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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-072
Date: July 2006

Assessing Stream Channel Stability At Bridges in Physiographic Regions

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The objective of this study was to expand and improve a rapid channel stability assessment method developed previously by Johnson et al. to include additional factors, such as major physiographic units across the United States, a greater range of bank materials and complexities, critical bank heights, stream types and processes, sand bed streams, and in-channel bars or lack of bars. (1) Another goal of this study was to tailor Thorne's reconnaissance method for bridge inspection and stability assessment needs. (2) Stream-bridge intersections were observed across the United States to develop and test the stability assessment method. Site visits were conducted at 57 stream-bridge intersections in 14 physiographic regions and subregions. Data collected and included in the report include locations and global positioning system (GPS) coordinates of the bridges, the physiographic Province, land use, stream classification, bed and bar material, percent of sand in the bed material, controls in the banks or on the bed, bank vegetation, bank material, bank height, and any erosion-related characteristics. Variability in stream types and common characteristics within each of the physiographic regions also were described. Thirteen indicators were identified for the stability assessment method. For each indicator, a rating of poor, fair, good, or excellent was assigned. An overall rank was obtained by summing the 13 ratings. To address sensitivities of various stream types to the indicators and rankings, the appropriate ranges of rankings were determined for three categories of stream channels. Each of the 57 stream-bridge intersections also was described in terms of lateral and vertical stability. Finally, a simplified version of Thorne's stream reconnaissance field sheets is presented for collecting data for the stream stability assessment and to provide a record of conditions at each visit. (2)

Gary L. Henderson
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development

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Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-05-072

2. Government Accession No.

3. Recipient's Catalog No.

4. Title and Subtitle

Assessing Stream Channel Stability at bridges in Physiographic Regions

5. Report Date

July 2006

6. Performing Organization Code

7. Author (s)

Peggy A. Johnson

8. Performing Organization Report No.

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61–03–P–00353

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Infrastructure Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final Report, August 2003 to August 2004

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

15. Supplementary Notes

Contracting Officer's Technical Representative—J. Sterling Jones, HRDI–07; cosponsored by Jorge Pagan, Office of Bridge Technology

16. Abstract

The objective of this study was to expand and improve a rapid channel stability assessment method developed previously by Johnson et al. to include additional factors, such as major physiographic units across the United States, a greater range of bank materials and complexities, critical bank heights, stream types and processes, sand bed streams, and in-channel bars or lack of bars. (1) Another goal of this study was to tailor Thorne's reconnaissance method for bridge inspection and stability assessment needs. (2) Stream-bridge intersections were observed across the United States to develop and test the stability assessment method. Site visits were conducted at 57 stream-bridge intersections in 14 physiographic regions and subregions. Data collected and included in the report include locations and global positioning system (GPS) coordinates of the bridges, the physiographic Province, land use, stream classification, bed and bar material, percent of sand in the bed material, controls in the banks or on the bed, bank vegetation, bank material, bank height, and any erosion-related characteristics. Variability in stream types and common characteristics within each of the physiographic regions also were described. Thirteen indicators were identified for the stability assessment method. For each indicator, a rating of poor, fair, good, or excellent was assigned. An overall rank was obtained by summing the 13 ratings. To address sensitivities of various stream types to the indicators and rankings, the appropriate ranges of rankings were determined for three categories of stream channels. Each of the 57 stream-bridge intersections also was described in terms of lateral and vertical stability. Finally, a simplified version of Thorne's stream reconnaissance field sheets is presented for collecting data for the stream stability assessment and to provide a record of conditions at each visit. (2)

17. Key Words

Bridge scour, stream stability, inspection, bridge maintenance, hydraulics

18. Distribution Statement

19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

157

22. Price

N/A

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized


Metric Conversion Chart


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE

2. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW

CHANNEL ADJUSTMENTS

CHANNEL STABILITY AT BRIDGES

METHODS FOR COLLECTING STREAM CHANNEL DATA

CHANNEL STABILITY ASSESSMENT METHODS.

STREAM CLASSIFICATION

PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS

3. FIELD OBSERVATIONS

PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONAL OBSERVATIONS.

