.312, at year 8 is 0.258, at year 9 is 0.226, at year 10 is 0.197, at year 11 is 0.175, at year 12 is 0.151, at year 13 is 0.113, at year 14 is 0.094, at year 15 is 0.078, at year 16 is 0.062, at year 17 is 0.052, at year 18 is 0.045, at year 19 is 0.038, at year 20 is 0.031, at year 21 is 0.026, at year 22 is 0.022, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For condition 9, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.935, at year 2 is 0.820, at year 3 is 0.774, at year 4 is 0.701, at year 5 is 0.440, at year 6 is 0.365, at year 7 is 0.312, at year 8 is 0.092, at year 9 is 0.075, at year 10 is 0.059, at year 11 is 0.048, at year 12 is 0.037, at year 13 is 0.028, at year 14 is 0.022, at year 15 is 0.016, at year 16 is 0.011, at year 17 is 0.009, at year 18 is 0.007, at year 19 is 0.005, at year 20 is 0.004, at year 21 is 0.003, at year 22 is 0.002, and at year 23 is 0.000.
Credit: Source: FHWA.
Survival Curves for Bridge Decks in Condition 9 Without Observed Maintenance for Different ADT Classes
This graph depicts the relative survival curves for decks in condition 9, comparing decks with varying degrees of vehicle traffic, without observed maintenance. At the bottom is a colorcoded key: the FHWA researchers plotted the bridges with ADT of 100 or less in blue; they plotted bridges with ADT of 101–1,000 in red; they plotted bridges with ADT of 1,001–10,000 in grey; they plotted bridges with ADT of 10,001–100,000 in purple; and they plotted bridges with ADT greater than 100,000 in magenta. Immediately above the key is the xaxis, labeled Time in Condition, with intervals numbered 0–23 for the years covered in the study. The yaxis is labeled Survival and is marked off in tenths, 0–1 (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and so on).
For bridges with ADT of 100 or less, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.962, at year 2 is 0.917, at year 3 is 0.892, at year 4 is 0.499, at year 5 is 0.415, at year 6 is 0.326, at year 7 is 0.259, at year 8 is 0.193, at year 9 is 0.155, at year 10 is 0.134, at year 11 is 0.117, at year 12 is 0.108, at year 13 is 0.097, at year 14 is 0.091, at year 15 is 0.079, at year 16 is 0.066, at year 17 is 0.056, at year 18 is 0.050, at year 19 is 0.042, at year 20 is 0.033, at year 21 is 0.028, at year 22 is 0.026, and at year 23 is 0.000. For bridges with ADT of 101–1,000, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.938, at year 2 is 0.878, at year 3 is 0.840, at year 4 is 0.390, at year 5 is 0.415, at year 6 is 0.326, at year 7 is 0.259, at year 8 is 0.193, at year 9 is 0.155, at year 10 is 0.134, at year 11 is 0.117, at year 12 is 0.108, at year 13 is 0.097, at year 14 is 0.091, at year 15 is 0.079, at year 16 is 0.066, at year 17 is 0.060, at year 18 is 0.050, at year 19 is 0.042, at year 20 is 0.033, at year 21 is 0.028, at year 22 is 0.026, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For bridges with ADT of 1,001–10,000, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.874, at year 2 is 0.766, at year 3 is 0.721, at year 4 is 0.280, at year 5 is 0.228, at year 6 is 0.179, at year 7 is 0.140, at year 8 is 0.097, at year 9 is 0.080, at year 10 is 0.064, at year 11 is 0.053, at year 12 is 0.052, at year 13 is 0.039, at year 14 is 0.033, at year 15 is 0.020, at year 16 is 0.018, at year 17 is 0.014, at year 18 is 0.013, at year 19 is 0.009, at year 20 is 0.007, at year 21 is 0.005, at year 22 is 0.004, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For bridges with ADT of 10,001–100,000, the survival rate at year 1 is 0.883, at year 2 is 0.799, at year 3 is 0.761, at year 4 is 0.322, at year 5 is 0.242, at year 6 is 0.191, at year 7 is 0.128, at year 8 is 0.078, at year 9 is 0.056, at year 10 is 0.049, at year 11 is 0.040, at year 12 is 0.030, at year 13 is 0.004, at year 14 is 0.003, at year 15 is 0.001, at year 16 is 0.001, at year 17 is 0.000, at year 18 is 0.000, at year 19 is 0.000, at year 20 is 0.000, at year 21 is 0.000, at year 22 is 0.000, and at year 23 is 0.000.
For bridges with ADT greater than 100,000, the survival rate at year 1 is 1.000, at year 2 is 0.917, at year 3 is 0.889, at year 4 is 0.444, at year 5 is 0.306, at year 6 is 0.306, at year 7 is 0.167, at year 8 is 0.167, at year 9 is 0.167, at year 10 is 0.167, at year 11 is 0.167, at year 12 is 0.167, at year 13 is 0.000, at year 14 is 0.000, at year 15 is 0.000, at year 16 is 0.000, at year 17 is 0.000, at year 18 is 0.000, at year 19 is 0.000, at year 20 is 0.000, at year 21 is 0.000, at year 22 is 0.000, and at year 23 is 0.000.
Credit: Source: FHWA.