Research Home  Hydraulics Home  
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information 

Publication Number: FHWARD06138 Date: October 2006 
Figure 1. Photo. Culvert headbox under construction.
The figure is a photo of the culvert headbox used in the study under construction. From a raised and offtotheside position, the photo shows a man working on a grid of pipes.
Figure 2. Diagram. Arrangement of ceramic class pressure sensors.
The figure is a perspective, or threedimensional, diagram. On the right side is a rectangular headbox, a term that is spelled head box open parenthesisas two words close parenthesis in the diagram. An arrow indicating the direction of flow is superimposed on its top. The arrow points to the left. Immediately to the left of the headbox is a rectangular culvert. Three small cylinders are on the bottom of the headbox, and another three are on the bottom of the culvert. The cylinders are labeled pressure sensors. A chart is superimposed over the pressure sensors. The chart has two plots, one labeled E.G.L. for elevation grade line, and the other labeled H.G.L. for hydraulic grade line. For the pressure sensors in the head box, the two plots are together. For the pressure sensors in the culvert, the two plots descend and diverge with the H.G.L. plot being the lower plot.
Figure 3. Sketch. Precast flared end section tested by Graziano and by McEnroe.
The figure is a perspective, or threedimensional, sketch of a culvert end section. The distant portion of the perspective sketch is to the right and is a cylindrical shape that is part of the culvert body. The near portion of the perspective sketch is to the left and is the actual flared end section. Beginning at the cylindrical culvert body, the sides and bottom of the end section, which has no top, spread out, or flare. The bottom is flat and joins the sides at right angles. The sides are short at the front but increase in height as they approach the culvert body. At the culvert body, the sides are the same height as the body.
Figure 4. Equation.H W slash D, prefabricated metal end section, unsubmerged condition.
For the quotient greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 0.41 of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5, the quotient of H W divided by D equals the product of 1.60 times the quotient to the 0.60 power of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5.
Figure 5. Equation.H W slash D, prefabricated metal end section, transition zone.
For the quotient greater than or equal to 0.41 and less than or equal to 0.62 of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5, the quotient of H W divided by D equals the sum of the product of 2.23 times the quotient of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5, all added to 0.023.
Figure 6. Equation.H W slash D, prefabricated metal end section, submerged condition.
For the quotient greater than or equal to 0.62 and less than or equal to 1.20 of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5, the quotient of H W divided by D equals the sum of three terms. The first term is 1.289. The second term is the negative of the product of 1.61 times the quotient of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5. The third term is the product of 2.90 times the quotient to the power of 2 of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5.
Figure 7. Equation.H W slash D, precast concrete end section, unsubmerged condition.
For the quotient greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 0.42 of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5, the quotient of H W divided by D equals the product of 1.53 times the quotient to the 0.55 power of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5.
Figure 8. Equation.H W slash D, precast concrete end section, transition zone.
For the quotient greater than or equal to 0.42 and less than or equal to 0.68 of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5, the quotient of H W divided by D equals the sum of the product of 2.13 times the quotient of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5, all added to 0.055.
Figure 9. Equation.H W slash D, precast concrete end section, submerged condition.
For the quotient greater than or equal to 0.68 and less than or equal to 1.30 of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5, the quotient of H W divided by D equals the sum of three terms. The first term is 1.367. The second term is the negative of the product of 1.50 times the quotient of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5. The third term is the product of 2.50 times the quotient to the power of 2 of Q divided by the square root of the product of g times D to the power of 5.
Figure 10. Equation.Figure 7in H D S5 format.
For the quotient greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 3.04 of Q divided by the product of A times D to the onehalf power, the quotient of HW divided by D equals the product of K subscript u times 0.515 times the quotient to the 0.55 power of Q divided by the product of A times D to the onehalf power.
Figure 11. Sketch. Relationship of entrance loss coefficient to Reynolds number.
The figure is a sketch of a hypothetical graph. The xaxis is H W divided by D, which is a dimensionless ratio, and ranges from 0 to 2.5. The yaxis is K subscript e and the range is unlabeled. Four sets of markings are plotted. Each set has a Reynolds number, abbreviated Re. From top to bottom, the sets of Reynolds numbers of 75,000, 100,000, 200,000, and 300,000, respectively.
Figure 12. Diagram.Typical inlet control flow condition.
The figure is a side view schematic of a culvert, which is shown as a rectangle. The culvert slopes downward to the right. Thus the high end is to the left. Atop the culvert is a trapezoidal shape that represents a roadbed or other object. The culvert extends for a short distance beyond each end of the bottom of the trapezoidal shape. Three dotted lines are within the culvert. The topmost is labeled E.G.L., for energy grade line. The middle is labeled the critical depth line. The bottom is labeled H.G.L., for hydraulic grade line. Both the E.G.L. and the H.G.L. extend beyond the ends of the culvert. A number of distances or locations are indicated. On the left side of the diagram, two vertical lines are labeled 1 and 2, respectively. The line labeled 1 is before the culvert entrance. The line labeled 2 goes through the culvert just to the right of the entrance. The accompanying report text discusses equations that measure an energy balance between 1 and 2. Also on the left side of the diagram, the vertical distance between the bottom of the culvert and the E.G.L. before it enters the culvert is labeled H W. Near the left end of the culvert, the vertical drop in the E.G.L. as it enters the culvert is labeled H subscript e. Also near the left end of the culvert, the vertical distance between the E.G.L. after it has entered the culvert and the bottom of the culvert is labeled H subscript c. Toward the right end of the culvert, the vertical distance between the bottom of the culvert and the H.G.L. is labeled y subscript n, and the vertical distance between the E.G.L. and the H.G.L. is labeled V subscript n, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g. Several elevation markings with no dimensions are also on the diagram.
