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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-11-040
Date: November 2012

 

Crash Data Analyses for Vehicle-To-Infrastructure Communications for Safety Applications

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FOREWORD

This report documents the results of crash data analyses to assess the potential safety benefits of vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication applications to improve highway safety. It provides estimates of the frequency and cost of crashes involving pre-crash scenarios addressed by V2I applications. It also evaluates pre-crash scenarios not addressed by those applications. This report will be useful to Federal, State, and local government agencies, research organizations, and private sector firms that research, develop, and deploy V2I technologies and safety applications.

Monique R. Evans
Director, Office of Safety
Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

 

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-11-040

2. Government Accession No.

3. Recipient's Catalog No.

4. Title and Subtitle

Crash Data Analyses for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communications for Safety Applications

5. Report Date

November 2012

6. Performing Organization Code

7. Author(s)

Kimberly Eccles, Frank Gross, Mindy Liu, and Forrest Council

8. Performing Organization Report No.

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. (VHB)

333 Fayetteville Street, Suite 1450

Raleigh, NC 27601-2951

University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center

730 Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard

Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3430

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61-06-C-00013

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Safety Research and Development

Federal Highway Administration

6300 Georgetown Pike

McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final Report September 2009-March 2011

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

Federal Highway Administration

15. Supplementary Notes

This study was conducted with funding from the Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office. The Contracting Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) was Carol Tan. The task managers were Gregory Davis and Raymond Krammes.

16. Abstract

This report presents the potential safety benefits of wireless communication between the roadway infrastructure and vehicles, (i.e., vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety). Specifically, it identifies the magnitude, characteristics, and cost of crashes that would be targeted with currently proposed V2I for safety application areas including intersections, speed management, vulnerable road users, and other safety applications areas. It also identifies the magnitude, characteristics, and cost of the remaining crashes that are not targeted by currently proposed V2I safety applications. The results of this study indicate that the applications are well conceived and can potentially treat large portions of U.S. crashes and crash costs. The characteristics of unaddressed crashes provide a starting point for identifying either new applications or modifications to current applications.

17. Key Words

General Estimates System, Pre-crash scenarios, Vehicle safety research, Crash avoidance research, Crash frequency, Economic cost, Intersections, Speed, Pedestrians

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the

public through the National Technical Information Service; Springfield, VA 22161

19. Security Classif.(of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif.(of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

84

22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 Reproduction of completed page authorized

SI (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Executive Summary

Chapter 2. Introduction

Chapter 3. Overview of Current V2I Application Areas

Chapter 4. Intersection Applications

Chapter 5. Speed Applications

Chapter 6. Vulnerable Road Users

Chapter 7. Other Application Areas

Chapter 8. Unaddressed Crashes

Chapter 9. Conclusions

Addendix A: Relevant Distributions

References

List of Tables

Table 1. Overview of estimates for targeted and unaddressed single-vehicle crashes identified in NASS GES

Table 2. Overview of estimates for targeted and unaddressed multi-vehicle crashes identified in NASS GES

Table 3. Vehicle type assignment criteria

Table 4. MAIS comprehensive crash costs (based on 2007 U.S. dollars)

Table 5. Cost per maximum severity (based on 2007 U.S. dollars)

Table 6. Distribution of crash location-average annual national crashes

Table 7. Area type assignment criteria

Table 8. Summary of annual estimated targeted crashes based on current applications

Table 9. Single-vehicle unaddressed crashes by pre-crash scenario

Table 10. Multi-vehicle unaddressed crashes by pre-crash scenario

Table 11. Distribution of crash location for annual national (weighted) unaddressed pedestrian crashes

Table 12. Distribution of crash location for annual national (weighted) unaddressed bicycle crashes

Table 13. Distribution of area type for annual national (weighted) unaddressed animal crashes

Table 14. Distribution of crash location for annual national (weighted) unaddressed rear-end crashes

Table 15. Distribution of area type for annual national (weighted) unaddressed rear-end crashes

Table 16. Distribution of crash location for annual national (weighted) straight crossing path crashes at non-signals

Table 17. Distribution of area type for annual national (weighted) straight crossing path crashes at non-signals

Table 18. Distribution of crash location for annual national (weighted) unaddressed left turn across path/opposite direction crashes at non-signals

Table 19. Distribution of vehicle type for unaddressed crashes

Table 20. Distribution of area type for unaddressed crashes

Table 21. Distribution of crash location for unaddressed crashes

Table 22. Overview of annual target crashes and associated costs identified in NASS GES for currently identified application areas

Table 23. Frequency of annual observed and annual weighted single-vehicle and multi-vehicle crashes by pre-crash scenario

Table 24. Cost of annual single-vehicle crashes by pre-crash scenario and injury type

Table 25. Cost of annual multi-vehicle crashes by pre-crash scenario and injury type

Table 26. Single-vehicle pre-crash scenarios by vehicle type-annual crashes (observed)

Table 27. Single-vehicle pre-crash scenarios by vehicle type-annual national crashes (weighted)

Table 28. Multi-vehicle pre-crash scenarios by vehicle type-annual crashes (observed)

Table 29. Multi-vehicle pre-crash scenarios by vehicle type-annual national crashes (weighted)

List of abbreviations

AIS Abbreviated injury scale
AV Autonomous vehicle
CICAS Cooperative Intersection Collisions Avoidance System
CICAS-SLTA Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System-Signalized left-turn assist
CICAS-SSA Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System-Stop-sign assist
CICAS-V Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System-Violation
FARS Fatality Analysis Reporting System
FHWA Federal Highway Administration
GES General Estimates System
HSIS Highway Safety Information System
ITS Intelligent Transportation System
KABCO Scale used to record injury severity by crash victim
LTAP/OD Left-turn across path/opposite direction
LVA Lead vehicle accelerating
LVD Lead vehicle decelerating
LVM Lead vehicle moving at lower constant speed
LVS Lead vehicle stopped
MAIS Maximum abbreviated injury scale
NASS National Automotive Sampling System
NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
PDO Property damage only
SAS® Statistical Analysis Software®
SCP Straight crossing path
USDOT United States Department of Transportation
UVC Uniform Vehicle Code
V2I Vehicle-to-infrastructure
V2V Vehicle-to-vehicle
Volpe John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

 

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