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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-037
Date: April 2006

Performance Plan Fiscal Year (FY) 2006-2007

R&D Office Projects and Milestones

Infrastructure R&D

The Office of Infrastructure R&D focuses on improving the performance of highway infrastructure and significantly reducing associated long-term costs. The comprehensive and coordinated Infrastructure research program conducts R&D that cuts across the boundaries of pavements, structures, and materials technology.

In the pavement area, researchers develop models, procedures, and processes that help transportation specialists predict pavement performance and select designs to optimize pavement performance and life cycle costs. They pursue increased pavement life by developing a better understanding of asphalt and portland cement concrete (PCC) paving materials and the pavement construction process, and by developing better predictive tools for use in the laboratory and on the roadway. The Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program aims to increase the understanding of why some pavements perform better than others. This information is one key to building and maintaining a cost-effective highway system. Advanced infrastructure research focuses on nanoscience technology and computational structural mechanics for the improvement of highway materials and structural performance.   

In the structures arena, researchers employ a systems approach to integrate design, construction, durability, maintenance, inspection, and long-term performance into the bridge systems of the future. They work to ensure that highway structures are safe and reliable for all service conditions, including potential structural, environmental, and human-generated threats. Structural researchers also study and develop technologies to detect, measure, assess, and control all processes and mechanisms that limit the useful life of highway structures; they develop applications to better preserve, maintain, and manage the Nation’s highway bridges.

At TFHRC, we are constantly looking for new materials and methods to improve the quality of our Nation's highway system. Our efforts involve in-house and contract-sponsored research covering areas such as bridge coatings, asphalt concrete, and asphalt binders; PCC; high-performance materials for bridge construction; and waste and byproduct materials, to name a few.