Figure 13. Equation. Unsubmerged form 1, inlet control.
The quotient of H W subscript i divided by D equals the sum of three terms. The first is the quotient of H subscript c divided by D. The second term is the product of K times the quotient to the M power of the product of K subscript u times Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power. The third term is the product of 0.7 times S.
Figure 14. Equation. Unsubmerged form 2, inlet control.
The quotient of H W subscript i divided by D equals the product of K times the quotient to the M power of the product of K subscript u times Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power.
Figure 15. Equation. Submerged form, inlet control.
The quotient of H W subscript i divided by D equals the sum of three terms. The first is the product of c times the quotient squared of the product of K subscript u times Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power. The second term is Y. The third term is the product of 0.7 times S.
Figure 16. Diagram. Outlet control for full flow condition.
The figure is a side view schematic of a culvert, which is shown as a rectangle. The culvert slopes downward to the right. Thus the high end is to the left. Atop the culvert is a trapezoidal shape that represents a roadbed or other object. The culvert extends for a short distance beyond each end of the bottom of the trapezoidal shape. Two dotted lines are above the culvert. The topmost is labeled E.G.L., for energy grade line. The bottom is labeled H.G.L., for hydraulic grade line. The lines are horizontal before and after the ends of the culvert; the portions above the culvert slope downward to the right. A number of distances or locations are indicated. To the left of the culvert's entrance on the left side of the diagram, a vertical line is labeled 1. To the right of the culvert's exit on the right side of the diagram, a vertical line is labeled 2. The accompanying text discusses equations that measure an energy balance between 1 and 2. The vertical distance between the E.G.L. and the H.G.L. before the culvert's entrance is labeled V subscript n, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g. The vertical distance between the E.G.L. and the H.G.L. above the culvert is labeled V squared divided by the product of 2 times g. The vertical distance between the E.G.L. and the H.G.L. after the culvert's exit is labeled V subscript d, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g. The vertical distance between the E.G.L. before it enters the culvert and the bottom of the culvert at the culvert's entrance is labeled H W. The vertical distance between the H.G.L. before it enters the culvert and the bottom of the culvert at the culvert's exit is labeled H W subscript o. The vertical drop in the E.G.L. as it enters the culvert is labeled H subscript e. The vertical drop the E.G.L. undergoes inside the culvert is labeled H subscript f. The vertical drop in the E.G.L. at the culvert's exit is labeled H subscript o. The vertical drop in the E.G.L. before the culvert's entrance and after the culvert's exit is labeled H subscript L. The vertical distance between the H.G.L. after the culvert's exit and the bottom of the culvert at the exit is labeled T W. Several elevation markings with no dimensions are also on the diagram.
Figure 17. Equation. Headdischarge relationship, outlet control.
The left side of the equation is the sum of two terms. The first term is H W subscript o. The second term is the quotient of V subscript u, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g. The right side of the equation is the sum of three terms. The first is TW. The second is the quotient of V subscript lowercase d, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g. The third is H subscript L.
Figure 18. Equation. Total energy losses
H subscript L equals the sum of H subscript Le plus H subscript Lf plus H subscript Lo.
Figure 19. Equation. Entrance loss.
H subscript Le equals the product of K subscript e times the quotient of V squared divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 20. Equation. Exit loss.
H subscript Lo equals the product of K subscript o times the difference between two quotients. The first quotient is V squared divided by the product of 2 times g. From this quotient is taken the second quotient, which is V subscript lowercase d, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 21. Diagram. Data management flow chart.
The figure is a flow chart that shows the study's calculation procedure for obtaining inlet performance curves, inlet coefficients, and outlet coefficients. The starting point is on the left side of the chart and is a download of a computer screen showing a page of the LabVIEW software program. The title of the page is S D underscore Measure dot v i. Two paths leave S D underscore Measure dot v i. The top path goes to calibration. Two paths leave calibration, one to sensor reading, the other to manual reading. The paths rejoin after these functions, and the result enters the top of a second download of a computer screen, which is entitled S D underscore Data dot v i. The bottom path leaving S D underscore Measure dot v i goes to data acquisition. Two paths leave data acquisition, one to a second sensor reading function, the other to a second manual reading function. The paths rejoin after these functions and the result enters the bottom of S D underscore Data dot v i. One path leaves S D underscore Data dot v i and goes to realtest m m d d y y dot x l s. Two paths leave this function, the top one going to a third download of a computer screen, which is entitled S D underscore Inlet dot v i. Two results leave S D underscore Inlet dot v i. One is labeled performance space curves dot x l s. The other is the coefficients K, M, c, and Y. The bottom path leaving realtest m m d d y y dot x l s goes to a fourth download of a computer screen, which is entitled S D underscore Outlet dot v i. One result leaves S D underscore Outlet dot v i. That result is the coefficients K subscript e and K subscript o.
Figure 22. Equation. Regression analysis, chisquared.
Chi squared equals the summation from i equal 0 to i equal N minus 1 of a quotient squared. The numerator of the quotient is the term y subscript i minus a nonlinear function consisting of x subscript i and a subscript 1 to a subscript M. The denominator of the quotient is sigma subscript i.
Figure 23. Equation. Fifthorder polynomial for H W slash D.
The quotient H W subscript i divided by D equals the sum of six terms. The first term is lowercase a. The second term is the product of b times the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The third term is the product of c times the quotient to the power of 2 of Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The fourth term is the product of lowercase d times the quotient to the power of 3 of Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The fifth term is the product of e times the quotient to the power of 4 of Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The sixth term is the product of f times the quotient to the power of 5 of Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5.
Figure 24. Equation. Entrance loss coefficient.