EFFECT OF CHANNEL INSTABILITY ON BRIDGES.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHANNEL STABILITY AND SCOUR at bridgeS

4. ASSESSING CHANNEL STABILITY

5. MODIFICATIONS OF THORNE'S RECONNAISSANCE SHEETS

6. EXAMPLES

7. CONCLUSIONS

APPENDIX A

REFERENCES

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Stable stream in central Pennsylvania.

Figure 2. Unstable stream in western Pennsylvania

Figure 3. Variation of channel width over medium timeframe about the stable mean (after reference 14)

Figure 4. Critical bank height and angle

Figure 5. USACE10 stream classification system

Figure 6. Physiographic map of the United States (after reference 66)

Figure 7. Failing banks in the Central Lowlands

Figure 8. Failing banks in the Interior Lowlands

Figure 9. Stream impacts due to disturbances, including hoof damage, vegetation removal, and channel straightening

Figure 10. Impacts of disturbances at bridge (from figure 9)

Figure 11. Wooded land upstream of bridge

Figure 12. Downstream of figure 11, vegetation removed

Figure 13. Mojave River, CA

Figure 14. Meander migration affecting right abutment, Hammond Branch, MD

Figure 15. Single-span bridge over unstable channel

Figure 16. Riprap stabilization wall along Roaring Run, PA

Figure 17. Cross vane downstream of bridge over Potter Run,

Figure 18. Simplified and revised reconnaissance sheets based on Thorne, sheet 1

Figure 19. Simplified and revised reconnaissance sheets based on Thorne, sheet 2

Figure 20. Simplified and revised reconnaissance sheets based on Thorne, sheet 3

Figure 21. Dry Creek, Pacific Coastal—upstream from bridge

Figure 22. Dry Creek, Pacific Coastal—downstream from bridge

Figure 23. Dry Creek, Pacific Coastal—upstream under bridge, photo 1

Figure 24. Dry Creek, Pacific Coastal—upstream under bridge, photo 2

Figure 25. Dutch Bill Creek, Pacific Coastal—upstream from under bridge

Figure 26. Dutch Bill Creek, Pacific Coastal—downstream at bridge

Figure 27. Dutch Bill Creek, Pacific Coastal—downstream from under bridge

Figure 28. Dutch Bill Creek, Pacific Coastal—upstream through bridge

Figure 29. Buena Vista Creek, Pacific Coastal—upstream from bridge

Figure 30. Buena Vista Creek, Pacific Coastal—downstream from bridge

Figure 31. Buena Vista Creek, Pacific Coastal—downstream under bridge

Figure 32. Buena Vista Creek, Pacific Coastal—upstream from under bridge

Figure 33. Jacalitos Creek, Pacific Coastal—downstream from bridge

Figure 34. Jacalitos Creek, Pacific Coastal—upstream from bridge

Figure 35. Jacalitos Creek, Pacific Coastal—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 36. Jacalitos Creek, Pacific Coastal—downstream from under bridge

Figure 37. Murietta Creek, Pacific Coastal—downstream from bridge

Figure 38. Murietta Creek, Pacific Coastal—upstream from bridge

Figure 39. Murietta Creek, Pacific Coastal—upstream toward bridge

Figure 40. Murietta Creek, Pacific Coastal—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 41. Mojave River, Basin and Range—upstream from bridge, photo 1

Figure 42. Mojave River, Basin and Range—upstream from bridge, photo 2

Figure 43. Mojave River, Basin and Range—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 44. Mojave River, Basin and Range—downstream from bridge

Figure 45. Rt. 66 Wash, Basin and Range—upstream from bridge

Figure 46. Rt. 66 Wash, Basin and Range—downstream from bridge

Figure 47. Rt. 66 Wash, Basin and Range—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 48. Rt. 66 Wash, Basin and Range—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 49. Sacramento Wash, Basin and Range—upstream under bridge

Figure 50. Sacramento Wash, Basin and Range—downstream from bridge

Figure 51. Sacramento Wash, Basin and Range—downstream under bridge

Figure 52. Sacramento Wash, Basin and Range—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 53. Rio Puerco, Trans Pecos—downstream from bridge

Figure 54. Rio Puerco, Trans Pecos—upstream from bridge.