Key Infrastructure R&D Projects and Milestones for FY 2006 and 2007

Office of Infrastructure R&D
Office Director: Gary Henderson, Gary.Henderson@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3022
Project Goal Anticipated Completion
Pavement Design and Analysis-Team Leader: Katherine Petros, Katherine.Petros@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3154
Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Concrete Pavement
Develop guidelines for the design and use of second-generation FRP dowels in jointed pavements and FRP reinforcement in continuously reinforced concrete pavements.
Mobility and Productivity Mar 2006
Impact of Hydraulic Cement Concrete (HCC) Input Parameters on Mechanistic-Empirical (M-E) Pavement Design Guide
Conduct an indepth sensitivity analysis of several key parameters for HCC that have been identified based on preliminary evaluation of the M-E Pavement Design Guide. This will provide stakeholders with insight regarding their relative importance in the design and construction processes.
Mobility and Productivity Oct 2006
Impact of Dynamic Modulus on Prediction Models
Investigate the dynamic modulus obtained on field, production, and laboratory samples to improve understanding of the impact of dynamic modulus on prediction models.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2006
Integration of LTPP Binder (LTPPBind) v 3.0 in AASHTO M320
Help highway agencies and contractors select the most suitable Superpave® performance grade of asphalt binder for a given project.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2007
Pavement Materials and Construction- Team Leader: Tom Harman, Tom.Harman@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3072
Asphalt Pavement Performance Prediction Symposium
Participate in this 2-day session, organized annually by Western Research Institute in Laramie, WY, as part of its congressionally mandated research contract with FHWA.
Mobility and Productivity Annually in June or July
Compatibility of Mixture Components
Develop guidance, including test procedures, to enable early identification of potential compatibility problems in paving concrete mixtures.
Mobility and Productivity Jan 2006
Concrete Pavement (CP) Road Map
Incorporate the key elements of the CP Road Map, a nationally vetted strategic long-range plan for HCC pavements, into the FHWA Pavements Roadmap. Foster and support the establishment of the executive committee structure.
Mobility and Productivity May 2006
Evaluation of Mixless Calibration Techniques for the Superpave Gyratory Compactor
Conduct detailed evaluation of new tools for calibration of the gyratory compactor. Provide guidance and recommendations to the AASHTO Subcommittee on Materials.
Mobility and Productivity Aug 2006
Future of Full-Scale Accelerated Performance Testing
Establish an international partnership and stakeholder group to formulate strategies to maximize resource allocation and identify mutual areas for collaboration.
Mobility and Productivity Aug 2006
Concrete Mix Optimization Software
Develop computer-based guidelines for job-specific optimization of paving concrete to help materials engineers and suppliers make day-to-day decisions about how to best proportion a mix to meet their desired criteria.
Mobility and Productivity Oct 2006
CP Road Map: Mix Design Track-Phase I Advisory Structure
Take the leadership role in establishing the expert task group to coordinate and conduct the HCC pavement mix design research track defined in the CP Road Map.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2006
Guidance on the Use of Acid Modification for Asphalt Binders
Provide State agencies with clear guidance on the effective use of acid modification for asphalt binders. Clearly identify inappropriate uses, which can lead to performance issues.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2006
Intelligent Construction System (ICS)-Computer-Based Field Curing Tool for Concrete Pavement
Develop prototype system, based on High Performance Pavement (HIPERPAV)™ and curing guidelines, to provide real-time assessment of curing conditions for the paving contractor.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2006
Low-Temperature Binder Characterization
Refine further the Superpave binder specification based on a detailed assessment of current and innovative laboratory low-temperature characterization procedures.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2006
Enhancement of HIPERPAV II Software Program
Extend the HIPERPAV software for concrete pavement performance prediction to provide features to help engineers determine the timing of concrete placement to achieve optimum performance.
Mobility and Productivity Apr 2007
Full-Scale Accelerated Performance Testing for Superpave and Structural Validation: Phase II-Loading
Refine national Superpave binder specification to fully capture the benefit of modified binders. Pooled fund study TPF-5 (019) in partnership with the TRB Superpave Binder Expert Task Group.
Mobility and Productivity May 2007
Procedures for the Detection and Quantification of Lime in Asphalt Pavements
Develop procedures for State agencies for forensic detection and quantification of lime, used as an antistripping agent in asphalt pavements.
Mobility and Productivity May 2007
Procedures for the Detection and Quantification of Polymer Modifiers in Asphalt Pavements
Develop procedures for State agencies for forensic detection and quantification of polymer, used to enhance performance in asphalt pavements.
Mobility and Productivity May 2007
Lithium Technology Research for Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reactivity (ASR) in Concrete