The figure consists of two versions of the relationship between the same variables. The first version is a repetition of figure 20: H subscript Le equals the product of K subscript e times the quotient of V squared divided by the product of 2 times g. The second version is K subscript e equals the quotient of H subscript Le divided by the quotient of V squared divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 25. Diagram. Technique to determine H subscript Le.
The diagram is a side view of the culvert experimental setup. The purpose of the diagram is to show the technique used to measure H subscript Le. The technique involves extrapolating the E G L open parenthesis energy grade lines close parenthesis in the headbox and the culvert barrels to a common plane and then taking the difference in the E G L on the common plane. In the diagram, the headbox is on the left, the barrels are in the middle, and the tailbox is on the right. Blue shading, or dark shading in a blackandwhite printout of this document, indicates the water levels in the headbox, barrels, and tailbox. Small rectangles representing E G L and small circles representing H G L open parenthesis hydraulic grade lines close parenthesis are depicted as being projected onto a common plane. A number of dimensions are given. The bottom of the headbox is 23.62 inches above the bottom of the diagram, which represents the floor. The headbox itself is 48.82 inches tall. The bottom of the left end of the barrels is 26.18 inches above the floor. The bottom of the right end of the barrels is 25.59 inches above the floor. The barrels are 119.69 inches long and have a downward slope to the right of 0.7 percent. The bottom of the tailbox is 21.65 inches above the floor, and the tailbox itself is 38.98 inches tall. At the right end of the headbox, H subscript Le is indicated as having a height of 1.46 inches. At the left end of the tailbox, H subscript Lo is indicated as having a height of 3.79 inches The conversion factor for inches is 1 inch equals 2.54 centimeters. At the bottom of the diagram, the value of the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power is given as 6.04 feet to the 0.5 power, per second open parenthesis 3.33 meters to the 0.5 power, per second close parenthesis. K subscript e is 0.42, and K subscript o is 1.04; both numbers are dimensionless.
Figure 26. Graph. Typical behavior of K subscript e versus discharge intensity.
The yaxis is K subscript e, a dimensionless number, and ranges from 0 to 2.7. The xaxis is the discharge intensity, which is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power, which is feet to the 0.5 power, per second, and ranges from 0 to 6.0. The conversion factor is 1 foot to the 0.5 power, per second, equals 0.552 meters to the 0.5 power, per second. The graph is divided into two parts, which are indicated by different shadings. The lighter shading on the left is labeled the unsubmerged inlet. The darker shading on the right is labeled the submerged inlet. Five data points are plotted in each part. The first two data points are for discharge intensities of 1.0 foot to the 0.5 power, per second, or less and are labeled as eliminated. The remaining three data points in the unsubmerged inlet portion range between discharge intensities of approximately 1.5 to 2.6 feet to the 0.5 power, per second, and K subscript e values of approximately 0.1 and 0.8. The average K subscript e value for the unsubmerged inlet portion is 0.41. The five data points in the submerged inlet portion are very close to their average K subscript e value of 0.39; their discharge intensities range from approximately 4.0 to 6.1 feet to the 0.5 power, per second.
Figure 27. Diagram and Photo. Miniflume and PIV setup.
This is a twopart figure. Figure 27a, on the left, is a perspective, or threedimensional, diagram of the particle image velocimetry open parenthesis PIV close parenthesis setup. The central portion of the diagram is a rectangular box that is divided into two sections. The right section is labeled flume. An arrow indicating the direction of flow is in the flume and is labeled "flow with particles." The arrow points to the left. The second section of the box is on the left side. Within the second section is a smaller rectangular shape that is labeled "culvert." Above the right end of the culvert is a light source that is projecting a light sheet into the culvert. Within the portion of the light sheet that is in the culvert are small dots representing the particles in the flow through the flume and culvert. In front of the box, a charge coupled device open parenthesis ccd close parenthesis camera records the movement of the particles. Figure 27b, on the right, is a photo of a portion of the setup portrayed in the diagram. The ccd camera is mounted on a framework in the foreground. In the background is a portion of the rectangular box.
Figure 28. Photos. Bevel models and PIV camera at culvert entrance.
This is a twopart figure, both parts being photos. Figure 28a, on the left, shows seven Plexiglass models of bevels lying side by side. Figure 28b, on the right, shows the lens end of the charge coupled device open parenthesis ccd close parenthesis camera pointing at the culvert entrance inside the miniflume.
Figure 29. Diagram. Integration of velocity flow field in stream functions to study culvert flow contraction.
This diagram is a flow chart showing the conversion of initial particle image velocimetry open parenthesis PIV close parenthesis images of velocity flow into streamlines that can be interpreted visually. The conversion takes place through the mathematical process of integration. The diagram has three components. The first component, in the upper left corner, is a download of a computer screen. The screen has a number of horizontal lines of small connected arrows. In the upper left of the screen, the lines are faded. Below this first component is the second component, the integration equation. The equation is Psi equals the difference of the integral over the set Y of U, with the variable of integration being dY, minus the integral over the set X of V, with the variable of integration being dX. The third component, on the right side of the figure, is a download of the computer screen resulting from the processing of the data of the first component by the integration equation, which is the second component. The final computer screen, the third component, has a large number of horizontal lines. In the upper left corner of the screen, the lines develop a spiral that produces an eddy shape.
Figure 30. Diagrams. Tested bevel edge conditions and effective flow depth criterion.