Figure 55. Rio Puerco, Trans Pecos—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 56. Rio Puerco, Trans Pecos—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 57. Rio San Jose, Trans Pecos—upstream from bridge

Figure 58. Rio San Jose, Trans Pecos—downstream from bridge

Figure 59. Rio San Jose, Trans Pecos—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 60. Rio San Jose, Trans Pecos—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 61. Arkansas River, Rocky Mountains—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 62. Arkansas River, Rocky Mountains—upstream from bridge

Figure 63. Arkansas River, Rocky Mountains—downstream from bridge

Figure 64. Arkansas River, Rocky Mountains—bridge #2 downstream from other bridge

Figure 65. Cochetopa Creek, Rocky Mountains—downstream from bridge

Figure 66. Cochetopa Creek, Rocky Mountains—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 67. Cochetopa Creek, Rocky Mountains—upstream from bridge

Figure 68. North Rush Creek, Great Plains—upstream of bridge

Figure 69. North Rush Creek, Great Plains—upstream from bridge

Figure 70. North Rush Creek, Great Plains—downstream from bridge

Figure 71. Saline River, Great Plains—upstream under bridge

Figure 72. Saline River, Great Plains—downstream from bridge

Figure 73. Saline River, Great Plains—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 74. South Fork Solomon River, Great Plains—looking downstream at bridge, photo 1

Figure 75. South Fork Solomon River, Great Plains—looking downstream at bridge, photo 2

Figure 76. South Fork Solomon River, Great Plains—left bank

Figure 77. South Fork Solomon River, Great Plains—downstream

Figure 78. West Elk Creek, Central Plains—looking downstream at bridge, photo 1

Figure 79. West Elk Creek, Central Plains—looking downstream at bridge, photo 2

Figure 80. West Elk Creek, Central Plains—upstream from bridge

Figure 81. West Elk Creek, Central Plains—downstream from bridge

Figure 82. Beaver Creek, Central Plains—upstream from bridge

Figure 83. Beaver Creek, Central Plains—downstream from bridge

Figure 84. Beaver Creek, Central Plains—facing upstream under bridge

Figure 85. Beaver Creek, Central Plains—facing downstream under bridge

Figure 86. Brush Creek, Central Plains—upstream from bridge

Figure 87. Brush Creek, Central Plains—downstream from bridge

Figure 88. Brush Creek, Central Plains—downstream under bridge

Figure 89. Unnamed creek (N 19), Central Plains—downstream from bridge

Figure 90. Unnamed creek (N 19), Central Plains—upstream from bridge

Figure 91. Unnamed creek (N 19), Central Plains—upstream under bridge

Figure 92. Unnamed creek (N 19), Central Plains—downstream under bridge

Figure 93. East Fork, Interior Low Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 94. East Fork, Interior Low Plateau—looking downstream at second bridge

Figure 95. East Fork, Interior Low Plateau—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 96. East Fork, Interior Low Plateau—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 97. Honey Run, Interior Low Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 98. Honey Run, Interior Low Plateau—downstream from bridge

Figure 99. Honey Run, Interior Low Plateau—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 100. Honey Run, Interior Low Plateau—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 101. Unnamed creek (N 28), Interior Low Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 102. Unnamed creek (N 28), Interior Low Plateau—downstream from bridge

Figure 103. Unnamed creek (N 28), Interior Low Plateau—downstream under bridge

Figure 104. Unnamed creek (N 28), Interior Low Plateau—rocky bank material

Figure 105. South Fork, Interior Low Plateau—downstream from bridge

Figure 106. South Fork, Interior Low Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 107. South Fork, Interior Low Plateau—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 108. South Fork, Interior Low Plateau—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 109. Little Skin Creek, Ozark-Ouachita Highlands—downstream from bridge

Figure 110. Little Skin Creek, Ozark-Ouachita Highlands—upstream from bridge

Figure 111. Little Skin Creek, Ozark-Ouachita Highlands—looking downstream at bridge (left)

Figure 112. Little Skin Creek, Ozark-Ouachita Highlands—looking downstream at bridge (right)