Conduct and evaluate field trials using lithium-based technologies for the prevention and mitigation of ASR to identify and document the benefits of lithium in transportation structures. Provide guidance to State agencies for use of lithium.
Mobility and Productivity Sept 2007
Adequate Air Void System, measured by the Air Void Analyzer (AVA), for Freeze-Thaw Resistance
Evaluate the AVA sampling and operation procedures for measuring air voids in paving mixes. Correlate the AVA parameters with rapid laboratory freeze-thaw durability (AASHTO T 161 and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C 666) and with scaling characteristics as exhibited in the rapid freeze-thaw tests, possibly using deicer scaling tests (ASTM C 672 both using visual ratings and mass loss). Conduct fundamental research on the spacing factor, based on AVA results.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2007
CONcrete Extrusion Workability (CONEW) Device
Design a new type of device that can be used to determine a property of concrete that gives a direct measure of the workability, focusing on paving concrete mixtures.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2007
ICS-Smart Rollers
Assess the potential of enhanced rollers in the compaction of base and asphalt materials, under a pooled fund.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2007
Full-Scale Accelerated Performance Testing for Superpave and Structural Validation: Phase III-Evaluation and Recommendations
Refine the national Superpave binder specification to fully capture the benefit of modified binders. This is being done under pooled fund study TPF-5 (019) in partnership with the TRB Superpave Binder Expert Task Group.
Mobility and Productivity Aug 2008
Understanding Moisture Damage in Asphalt Pavements-Phase I
Establish and conduct fundamental research on moisture damage in asphalt pavements.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2008
Pavement Data and Performance- Team Leader: Tom Harman, Tom.Harman@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3072
Construction Quality Databases
Develop guidelines for establishing and effectively using automated databases containing statewide construction data and information. This will improve the ability of State DOTs to develop specifications to achieve high construction quality and performance while minimizing life cycle costs.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2006
Long-Term Pavement Performance- Team Leader: Aramis Lopez, Aramis.Lopez@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3145
Variability of Smoothness Measurements
Allow for improved pavement measurements made at highway speeds. Determine accelerometer performance for inertial profilers at speeds from 24 to 113 kilometers (15 to 70 miles) per hour.
Mobility and Productivity Jan 2006
Enhancement of DataPave Online
Enhance this Web application, which provides access to all releasable LTPP data via the Internet. Data can be extracted (exported) to a number of popular file formats for analysis.
Mobility and Productivity Oct 2006
Frost Determination of Seasonal Monitoring Program (SMP) sites
Complete the interpretation of frost penetration measurements at SMP sites and add results to the LTPP database.
Mobility and Productivity Oct 2006
Moisture Determination of SMP sites
Complete the interpretation of time domain reflectometry measurements and provide estimates of moisture content for the LTPP SMP sites.
Mobility and Productivity Oct 2006
Smoothness of Pavement at the Approaches to Weigh in Motion (WIM) Scales
Develop specifications to be used when installing WIM equipment and/or to reduce calibration or check time. They will provide a diagnostic tool to use when data change to assist with decisions on equipment reinstallation and/or pavement corrections.
Mobility and Productivity Oct 2006
Anytime Weather Software
Provide historical weather data for North America based on LTPP files and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This provides reliability estimates on daily weather values for pavement design and evaluation.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2006
LTPP Program Assessment
Perform a program assessment to evaluate the need for followup data collection after the conclusion of the planned 20-year monitoring effort and to determine whether remaining gaps in the database warrant further data collection efforts. Develop a post-LTPP plan for maintenance and dissemination of the program database and information.
Mobility and Productivity Jan 2007
Bridge Design and Construction- Team Leader: Bill Wright, Bill.Wright@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3053
Enhanced Use of Shallow Foundations for Accelerated Construction
Conduct load testing to determine the limitations in the use of shallow foundations for bridges to achieve accelerated construction goals.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2006
Synthesis Study on Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Methodologies for All Hazards
Synthesize and clarify the state of the practice and determine the feasibility of reaching a consistent set of guidelines for evaluating risk and cost benefit for all hazards, to support the safety, reliability, and security (SRS) goal of developing consistency in the level of risks used in design to safeguard structures from natural and terrorist attacks.
Safety, Security Dec 2006
Materials Spec-Accelerated Test-Based Specification-Repair Specification
Develop critical AASHTO-level documents and data required for the implementation of FRP materials for bridge structures.