Tested bevel edge conditions and effective flow depth criterion. This figure contains eight side view sketches labeled figure a through figure h. Seven of the sketches are side views of bevel edges, or shapes. One of the edges is a 0degree bevel angle. Three of the edges are chamfer edges. And three of the edges are square edges. The eighth sketch is a side view of the location of the bevel edge in the experimental arrangement. Dimensions in the sketches are in inches. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. Here follows a detailed description of each of the eight sketches. Figure 30a is a side view of the experimental arrangement. The flow goes from left to right, entering a culvert near the left side of the sketch. The size of the culvert's entrance is labeled A. The top edge of the culvert's entrance is where the bevel edges are located for testing and is labeled Bevel edge condition. Well above the culvert's entrance is the water line. Above the culvert itself is the horizontal theoretical extension of the water line. Between the extension of the water line and the top of the culvert are the E.G.L. open parenthesis energy grade line close parenthesis and, below it, the H.G.L. open parenthesis hydraulic grade line close parenthesis. The maximum distance between the E.G.L. and the H.G.L. is labeled the quotient of V subscript 0, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g. In the culvert below this maximum distance between the E.G.L. and the H.G.L., the flow reaches its most contracted point, which is labeled V subscript 0, Effective flow depth at vena contracta. The flow on the right side of the sketch is labeled V subscript 1. Figure 30b is a side view of a bevel edge with a 0degree bevel angle. The side view of the edge is simply a rectangle with a height of 8 inches and a width of 10 inches. Figure 30c is a side view of an existing 4inch chamfer. The chamfer is located at the lower left corner and is 4 inches high by 4 inches wide. The total width of the edge is a minimum of 8 inches and a possible maximum, indicated by dotted lines, of 10 inches. The horizontal, or straight, portion of the bottom side of the edge is 4 inches for the minimum 8inch width. Figure 30d is a side view of a rounded bevel edge with a proposed 4inch radius. The rounded edge is located at the lower left corner. The total width of the edge is a minimum of 8 inches and a possible maximum, indicated by dotted lines, of 10 inches. The horizontal, or straight, portion of the bottom side of the edge is 4 inches for the minimum 8inch width. Figure 30e is a side view of a beveled edge with a proposed 6inch chamfer. The chamfer is located at the lower left corner and is 6 inches high by 6 inches wide. The total width of the edge is a minimum of 8 inches and a possible maximum, indicated by dotted lines, of 10 inches. The horizontal, or straight, portion of the bottom side of the edge is 2 inches for the minimum 8inch width. Figure 30f is a side view of a rounded bevel edge with a proposed 6inch radius. The rounded edge is located at the lower left corner. The total width of the edge is a minimum of 8 inches and a possible maximum, indicated by dotted lines, of 10 inches. The horizontal, or straight, portion of the bottom side of the edge is 2 inches for the minimum 8inch width. Figure 30g is a side view of a beveled edge with a proposed 8inch chamfer. The chamfer is located at the lower left corner and is 8 inches high by 8 inches wide. The total width of the edge is 10 inches. The horizontal, or straight, portion of the bottom side of the edge is 2 inches. Figure 30h is a side view of a rounded bevel edge with a proposed 8inch radius. The rounded edge is located at the lower left corner. The total width of the edge is 10 inches. The horizontal, or straight, portion of the bottom side of the edge is 2 inches.
Figure 31. Diagram. Culvert setupside view.
This figure is a slightly different version of the side view in figure 25. The headbox, unlabeled, is to the left, the culvert barrel or barrels, unlabeled, are in the center, and the tailbox, also unlabeled, is to the right. Dimensions are in feet. The headbox is 4.0 feet high and 8.0 feet long. The distance between its bottom and the floor is 2.0 feet. The barrel or barrels are 10.2 feet long, and the distance between their left end and the floor is just over 2.0 feet. The barrel or barrels have a slope of 0.07 percent, with the high end being to the left. The tailbox is 3.0 feet high and 8.0 feet long. The distance between its bottom and the floor is 1.8 feet. On top of the left end of the tailbox is a drawing of a twodimensional robot. The conversion factor for feet is 1 foot equals 0.305 meters.
Figure 32. Diagram. Culvert setuptop view.
In this top view, the headbox, labeled, is to the left, the barrel, unlabeled, is in the center, and the tailbox, labeled, is to the right. Dimensions are in feet. The headbox is 8.0 by 8.0 feet. The barrel is 10.0 by 2.0 feet. The tailbox is 8.0 by 6.0 ft. The top of a ladder is sketched on the left end of the headbox. A gate is indicated on the right end of the tailbox. A twodimensional robot is indicated on top of the left end of the tailbox. Above the barrel is the legend FCS0 open parenthesis 4:1 close parenthesis, FCS0 being the model identification and 4:1 being the span to rise ratio. The conversion factor for feet is 1 foot equals 0.305 meters.
Figure 33. Photo. Culvert setupoverview.
In this overview, the tailbox is in the left foreground, and the headbox is to the right rear. The barrel or barrels in the middle are not discernable. The twodimensional robot is on top of the far end of the tailbox.
Figure 34. Photo. Culvert model barrels.
The barrels are in the center of this photo. The headbox, only a small portion of which is visible, joins the barrels on the left side of the figure. On the right side, the barrels join the tailbox, a large portion of which is visible. The twodimensional robot is on top of the tailbox.
Figure 35. Photo. Twodimensional robot to measure velocity distribution in tailbox.
The twodimensional robot rests on top of the front end of the tailbox. The barrels join the bottom of the front end of the tailbox. The barrels extend into the left foreground.
Figure 36. Photo. Groove connectors to assemble models.
This photo shows a framework of grooves into which wall pieces can be placed to model different types of culvert entrances. On each end of the framework is an angled groove that is labeled groove connection for FC open parenthesis field cast close parenthesis side wall 30degree flare angle. Two nonangled center grooves are labeled groove connection for FC extended center wall.
Figure 37. Diagrams. Effective flow depth at vena contracta for nonrounded bevel edges.