Figure 113. Unnamed creek (N 21), Ozark-Ouachita Highlands—downstream from bridge

Figure 114. Unnamed creek (N 21), Ozark-Ouachita Highlands—upstream from bridge

Figure 115. Unnamed creek (N 21), Ozark-Ouachita Highlands—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 116. Unnamed creek (N 21), Ozark-Ouachita Highlands—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 117. Little Cypress Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—downstream from bridge

Figure 118. Little Cypress Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from bridge

Figure 119. Little Cypress Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 120. Little Cypress Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 121. Unnamed creek (N 23), Atlantic Coastal Plain—downstream from bridge

Figure 122. Unnamed creek (N 23), Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from bridge

Figure 123. Unnamed creek (N 23), Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 124. Unnamed creek (N 23), Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 125. Unnamed creek (N 24), Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from bridge

Figure 126. Unnamed creek (N 24), Atlantic Coastal Plain—downstream from bridge

Figure 127. Unnamed creek (N 24), Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 128. Unnamed creek (N 24), Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 129. Peace River, Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from bridge at old pedestrian bridge

Figure 130. Peace River, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 131. Peace River, Atlantic Coastal Plain—downstream under bridge, right bank

Figure 132. Peace River, Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from old pedestrian bridge

Figure 133. Alligator Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—downstream from bridge

Figure 134. Alligator Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 135. Alligator Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 136. Alligator Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from bridge

Figure 137. Stocketts Run, Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from bridge

Figure 138. Stocketts Run, Atlantic Coastal Plain—downstream from bridge

Figure 139. Stocketts Run, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 140. Stocketts Run, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 141. Mill Stream Branch, Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from bridge

Figure 142. Mill Stream Branch, Atlantic Coastal Plain—downstream from bridge

Figure 143. Mill Stream Branch, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 144. Mill Stream Branch, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 145. Kent County Tributary, Atlantic Coastal Plain—downstream from bridge

Figure 146. Kent County Tributary, Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from bridge

Figure 147. Kent County Tributary, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 148. Kent County Tributary, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 149. Morgan Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from bridge

Figure 150. Morgan Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—downstream from bridge

Figure 151. Morgan Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 152. Morgan Creek, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 153. Hammond Branch, Atlantic Coastal Plain—upstream from bridge

Figure 154. Hammond Branch, Atlantic Coastal Plain—downstream from bridge

Figure 155. Hammond Branch, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 156. Hammond Branch, Atlantic Coastal Plain—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 157. Pootatuck River, New England—downstream from bridge

Figure 158. Pootatuck River, New England—upstream from bridge

Figure 159. Pootatuck River, New England—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 160. Pootatuck River, New England—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 161. Mill River, New England—upstream from bridge

Figure 162. Mill River, New England—downstream from bridge

Figure 163. Mill River, New England—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 164. Mill River, New England—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 165. Aspetuck River, New England—upstream from bridge

Figure 166. Aspetuck River, New England—downstream from bridge

Figure 167. Aspetuck River, New England—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 168. Aspetuck River, New England—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 169. West Branch Saugatuck River, New England—downstream from bridge

Figure 170. West Branch Saugatuck River, New England—upstream from bridge

Figure 171. West Branch Saugatuck River, New England—looking downstream at bridge (bridge in foreground is the pedestrian bridge)

Figure 172. West Branch Saugatuck River, New England—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 173. Mianus River, New England—upstream from bridge

Figure 174. Mianus River, New England—downstream from bridge. Note weir

Figure 175. Mianus River, New England—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 176. Mianus River, New England—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 177. McKnown Creek, Appalachian Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 178. McKnown Creek, Appalachian Plateau—downstream from bridge

Figure 179. McKnown Creek, Appalachian Plateau—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 180. McKnown Creek, Appalachian Plateau—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 181. Wolf Run, Appalachian Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 182. Wolf Run, Appalachian Plateau—downstream from bridge

Figure 183. Wolf Run, Appalachian Plateau—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 184. Wolf Run, Appalachian Plateau—upstream face of bridge

Figure 185. Unnamed creek (N 48), Appalachian Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 186. Unnamed creek (N 48), Appalachian Plateau—downstream from bridge