Mobility and Productivity Sep 2007
Design Enhancements for Bridge Superstructure and Substructure Interface
Address a common and costly maintenance problem for typical short span bridges-the interface, or joint, between the superstructure elements and substructure support system at the beginning and end of the bridge. This work will instrument scale- and full-size mockups with realistic dynamic loading patterns to determine an optimum interface design.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2007
Improved Fracture Toughness Specifications for High-Performance Steel (HPS)
Maximize the design and performance benefits of advanced steels. Performance properties of HPS provide significant advantages in resistance to critical fracture not currently accounted for in design guidance.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2008
Performance Data for Ultrahigh Performance Concrete (UHPC) Bridge Elements
Conduct a series of experiments characterizing the benefits of UHPC in bridge applications. These experiments will be performed using standardized materials performance and durability tests as well as full-scale, instrumented load tests in the main structures lab. Performance data will lead to technical reports, and eventually input directly into AASHTO guideline documents.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2008
Development of Uniform Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Methodologies for All Hazards
Conduct this follow-on study, which would be the second step toward developing consistency in the level of risks used in design for all hazards.
Safety, Security Dec 2009
Refinement of Load and Load Factors for the Design of Highway Bridges for Extreme Events
Develop loads and load factors for extreme events not already in the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) specifications and improve on those that are already there to support the SRS goal of developing analysis and design methodologies for highway structures to prevent physical damage.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Dec 2009
Bridge Safety, Reliability, and Security- Team Leader: Sheila Duwadi, Sheila.Duwadi@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3106
Optimum Bridge Deck Shapes to Minimize Pressure Flow Scour
Characterize streamlines and shear stresses on channel bed for a variety of bridge deck shapes and positions. The result will be a more rational procedure for estimating pressure flow scour with the potential for taking advantage of streamlined shapes.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Dec 2007
Survey and Review of Wind Load Criteria for Cable Supported Structures
Conduct research to serve as a basis for developing consistent procedures for establishing design wind loads.
Safety Dec 2007
Assessment of Current Designs for Structural Vulnerability Against Multiple Hazards
Assess current bridge designs for vulnerability for each extreme event loading. This study would be followed by subsequent studies to develop optimized designs and countermeasures for mitigating and hardening structures for extreme events.
Safety, Security Dec 2008
Accelerated Repair and Restoration Techniques for Reconstruction After an Event
Research innovative techniques that could be deployed rapidly for recovery and permanent reconstruction after an event.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Dec 2009
Development of Guidelines for Bridges Built near Fault Lines
Develop design and retrofit guidelines for structures close to fault zones, which can be affected by near-source ground motion.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Dec 2009
Sensing and Monitoring Technologies for Extreme Events
Develop and evaluate technologies that can be incorporated into bridges and structures to monitor performance under extreme events, detect intruders, and help assess post-event capacity of structures.
Safety, Security Dec 2009
Infrastructure Inspection and Management- Team Leader: Joey Hartmann, Joey.Hartmann@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3059
Alternative Bridge Deck Reinforcement Materials
Evaluate the effectiveness of various metallic, nonmetallic, or coated/clad forms of passive bridge deck reinforcement subjected to the load and environment typical of highway bridges. Create reports and data syntheses.
Mobility and Productivity Jun 2006
Holistic Corrosion Protection Strategies
Develop and detail a corrosion protection strategy that could be incorporated into the AASHTO specifications and integrates dependent layers of technology to ensure 75-year bridge service lives. Develop design specifications.
Mobility and Productivity Jun 2007
Nondestructive Testing/Evaluation Technologies
Develop, evaluate, and demonstrate nondestructive methods for condition evaluation of inservice structures. Develop reports and training materials.
Mobility and Productivity Jun 2007
Bridge Coatings Performance and Selection
Use electrochemical techniques for determining single-coat, multiple-coat and over-coat bridge coating systems performance. Create reports and selection manual.
Mobility and Productivity Sep 2007
Performance-Based Bridge Management Tools
Derive database tools from National Bridge Inventory data to assist in overall bridge program management.
Mobility and Productivity Sep 2007
Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP) Program
Accommodate and develop both general trend information and information specific to a variety of bridge types, locations, and environmental exposures to guide future bridge design and construction. Create reports.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2007