Effective flow depth at vena contracta for nonrounded bevel edges. The figure contains four downloaded computer screens labeled 37a through 37d. Each screen is an image of streamlines from the processing of particle imaging velocimetry open parenthesis PIV close parenthesis results for flow, from left to right, into a culvert entrance with a particular bevel on the top edge. The dimensions in the four screens are in inches and millimeters. The conversion factor for inches is 1 inch equals 2.54 centimeters. Here follows a detailed description of each screen. Figure 37a, at the upper left, shows the effective flow depth for a bevel edge with a 0degree bevel angle. The side view of the edge is in the upper left corner of the screen and is a rectangle with a height of 8 inches and a width of 10 inches. The streamlines are in the lower twothirds of the screen. A substantial eddy is in the upper left corner of the streamlines, a distance of 42.132 millimeters from a location close to the bottom of the stream lines. Figure 37b, at the upper right, shows the effective flow depth for a bevel edge with an existing 4inch chamfer. The chamfer is located at the lower left corner of the edge and is 4 inches high by 4 inches wide. The streamlines are in the lower twothirds of the screen. A modest eddy is in the upper left corner of the streamlines, a distance of 44.23 millimeters from a location close to the bottom of the streamlines. Figure 37c, at the lower left, shows the effective flow depth for a bevel edge with a proposed 6inch chamfer. The chamfer is located at the lower left corner of the edge and is 6 inches high by 6 inches wide. The streamlines are in the lower twothirds of the screen. A small eddy is in the upper left corner of the streamlines, a distance of 47.58 millimeters from a location close to the bottom of the streamlines. Figure37d, at the lower right, shows the effective flow depth for a bevel edge with a proposed 8inch chamfer. The chamfer is located at the lower left corner of the edge and is 8 inches high by 8 inches wide. The streamlines are in the lower twothirds of the screen. A very small eddy is in the upper left corner of the streamlines, a distance of 47.216 millimeters from a location close to the bottom of the streamlines.
Figure 38. Diagrams. Effective flow depth at vena contracta for rounded bevel edges.
Effective flow depth at vena contracta for rounded bevel edges. The figure contains three downloaded computer screens labeled 38a through 38c. Each screen is an image of streamlines from the processing of particle imaging velocimetry results for flow, from left to right, into a culvert entrance with a particular bevel on the top edge. The dimensions in the three screens are in inches and millimeters. The conversion factor for inches is 1 inch equals 2.54 centimeters. Here follows a detailed description of each screen. Figure 38a, at upper left, shows effective flow depth for a proposed rounded bevel edge with a 4inch radius. The rounded edge is located at the lower left corner of the edge. The streamlines are in the lower twothirds of the screen. A modest eddy is in the upper left corner of the streamlines, a distance of 45.204 millimeters from a location close to the bottom of the streamlines. Figure 38b, at upper right, shows effective flow depth for a proposed rounded bevel edge with a 6inch radius. The rounded edge is located at the lower left corner of the edge. The streamlines are in the lower twothirds of the screen. A modest eddy is in the upper left corner of the streamlines, a distance of 47.268 millimeters from a location close to the bottom of the streamlines. Figure 38c, at the bottom, shows effective flow depth for a proposed rounded bevel edge with an 8inch radius. The rounded edge is located at the lower left corner of the edge. The streamlines are in the lower twothirds of the screen. There is little indication of an eddy. The distance from the top of the streamlines to a location close to the bottom is 52.061 millimeters.
Figure 39. Graph. Effective flow depth versus headwatertailwater difference.
For seven bevel edges, this graph plots the effective flow depth at vena contracta versus the difference between the headwater and tailwater measurements. The xaxis is the difference between the headwater and tailwater in millimeters and ranges from 22.5 to 26.5. The yaxis is the effective flow depth at vena contracta in millimeters and ranges from 45 to 60. The side view of the experimental arrangement is inserted in the upper right corner of the graph. The flow goes from left to right, entering a culvert near the left side of the sketch. The size of the culvert's entrance is labeled A. Well above the culvert's entrance is the water line. Above the culvert itself is the horizontal theoretical extension of the water line. Between the extension of the water line and the top of the culvert are the E.G.L. open parenthesis energy grade line close parenthesis and, below it, the H.G.L. open parenthesis hydraulic grade line close parenthesis. The maximum distance between the E.G.L. and the H.G.L. is labeled the quotient of V subscript 0, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g. In the culvert below this maximum distance between the E.G.L. and the H.G.L., the flow reaches its most contracted point, which is labeled V subscript 0, Effective flow depth at vena contracta. The flow on the right side of the sketch is labeled V subscript 1. The approximate effective flow depth at vena contracta and the approximate difference between the headwater and tailwater measurements for each of the seven bevel edges are open parenthesis in millimeters close parenthesis: 8inch radius57.8 and 23 millimeters; 6inch radius52.9 and 24 millimeters; 6inch chamfer53.2 and 25 millimeters; 8inch chamfer52.8 and 25 millimeters; 4inch chamfer49.9 and 25 millimeters; 4inch radius50.9 and 26 millimeters; and zero bevel angle47.8 and 26 millimeters.
Figure 40. Sketches. Models tested for effects of bevels and corner fillets.
