|This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information|
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-157
Date: October 2003-September 2005
Technical Publications Catalog
Office of Safety R&D
The FHWA safety goal is to continually improve highway safety. FHWA contributes to the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) safety improvement goal; the performance measurements over the next 10 years for this goal are: (1) a 20 percent reduction in fatalities, (2) a 20 percent reduction in injuries, and (3) a 50 percent reduction in truck-related fatalities. The Office of Safety R&D is making major contributions to help FHWA meet its performance objectives through activities and accomplishments in the following six priority areas: run-off-road, intersections, pedestrian and bicycle, safety-management, speed management, and human centered systems.
IHSDM Resource List
A product of FHWA's Safety R&D Program, the IHSDM is a suite of safety analysis tools to evaluate the safety and operational effects of geometric design decisions on two-lane rural highways. This fact sheet lists resources available to individuals considering or using IHSDM.
Safety Evaluation of Red-Light Cameras--Executive Summary
The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of RLC systems in reducing crashes. The study involved an empirical Bayes before-and-after research using data from seven jurisdictions across the United States to estimate the crash and associated economic effects of RLC systems. The study included 132 treatment sites, and specially derived rear-end and right-angle unit crash costs for various severity levels. There was an aggregate crash cost benefit of RLC systems. Analysis found that greatest economic benefits are associated with factors of the highest total entering average annual daily traffic, the largest ratios of right-angle-to-rear-end crashes, and with the presence of protected left-turn phases. There were weak indications of a spillover effect.
TFHRC Technical Reference Center and http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/05049/index.cfm
Characteristics of Emerging Road Users and Their Safety
While additional research is needed to determine which devices should be used to set specific design criteria, the findings suggest that design guidelines might need to be revised to incorporate the needs of emerging trail users. The results of this study can be used to help design professionals adequately design roadway and shared-use path facilities to meet the operational and safety needs of this growing and diverse group of users.
The Safety Impacts of Differential Speed Limits on Rural Interstate Highways
The Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act (STURAA), enacted on April 2, 1987, permitted individual States to raise speed limits from the previously mandated national speed limit of 88 kilometers per hour (km/h) to 105 km/h (55 miles per hour (mi/h) to 65 mi/h) on rural interstate highways. With more than a decade having elapsed since the passage of the STURAA, FHWA sponsored a long-term study to investigate the effect of Uniform Speed Limits and Differential Speed Limits on vehicle speeds and crashes on rural interstates nationwide.
Validation of Accident Models for Intersections
This report describes the results of validation and calibration of motor vehicle crash models for rural intersections. Both the validation and recalibration activities were conducted in pursuit of one overriding research objective, which was to make marginal improvements to an existing set of statistical models for predicting crashes at two- and four-lane intersections, with the primary intent to be used in the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM).
TFHRC Technical Reference Center
Signalized Intersections: Informational Guide
This guide provides a single, comprehensive document with methods for evaluating the safety and operations of signalized intersections and tools to remedy deficiencies. The treatments in this guide range from low-cost measures such as improvements to signal timing and signage, to high-cost measures such as intersection reconstruction or grade separation. Topics covered include fundamental principles of user needs, geometric design, and traffic design and operation; safety and operational analysis techniques; and a wide variety of treatments to address existing or projected problems, including individual movements and approaches, pedestrian and bicycle treatments, and corridor techniques.
TFHRC Technical Reference Center and http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/04091/index.cfm
Safety Evaluation of Red-Light Cameras
The objective of this final study was to determine the effectiveness of red-light-camera (RLC) systems in reducing crashes. The study used empirical Bayes before-and-after research using data from 7 jurisdictions across the United States at 132 treatment sites. The purpose of the study was to estimate the crash and associated economic effects of RLC systems and specially derived rear-end and right-angle unit crash costs for various severity levels.
TFHRC Technical Reference Center and www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/05048/index.cfm