Operations R&D

The Office of Operations R&D conducts research to mitigate congestion and improve safety through the use of ITS and other advanced technologies to better manage and operate the surface transportation system. The Travel Management Team produces hardware and software tools to analyze operational improvements, reduce congestion on surface streets and freeways, and mitigate delays in work zones. The Enabling Technologies Team is developing infrastructure-based and vehicle-infrastructure cooperative systems that will warn motorists of potential intersection collisions; promoting safety by developing decision-support tools for winter weather maintenance; and supporting the development and use of safety-enabling technologies such as dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) and nationwide differential global positioning systems (NDGPS).

Operations research will focus on reducing congestion and effectively dealing with one-time, nonrecurring highway incidents that cause congestion. Activities also include refining techniques to measure and assess highway congestion and system performance. Research in this area also will examine the use of intelligent infrastructure to develop advanced traffic signal control systems that will reduce travel times and increase reliability by adapting signalization to changing traffic conditions. Research under the Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems (CICAS) initiative will develop in-vehicle and infrastructure-based countermeasures to help prevent crashes at signalized and stop sign controlled intersections.

One of the key tools supporting Operations/ITS research and development is the Traffic Research Laboratory (TReL).  TReL contains the visualization, simulation, communication, and control capabilities needed to effectively conduct traffic engineering R&D. The laboratory affords researchers the ability to conduct innovative real-time, hardware-in-the-loop evaluations and studies. Researchers at TReL develop and evaluate prototype adaptive traffic control systems before they are evaluated and demonstrated in field trials. Also available to our researchers is the TFHRC Intelligent Intersection. The Intelligent Intersection is connected to TReL via a fiber optic communications link that supports full integration of the two research facilities, providing a controlled environment to test prototype systems before field trials. The Intelligent Intersection’s advanced sensors and simulated DSRC wireless communications provide powerful tools enabling the integration and testing of vehicle-infrastructure integration, advanced infrastructure-based sensing technology, infrastructure-based safety threat assessment processing, and integration of the CICAS systems with both legacy and emerging traffic control technology. In addition to the Intelligent Intersection, a Road Weather Information Station (RWIS) and a Global Positioning System Surface Observation System (GSOS) have been integrated with TReL to provide real-time weather information.