This figure contains sketches and descriptions of the six culvert entrance models that were tested for the effects of bevels and corner fillets. The six models, labeled 40a through 40f, each show a perspective, or threedimensional, drawing, with the near portion of the model on the left side and the distant portion on the right side. Dimensions are in inches. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. Here follows a detailed description of each model. Figure 40a is a sketch of HDS5 Inlet, Chart 8, Scale 3. The Chart 8, Scale 3, reference is to a chart in the Federal Highway Administration's Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts, Hydraulic Design Series No. 5. This model has 0degreeflared wingwalls, a square edge at the crown, no wingwalls bevel, and no corner fillets. Figure 40b is a sketch of model FCS0 with 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and no corner fillets. Figure 40c is a sketch of model PCA with 0degreeflared wingwalls, an 8inchradius top bevel, a 4inchradius wingwalls bevel, and no corner fillets. Figure 40d is a sketch of model FCS30 with 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 40e is a second sketch of model FCS0, this time with 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and 6inch and 12inch corner fillets. Figure 40f is a second sketch of model PCA, this time with 0degreeflared wingwalls, an 8inchradius top bevel, a 4inchradius wingwalls bevel, and 6inch and 12inch corner fillets.
Figure 41. Graph. Inlet control performance curves, FCS0 versus PCA, zero corner fillets.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS0, PCA, and HDS5 8 slash 3are plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have single barrels and no corner fillets. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the three plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the three plots diverge, but not by much. The plot for the HDS5 8 slash 3 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls and a square edge top platerises most steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.25, respectively. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls and a 45degree chamfer top plateis the middle riser, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls and an 8inch top bevelrises the least, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 42. Graph. Inlet control performance curves, FCS0 versus PCA, 6inch fillets.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCS0 and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge, but not by much. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises most steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 6inch corner filletsrises the least, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 43. Graph. Inlet control, precast with 6inch fillets and field cast with 6inch fillets.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS30, FCS0, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge, but not by much. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises most steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 6inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsis a bit lower than the plots for the FCS0 and PCA models. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 1.9, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 44. Graph. Inlet control, field cast hybrid inlet with 4inchradius bevel on wingwalls.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCS0 and FChybridare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models have a single barrel, a field cast top bevel, and 0inch corner fillets. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1.1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are again virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.25, respectively. The FCS0 model has a field cast top plate and field cast wingwalls. The FChybrid model has a field cast top plate and precast wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 45. Graph. Inlet control, precast hybrid inlet with no bevel on wingwalls.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsPCA and PChybridare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models have a single barrel, an 8inchradius top bevel, and 0inch corner fillets. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1.1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge, but not by much. The plot for the PCA modelwith a precast top plate and precast wingwallsrises most steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot for the PChybrid modelwith a precast top plate and field cast wingwallsrises the least, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 46. Graph. Inlet control effects of corner fillets for the field cast model.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio H W divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS0 with 0inch corner fillets, FCS0 with 6inch corner fillets, and FCS0 with 12inch corner filletsare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All models have a single barrel and 0degree wingwall flare. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1.0, respectively. For the submerged condition, the plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are again virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 47. Graph. Inlet control effects of corner fillets for the precast model.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio H W divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsPCA with 0inch corner fillets, PCA with 6inch corner fillets, and PC A with 12inch corner filletsare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All models have an 8inchradius top bevel and a single barrel. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1.0, respectively. For the submerged condition, the plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are again virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.0, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 48. Graph. Inlet control, precast with 12inch fillets and field cast with 6inch fillets.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS30, FCS0, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge, but not by much. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises most steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 2.1, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsis a bit lower than the plots for the FCS0 and PCA models. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 1.9, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 49. Sketches. Models tested for effects of multiple barrels.
Sketches. Models tested for effects of multiple barrels. This figure contains sketches and descriptions of 21 culvert entrance models that were tested for the effects of multiple barrels. The 21 models are labeled Figure 49a through 49u. The sketch of each model is a perspective, or threedimensional, drawing, with the near portion of the model on the left side and the distant portion on the right side. Dimensions are in inches. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. Here follows a detailed description of each model. Figure 49a shows FCS30, a singlebarrel model with 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49b shows FCS0, a singlebarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49c shows PCA, a singlebarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, an 8inchstraight top bevel, a 4inchradius wingwalls bevel, and 12inch corner fillets. Figure 49d shows FCD30, a doublebarrel model with 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49e shows FCD0, a doublebarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49f shows PCB, a doublebarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, an 8inchstraight top bevel, a 4inchradius wingwalls bevel, and 12inch corner fillets. Figure 49g shows FCT30, a triplebarrel model with 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49h shows FCT0, a triplebarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49i shows PCC, a triplebarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, an 8inchstraight top bevel, a 4inchradius wingwalls bevel, and 12inch corner fillets. Figure 49j shows FCQ30, a quadbarrel model with 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49k shows FCQ0, a quadbarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49l shows PCD, a quadbarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, an 8inchstraight top bevel, a 4inchradius wingwalls bevel, and 12inch corner fillets. Figure 49m shows FCD30E, a doublebarrel model with 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, extended center walls, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49n shows FCD0E, a doublebarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, extended center walls, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49o shows PCBE, a doublebarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, an 8inchstraight top bevel, a 4inchradius wingwalls bevel, extended center walls, and 12inch corner fillets. Figure 49p shows FCT30E, a triplebarrel model with 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, extended center walls, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49q shows FCT0E, a triplebarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, extended center walls, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49r shows PCCE, a triplebarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, an 8inchstraight top bevel, a 4inchradius wingwalls bevel, extended center walls, and 12inch corner fillets. Figure 49s shows FCQ30E, a quadbarrel model with 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, extended center walls, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49t shows FCQ0E, a quadbarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, extended center walls, and 6inch corner fillets. Figure 49u shows PCDE, a quadbarrel model with 0degreeflared wingwalls, an 8inchstraight top bevel, a 4inchradius wingwalls bevel, extended center walls, and 12inch corner fillets.