Figure 187. Unnamed creek (N 48), Appalachian Plateau—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 188. Unnamed creek (N 48), Appalachian Plateau—looking upstream through bridge

Figure 189. Reids Run, Appalachian Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 190. Reids Run, Appalachian Plateau—downstream from bridge

Figure 191. Reids Run, Appalachian Plateau—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 192. Reids Run, Appalachian Plateau—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 193. Piney Creek, Appalachian Plateau—downstream from bridge

Figure 194. Piney Creek, Appalachian Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 195. Piney Creek, Appalachian Plateau—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 196. Piney Creek, Appalachian Plateau—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 197. Sandy Creek, Appalachian Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 198. Sandy Creek, Appalachian Plateau—downstream from bridge

Figure 199. Sandy Creek, Appalachian Plateau—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 200. Sandy Creek, Appalachian Plateau—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 201. Trout Run, Appalachian Plateau—upstream from bridge

Figure 202. Trout Run, Appalachian Plateau—downstream from bridge

Figure 203. Trout Run, Appalachian Plateau—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 204. Trout Run, Appalachian Plateau—upstream face of bridge

Figure 205. Blackrock Run, Piedmont—upstream from bridge

Figure 206. Blackrock Run, Piedmont—downstream from bridge

Figure 207. Blackrock Run, Piedmont—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 208. Blackrock Run, Piedmont—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 209. Indian Run, Piedmont—upstream from bridge

Figure 210. Indian Run, Piedmont—downstream from bridge

Figure 211. Indian Run, Piedmont—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 212. Indian Run, Piedmont—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 213. Middle Patuxent River, Piedmont—upstream from bridge

Figure 214. Middle Patuxent River, Piedmont—downstream from bridge

Figure 215. Middle Patuxent River, Piedmont—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 216. Middle Patuxent River, Piedmont—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 217. Atherton Tributary, Piedmont—upstream from bridge

Figure 218. Atherton Tributary, Piedmont—downstream from bridge

Figure 219. Atherton Tributary, Piedmont—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 220. Atherton Tributary, Piedmont—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 221. Little Elk Creek, Piedmont—upstream from bridge

Figure 222. Little Elk Creek, Piedmont—downstream from bridge

Figure 223. Little Elk Creek, Piedmont—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 224. Little Elk Creek, Piedmont—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 225. Big Beaver Creek, Piedmont—upstream from bridge

Figure 226. Big Beaver Creek, Piedmont—downstream from bridge

Figure 227. Big Beaver Creek, Piedmont—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 228. Big Beaver Creek, Piedmont—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 229. Buffalo Run, Valley and Ridge—upstream from bridge

Figure 230. Buffalo Run, Valley and Ridge—downstream from bridge

Figure 231. Buffalo Run, Valley and Ridge—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 232. Buffalo Run, Valley and Ridge—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 233. Roaring Run, Valley and Ridge—downstream from bridge

Figure 234. Roaring Run, Valley and Ridge—upstream from bridge

Figure 235. Roaring Run, Valley and Ridge—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 236. Roaring Run, Valley and Ridge—looking upstream at bridge

Figure 237. Potter Run, Valley and Ridge—downstream from bridge

Figure 238. Potter Run, Valley and Ridge—upstream from bridge

Figure 239. Potter Run, Valley and Ridge—looking downstream at bridge

Figure 240. Potter Run, Valley and Ridge—looking upstream at bridge

List of Tables

Table 1. Data items from reconnaissance sheets related to stream stability indicators

Table 2. Summary of common indicators used in channel stability assessment methods

Table 3. Montgomery and Buffington stream classification system

Table 4. Regional equation parameters for selected physiographic regions in the United States

Table 5. River data summary

Table 6. River channel data

Table 7. River bank data

Table 8. Stability indicators, descriptions, and ratings

Table 9. Stability assessment ratings for each factor

Table 10. Overall rankings for pool-riffle, plane-bed, dune-ripple, and engineered channels

Table 11. Overall rankings for cascade and step-pool channels

Table 12. Overall rankings for braided channels

Table 13. Vertical versus lateral stability

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). The hydraulics and hydrology research program at the TFHRC Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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