Key Operations R&D Projects and Milestones for FY 2006 and 2007

Office of Operations R&D
Office Director: Toni Wilbur, Toni.Wilbur@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3303
Project Goal Anticipated Completion
Intersection Collision Avoidance (ICA) and Human Centered Systems Related Research- Team Leaders: Gene McHale, Gene.McHale@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3275 and Tom Granda, Thomas.Granda@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3365
Transportation Management Center (TMC) National Pooled Fund Study Results
Study operational and human centered issues common among agencies that manage and operate TMCs.
Safety,
 Mobility and Productivity
Ongoing
Work Zone ITS for Crash Avoidance-Phase II
Develop prototype sensors to support work zone crash avoidance. A demonstration will be conducted at the Chrysler™ proving grounds.
Safety Apr 2006
Real-Time Linux® Operating System for Advanced Traffic Controllers
Port Linux real-time operating system to advanced transportation controllers to support the faster detector polling and information processing required for CICAS and Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) research.
Mobility and Productivity Sep 2006
Human Factors Assessment of Infrastructure-Based ICA Devices-Phase II
Evaluate alternative infrastructure-based warnings to drivers to prevent collisions. This phase studies deceleration profiles and reaction time data for drivers responding to warnings that are given both close to and further away from the intersection. This study will be conducted on a closed test course (in conjunction with the Human Centered Systems Lab).
Safety Sep 2006
Traffic Control Device Consortium Pooled Fund Study
Evaluate innovative traffic control devices and disseminate the results for incorporation into the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). A consortium of State, regional, and local entities, FHWA, and other partners will work in conjunction with the Human Centered Systems Lab on this task.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Dec 2009
CICAS Infrastructure Consortium (IC)
Design, develop, and test prototype CICAS in support of the USDOT ITS CICAS initiative. The CICAS IC will work jointly with a partnership of automobile manufacturers in this effort. Following testing of prototype systems, the CICAS IC will support field operational testing of CICAS systems.
Safety Aug 2010
Traffic Control and Operations-Team Leader: Raj Ghaman, Raj.Ghaman@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3270
Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Initiative-Phase I: Foundational Research
Conduct foundational research to initiate the ICM program with stakeholder input in the areas of ICM definitions, corridor delineation, ICM concepts and operational strategies development, ICM analysis tools assessment and development, and identification and alignment of gaps and needs with program objectives.
Safety,
Mobility and Productivity
Oct 2005
Traffic Detector Handbook
Complete this handbook, which explains how to design, use, and maintain traffic loops and magnetometers, and how to select and utilize video and radar sensors.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity, Environment Dec 2005
Adaptive Control Software (ACS) “Lite”-Field Test
Conduct remaining field tests of three brands of controllers: Eagle controllers in Houston, TX, Peek® controllers in St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL, and McCain® controllers in San Diego, CA. Econolite® brand controller testing has been completed in Gahanna, OH.
Mobility and Productivity Jan 2006
Identify Service Concepts and Technologies for Emergency Transportation Operations
Define potential service concepts and technologies where vehicle-infrastructure cooperation can enable or improve emergency transportation operations.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Jan 2006
Integration of DynaMIT, CLAIRE, and Advanced Incident Detection Algorithm (AIDA) for Real-Time Traffic Management on Arterials-Field Test in Los Angeles, CA
Integrate DynaMIT, one of the two prototypes for the real-time Traffic Estimation and Prediction System (TrEPS) developed under the Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) research project, to provide traffic estimation and predictive information based on real-time traffic data and help traffic engineers at TMCs implement proactive traffic management strategies on arterials in real time.
Mobility and Productivity Apr 2006
Winter Weather Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) Pooled Fund Study
Tailor the MDSS system to the particular needs of the eight States that are participating in this pooled fund study.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity, Environment Jun 2006
Traffic Detector Video
Develop a video to show the proper installation of loop detectors.
Safety,
Mobility and Productivity
Sep 2006
Winter Weather MDSS Deployment Assistance
Help deploy MDSS techniques and technology guidance tools to assist winter maintenance managers with treatment recommendations. The tools have the potential to keep roadways safer by improving mobility in adverse weather and promoting efficiencies in the use of chemicals, equipment, and staff. This project provides deployment assistance to encourage technology transfer to the private sector.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity, Environment Sep 2006
ICM Initiative-Phase II: Operations and Systems Development
Identify and conduct initial ICM operations and systems development activities to support early development of ICM management schemes, corridor operational strategies, analysis tools development, systems interfaces, and limited field testing.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Sep 2007
Pedestrian Stereo Imaging Sensor
Investigate the uses of stereo imaging to detect and trace pedestrians near intersections.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Sep 2007
Clear Roads Pooled Fund Study
Rigorously test winter maintenance materials, equipment, and methods for use by highway maintenance crews. 
Safety, Mobility and Productivity, Environment Dec 2007
Integration of DYNASMART-X, CLAIRE, and RHODES® for Real-Time Traffic Management-Field Test in Houston, TX
Integrate DYNASMART-X, one of the two prototypes for the real-time TrEPS developed under the DTA research project, to provide traffic estimation and predictive information based on real-time traffic data and help traffic engineers at TMCs implement proactive traffic management strategies on freeways in real time.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2007
Surface Transportation Security and Reliability Information System Model Deployment
Deploy the iFlorida model to demonstrate and evaluate how security, reliability, and safety can be enhanced through the widespread availability of real-time information.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity, Security Jun 2008
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Aerial Surveillance
Research the parameters and characteristics of remotely piloted vehicles for incident management and traffic surveillance.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Sep 2008
Traffic Analysis Tools/Simulation and Modeling-Team Leader: Raj Ghaman, Raj.Ghaman@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3270
Strategic Work Zone Analysis Tools (SWAT)
Provide the Work Zone Delay Impact Analysis Spreadsheet (QuickZone) and an Expert System Software Program (Impacts Assessment Tool) as part of SWAT, a set of tools for the design and operation of work zones that addresses mobility and safety impacts.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2005
CORSIM Application Guidelines
Provide guidelines to assist users of the CORSIM traffic simulation software in conducting transportation analyses.
Mobility and Productivity Jan 2006
Next Generation Simulation Modeling (NGSIM)
Develop and freely distribute valid microscopic traffic simulation algorithms and real-world traffic data sets.
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2007
Enabling Technologies-Team Leader: Gene McHale, Gene.McHale@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3275
Identify Mobility Applications for VII
Identify promising mobility applications that will be enabled by the anticipated VII infrastructure. Candidate applications will include evolutions of current services and technologies such as adaptive cruise control and new concepts that use vehicle control technologies to achieve significant future improvements in mobility.
Mobility and Productivity Jan 2006
High-Accuracy NDGPS
Provide the capability to broadcast corrections to the global positioning system over long ranges to achieve a better than 10-centimeter (3.94-inch) accuracy throughout the coverage area.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity, Environment, Security Dec 2007
DSRC/Wireless Access for Vehicular Environment
Develop telecommunications technology to include spectrum allocation from the Federal Communications Commission, licensing rules, standards, prototypes, and initial deployment.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity, Environment, Security Dec 2008
Telecommunications Interface Model for Predicting Ionospheric Changes
Develop and evaluate an ionospheric model to predict interference levels to telecommunications systems.
Safety, Mobility and Productivity, Environment, Security Dec 2008