Figure 50. Graph. Inlet control comparison, field cast 0degreeflared wingwall models.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four modelsFCS0 single, FCD0 double, FCT0 triple, and FCQ0 quadare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 6inch corner fillets and 0degreeflared wingwalls. For the unsubmerged condition, the four plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCD0 double, FCT0 triple, and FCQ0 quad are virtually identical. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively. The plots rise to the right, and the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot for FCS0 single for the submerged condition starts at approximately the same leftmost point as the other three plots but rises more steeply. Its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 51. Graph. Inlet control comparison, field cast 30degreeflared wingwall models.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four modelsFCS30 single, FCD30 double, FCT30 triple, and FCQ30 quadare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 6inch corner fillets and 30degreeflared wingwalls. For the unsubmerged condition, the four plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCD30 double, FCT30 triple, and FCQ30 quad are very close. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The plots rise to the right, and the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The plot of FCS0 single for the submerged condition is slightly steeper than the other three plots. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.15, respectively. Its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 52. Graph. Inlet control comparison, precast models.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four modelsPCA single, PCB double, PCC triple, and PCD quadare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 12inch corner fillets and nonextended center walls. For the unsubmerged condition, the four plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of PCB double, PCC triple, and PCD quad are very close. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4.1 and 1.35, respectively. The plots rise to the right, and the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6.1 and 1.3, respectively. The plot of PCA single for the submerged condition is steeper than the other three plots. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are approximately 4.1 and 1.3, respectively. Its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 2.1, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 53. Graph. Inlet control comparison, single barrel models.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS30, FCS0, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 2.1, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsroughly parallels but is lower than the plot for the FCS0 model. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 1.9, respectively. The vertical distance between the rightmost points of the submerged condition plots for FCS0 and FCS30 is labeled delta and is approximately 0.3 open parenthesis a dimensionless number close parenthesis. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 54. Graph. Inlet control comparison, double barrel models.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCD30, FCD0, and PCBare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCD0 and PCB, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCD30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCD0 and PCB begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCD0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot for the PCB modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 1.7, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCD30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsroughly parallels but is lower than the plot for the FCD0 model. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 1.9, respectively. The vertical distance between the rightmost points of the submerged condition plots for FCD0 and FCD30 is labeled delta and is approximately 0.2 open parenthesis a dimensionless number close parenthesis. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 55. Graph. Inlet control comparison, triple barrel models.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCT30, FCT0, and PCCare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCT0 and PCC, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCT30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCT0 and PCC begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCT0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot for the PCC modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 1.9, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCT30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsroughly parallels but is lower than the plot for the FCT0 model. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The vertical distance between the rightmost points of the submerged condition plots for FCT0 and FCT30 is labeled delta and is approximately 0.1 open parenthesis a dimensionless number close parenthesis. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 56. Graph. Inlet control comparison, quadruple barrel models.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCQ30, FCQ0, and PCDare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCQ0 and PCD, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCQ30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCQ0 and PCD begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCQ0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot for the PCD modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 1.8, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCQ30 modelwith 30degree wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsroughly parallels but is lower than the plot for the FCQ0 model. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The vertical distance between the rightmost points of the submerged condition plots for FCQ0 and FCQ30 is labeled delta and is approximately 0.1 open parenthesis a dimensionless number close parenthesis. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 57. Graph. Inlet control comparison, extended or nonextended center walls, field cast model.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCD30 and FCD30Eare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Each model has a double barrel, 6inch corner fillets, and 30degreeflared wingwalls. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are again virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The FCD30 model has nonextended center walls, and FCD30E has extended center walls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 58. Graph. Inlet control comparison, extended or nonextended center walls, precast model.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsPCB and PCBEare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Each model has a double barrel, 8inchradius top bevels, and 12inch corner fillets. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.6 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are again virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4.1 and 1.3, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point of PCBE, and of both plotted lines, are approximately 6.2 and 2, respectively. The rightmost point of PCB, with xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 1.8, was assumed to be an outlier and was disregarded in computing the plot for PCB. The PCB model has a nonextended center wall, and PCBE has an extended center wall. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 59. Sketches. Models tested for effects of spantorise ratio.
Sketches. Models tested for effects of spantorise ratio. This figure contains sketches and descriptions of 12 culvert entrance models that were tested for the effects of the spantorise ratio. The 12 models are in three columns of four each. The sketch of each model is a perspective, or threedimensional, drawing, with the near portion of the model on the left side and the distant portion on the right side. Dimensions are in inches. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. The first column has four FCS30 models, labeled 59a through 59d, with the following common characteristics: 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and no corner fillets. The four models differ in the spantorise ratio. In figure 59a the ratio is 1 to 1. In figure 59b the ratio is 2 to 1. In figure 59c the ratio is 3 to 1. In figure 59d the ratio is 4 to 1. The second column has four FCS0 models, labeled 59e through 59h, with the following common characteristics: 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, and no corner fillets. The four models differ in the spantorise ratio. In figure 59e the ratio is 1 to 1. In figure 59f the ratio is 2 to 1. In figure 59g the ratio is 3 to 1. In figure 59h the ratio is 4 to 1. The third column has four PCA models. Labeled 59i through 59l, with the following common characteristics: 0degreeflared wingwalls, an 8inchstraight top bevel, a 4inchradius wingwalls bevel, and no corner fillets. The four models differ in the spantorise ratio. In figure 59i the ratio is 1 to 1. In figure 59j the ratio is 2 to 1. In figure 59k the ratio is 3 to 1. In figure 59l the ratio is 4 to 1.
