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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-02-078
Date: November 2003

Bottomless Culvert Scour Study: Phase I Laboratory Report

7. REFERENCES

  1. Chang, F., /Maryland DOT. Maryland SHA Procedure for Estimating Scour at Bridge Abutments Part 2-Clear Water Scour, ASCE Proceedings of the International Water Resources Engineering Conference held in Memphis, TN, Vol. 1 pp 169-173, 1998.

  2. Young K. G., et al./GKY and Associates., Inc. Testing Abutment Scour Model, ASCE Proceedings of the International Water Resources Engineering Conference held in Memphis, TN, Vol. 1 pp 180-185, 1998.

  3. Sturm, T. W. et al. Abutment Scour in Compound Channels for Variable Setbacks, ASCE Proceedings of the International Water Resources Engineering Conference held in Memphis, TN, Vol. 1 pp 180-185, 1998.

  4. Niell, C. R. Guide to Bridge Hydraulics, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada, 1973

  5. Shields, A. Anwendung der Aehnlichkeitsmechanik und der Turbulenzforschung auf die Geschiebebewegung, Mitteilung der Preussischen Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau und Schiffbau, Heft 26, Berlin, (In German), 1936.

  6. Manning, R. On the Flow of Water in Open Channels and Pipe, Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland, 1890.

  7. Blodgett, J. C. Rock Riprap Design for Protection of Stream Channels Near Highway Structures, Vol. 1-Hydraulic Characteristics of Open Channels, U.S. Geological Survey, Report 86-4127, Sacramento, California, 1986.

  8. Ishbash, S. V. Construction of Dams By Depositing Rock in Running Water, Second Congress on Large Dams, Communication No. 3, Washington, D.C. 1936.

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). The hydraulics and hydrology research program at the TFHRC Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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