Safety R&D

The Office of Safety R&D aims to reduce highway crashes and related fatalities and injuries by developing and implementing a program of safety innovations through a nationally coordinated R&T partnership. The focus is on FHWA’s priority objectives for highway safety improvements related to preventing and mitigating roadway departures, managing safety, improving intersections, and protecting pedestrians. This office provides transportation officials and practitioners with improved understanding, information, and state-of-the-art tools to aid informed decisions on highway safety improvements. The office also conducts advanced research to determine new ways to solve highway safety problems and challenges.

Planned initiatives include the development of a tool to evaluate countermeasures to prevent roadway departure crashes on two-lane rural highways, work to improve the retroreflectivity of pavement markings and work zone traffic control devices, and development of roadway lighting systems and safety structures. This includes work on speed management to encourage wider adoption of safe travel speeds appropriate for road and travel conditions; safety management to ensure that resources are allocated to assure maximum returns in reducing the severity and frequency of crashes; human centered systems to incorporate human factor considerations into all aspects of highway design; work zone safety improvements; and a variety of outreach efforts.

Key Safety R&D Projects and Milestones for FY 2006 and 2007

Office of Safety R&D
Office Director: Michael Trentacoste, Michael.Trentacoste@fhwa.dot.gov , 202-493-3260
Project Goal Anticipated Completion
Run-Off-The-Road Prevention: Design-Team Leader: Ray Krammes, Ray.Krammes@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3312
Driver Performance Effects from Innovative Applications of Pavement Markings and Raised Retroreflective Pavement Markers (RRPM) (Field Study)
Test driver response in a field experiment in Delta, PA, to innovative applications of markings and markers (in conjunction with the Human Centered Systems Lab).
Safety Jun 2006
Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM)-Two-Lane Rural Highway Update Release
Update a public release of software that will help highway planners and designers estimate the safety and operational effects of geometric design decisions on two-lane rural highways.
Safety Sep 2006
Driver Performance Effects from Innovative Applications of Pavement Markings and RRPMs (Lab Study)
Test driver response in the Highway Driving Simulator to innovative applications of markings and markers (in conjunction with the Human Centered Systems Lab).
Safety Dec 2006
Wet Night Visibility of Pavement Markings
Examine the performance of various types of pavement markings while saturated and during recovery.
Safety Mar 2007
Updated Minimum Levels for Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity
Investigate the effects of newer headlights, increased numbers of older drivers, changes in the vehicle fleet, and new marking materials to generate new minimum retroreflectivity levels.
Safety Sep 2007
Guidelines for Maintaining Night Visibility of Pavement Markings
Develop a document that will provide guidance and detailed procedures for pavement marking inspection and management programs.
Safety Sep 2007
Run-Off-The-Road Mitigation: Severity Reduction-Team Leader: Ken Opiela, Kenneth.Opiela@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3371
Mailbox Surrogate Test
Develop a low-cost test using FEA to evaluate lightweight mailboxes. In high-speed crash tests, mailbox supports have been observed to fly back and impact the windshield with the potential to cause injuries and fatalities. This low-cost test will be a surrogate for more expensive full-scale tests.
Safety June 2006
Guardrail Blockout Surrogate Test
Develop a new surrogate test to reduce costs for blockouts, which minimize the potential for wheel or bumper snagging on strong-post guardrail systems, and still provide a realistic loading condition for proposed blockouts made of recycled plastic, rubber, and wood.
Safety Sep 2006
Cable Median Barrier Development
Develop finite-element analysis (FEA) models for various types of cable barrier systems, and conduct crash simulations using the various FEA vehicle models available. These efforts may require full-scale crash tests to validate model results.  The results will be used to recommend guidelines for the placement of cable median barriers. The National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC) will oversee these efforts.
Safety Sep 2006
Vehicle Impacts for Median Landscape Treatments
Develop FEA models for various types of roadway median planter treatments and undertake crash simulations using the various FEA vehicle models available.  These efforts may require full-scale crash tests to validate model results. The results will be used to recommend guidelines for the design and placement of such median treatments in context sensitive designs. NCAC will oversee these efforts.
Safety Dec 2006
Intersections-Team Leader: Ray Krammes, Ray.Krammes@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3312
Design and Performance Analysis of Pedestrian Crossing Facilities for Continuous Flow Intersections
Explore considerations for pedestrian accommodations, signal settings, and level of service performance.
Safety Jan 2006
Operational Evaluation of the New Jersey Jughandle Intersection
Perform an operational comparison between typical New Jersey jughandles and conventional intersections using traffic simulation modeling for three types of designs.
Safety Jan 2007
Safety Evaluation of the New Jersey Jughandle Intersection
Perform a safety comparison between typical New Jersey jughandles and conventional intersections in the same State.
Safety Jan 2007
Safety Impact of Urban Freeway Interchange Spacing
Develop a preliminary evaluation of interchange spacing from statistical modeling of California freeway data.
Safety Jan 2007
Novel Intersections-Diverging Diamond Interchanges
Perform a human factors evaluation of signage and markings for diverging diamond intersections. The evaluations will include assessment of signs and markings, which may be followed by developing, testing, and evaluating alternative signage and markings if safety deficiencies in current practice are identified (in conjunction with the Human Centered Systems Lab).
Safety May 2007
Safety Analysis of Interchanges
Develop preliminary computational tools for safety evaluation and development of a research plan.
Safety Aug 2007
Pedestrians and Bicyclists-Team Leader: Tom Granda, Thomas.Granda@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3365
Tier 2:  ITS Technologies to Reduce Pedestrian Injuries and Fatalities
Identify current technology for pedestrian detection and warning systems and develop a project work plan for a possible Tier 1 initiative. The project is an exploratory initiative funded by the ITS Joint Program Office.
Safety Mar 2006
Evaluation of Safety Design and Operation of Shared-Use Paths
Develop tools/methodologies used to evaluate the operational and safety effectiveness of various design alternatives for shared-use paths. The products may be used to supplement the existing procedures in the “Bicycles” and “Pedestrians” chapters of the Highway Capacity Manual.
Safety Apr 2006
University Course on Pedestrians and Bicyclists
Develop Version 2 of the University Course on Pedestrians and Bicyclists.
Safety Apr 2006
Development of Design Guidelines for Crosswalk Lighting
Quantify the improvement in detection and recognition of pedestrians in and adjacent to crosswalks through placement of the lighting pole. The intent is to develop a guideline for installing crosswalk lighting both separately and as part of a continuous fixed roadway lighting system.
Safety May 2006
Pedestrian Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT) V 2.0
Update the PBCAT software to help State and local pedestrian/bicycle coordinators, planners, and engineers improve walking and bicycling safety by analyzing crashes between motor vehicles and pedestrians or bicyclists. The updated version of PBCAT will be in a familiar Microsoft® Windows® interface, provide more user options and greater customization, and offer enhanced countermeasures information.
Safety May 2006
In-Roadway Warning Lights Study
Collect data to examine pedestrian safety and whether the effects of in-roadway warning lights at crosswalks are long lasting or the result of novelty.
Safety Jun 2006
Segway® Human Transporter
Evaluate the stopping performance of experienced Segway riders (Phase 1- “An Evaluation of Segway Riders’ Stopping Performance on a Closed Course”). Compare the ability of novice and experienced riders to navigate typical sidewalk conditions (Phase 2-“Performance of Expert and Novice Segway Riders Under Varying Sidewalk Conditions”).
Safety Jun 2006
Hazard Index for Assessing Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety at Intersections
Develop hazard indices that will enable planners, engineers, and other practitioners to easily identify features, or combinations of features, at intersections that place pedestrians and bicyclists at risk. Intersection indices will be helpful in influencing future intersection design, as well as accommodating the needs of pedestrians with disabilities.
Safety Sep 2006
Speed Management-Team Leader: Ray Krammes, Ray.Krammes@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3312
Results of Field Tests on Impacts of Setting and Enforcing Rational Speed Limits
Undertake a complete and systematic evaluation of the effects of establishing, publicizing, and enforcing rational speed limits in a number of dedicated participating communities during a 2-year period.
Safety Dec 2006
Safety Management Systems-Team Leader: Carol Tan, Carol.Tan@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3315
Evaluation of the Safety Edge
Determine the scope, develop the work plan, and collect the “before” data related to the Pavement Edge Dropoff study. This is a pooled fund study.
Safety Dec 2005
Rollover Causation Study
Identify the guidelines available for identifying sites with high rollover potential.
Safety Sep 2006
SafetyAnalyst
Incorporate state-of-the-art safety management approaches into computerized analytical tools for guiding the decisionmaking process to identify safety improvements. Develop a systemwide program of site-specific improvement projects.
Safety Nov 2006
Evaluation of the Safety Edge
This is a pooled fund study to determine the scope, develop the work plan, and collect the “before” data related to the effectiveness of the safety edge to prevent pavement edge dropoff related crashes.
Safety June 2007
Advanced Research-Digital Highway Measurement Vehicle
An FHWA-led pooled fund study designed to advance the utilization of technologies to perform real-time data collection of roadway and roadside features, at highway speeds.
Safety Dec 2007
Evaluation of Low-Cost Safety Improvements
Determine the effectiveness of a number of low-cost safety improvements from the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. This is a pooled fund study.
Safety Jun 2007
Human Centered Systems-Team Leader: Tom Granda, Thomas.Granda@fhwa.dot.gov, 202-493-3365
Sign Assessment for Infrastructure Systems
Initiate and monitor projects intended to address evaluation of the infrastructure signs for the MUTCD (in conjunction with the Office of Operations R&D).
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Ongoing
Infrastructure-Cooperative Systems ICA (Simulator Study 2)
Examine driver reaction times to infrastructure-based warnings about red light violators. Unlike the first simulator study, this study will involve other vehicles on the roadway (in conjunction with the ITS Joint Program Office).
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Sep 2006
Traffic Control Device Consortium Pooled Fund Study Projects
Evaluate novel traffic control devices through this consortium of regional, State, and local entities; appropriate organizations; and FHWA. Results will be disseminated for incorporation in the MUTCD (in conjunction with the Office of Operations R&D).
Safety, Mobility and Productivity Dec 2009
Transportation Management Center (TMC) Pooled Fund Study Projects
Study operational topics related to TMCs through this consortium of regional, State, and local entities; appropriate organizations; and FHWA (in conjunction with the Office of Operations R&D).
Mobility and Productivity Dec 2009

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