Figure 60. Graph. Inlet control comparison, FCS0 spantorise ratios.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four FCS0 models are plotted. The models differ in their spantorise ratios: 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1. Each model has no corner fillets and 0degreeflared wingwalls. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are very close but do show a small loss in performanceevidenced by slightly higher plotsas the spantorise ratio increases. The plots rise from left to right. The xaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5. The yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points range from approximately 0.35 to 0.4, with the leftmost point of the 1:1 spantorise plot being the lowest. The x axis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5. The yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points range from approximately 1 to 1.05, with the rightmost point of the 1:1 spantorise plot being the lowest. For the submerged condition, the four plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are very close. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.35, respectively, except that the yaxis coordinate of the leftmost point of the 1:1 spantorise plot is approximately 1.25. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points of all four plots are approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively.
Figure 61. Graph. Inlet control comparison, PCA spantorise ratios.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four PCA models are plotted. The models differ in their spantorise ratios: 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1. Each model has no corner fillets and an 8inchradius top bevel. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are very close but do show a small loss in performanceevidenced by slightly higher plotsas the spantorise ratio increases. The plots rise from left to right. The xaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5. The yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points range from approximately 0.35 to 0.4, with the leftmost point of the 1:1 spantorise plot being the lowest. The x axis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5. The yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points range from approximately 1 to 1.05, with the rightmost point of the 1:1 spantorise plot being the lowest. For the submerged condition, the four plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are very close. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.35, respectively, except that the yaxis coordinate of the leftmost point of the 1:1 spantorise plot is approximately 1.25. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points of all four plots are approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 62. Graph. Inlet control comparison, FCS30 spantorise ratios.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four FCS30 models are plotted. The models differ in their spantorise ratios: 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1. Each model has no corner fillets and 30degreeflared wingwalls. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. For the submerged condition, the plots show a decrease in performanceevidenced by higher plotsas the spantorise ratio increases. The lowest plot is for the 1:1 spantorise ratio. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are 4 and 1.1, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its rightmost point are 6 and 1.9, respectively. The highest plot is for the 4:1 spantorise ratio. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are 4 and 1.25, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its rightmost point are 6 and 2.05, respectively.
Figure 63. Graph. Inlet control comparison, 1:1 spantorise ratio.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS0, FCS30, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. The spantorise ratio of each model is 1:1. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, each model has a unique plot, all of which rise to the right. The plot of the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.1, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 1.9, respectively. The vertical distance between the rightmost points of the submerged condition plots for FCS0 and FCS30 is labeled delta and is approximately 0.3 open parenthesis a dimensionless number close parenthesis. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 64. Graph. Inlet control comparison, 2:1 spantorise ratio.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS0, FCS30, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. The spantorise ratio of each model is 2:1. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and no corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The vertical distance between the rightmost points of the submerged condition plots for FCS0 and FCS30 is labeled delta and is approximately 0.2 open parenthesis a dimensionless number close parenthesis. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 65. Graph. Inlet control comparison, 3:1 spantorise ratio.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS0, FCS30, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. The spantorise ratio of each model is 3:1. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and no corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.05, respectively. The vertical distance between the rightmost points of the submerged condition plots for FCS0 and FCS30 is labeled delta and is approximately 0.15 open parenthesis a dimensionless number close parenthesis. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 66. Graph. Inlet control comparison, 4:1 spantorise ratio.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS0, FCS30, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. The spantorise ratio of each model is 4:1. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.45, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1.05, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.35, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and no corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.05, respectively. The vertical distance between the rightmost points of the submerged condition plots for FCS0 and FCS30 is labeled delta and is approximately 0.15 open parenthesis a dimensionless number close parenthesis. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 67. Diagram. Definition sketch for skew tests.
The figure is a diagram, from an overhead perspective, of a road and a culvert. The road alignment is vertical in the figure, or straight up and down. The culvert goes under the road at an angle. The culvert entrance is on the lower left, and the culvert exit is at the upper right. An arrow on the left side of the diagram indicates the direction of flow. The direction of flow is identical to the direction of the culvert. On the left side of the diagram, the angle between the direction of flow and a dotted line perpendicular to the direction of the road is labeled skew.
Figure 68. Sketches. Models tested for effects of headwall skew.
Sketches. Models tested for effects of headwall skew. This figure contains sketches and descriptions, in two rows, of six culvert entrance models that were tested for the effects of headwall skew. The sketch of each model is a perspective, or threedimensional, drawing, with the near portion of the model on the left side and the distant portion on the right side. Dimensions are in inches. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. The first row contains 4 FCT30 models, labeled figure 68a through 68d. Each model is triple barrel and has 30degreeflared wingwalls, 4inchstraight top bevels, no wingwalls bevel, and no corner fillets. The four models differ only in their skew. In figure 68a, the skew is 0 degrees. In figure 68b, the skew is 15 degrees. In figure 68c, the skew is 30 degrees. In figure 68d, the skew is 45 degrees. The second row contains 2 FCS30 models, labeled figure 68e and 68f. Each model is single barrel and has 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, no wingwalls bevel, a 3:1 spantorise ratio, and no corner fillets. The two models differ only in their skew. In figure 68e the skew is 0 degrees. In figure 68f the skew is 30 degrees.
Figure 69. Diagrams. Plan view of skewed headwall models tested.
Diagrams. Plan view of skewed headwall models tested. The figure consists of four diagrams, from an overhead perspective, of a road and a culvert. The diagrams, labeled 69a through 69d, are in two rows of two each. The culvert in each case is an FCT30 model. Figure 69a, in the upper left, is of 0degree skew. The direction of the culvert is perpendicular to the road alignment, which is horizontal. The angles between the direction of the culvert and the flared wingwalls at each side of the entrance are 30 degrees and 30 degrees, respectively. Figure 69b, in the upper right, is of 15degree skew. The direction of the culvert is at a slight angle, presumably 15 degrees, to the road alignment, which rises gently from left to right. The angles between the direction of the culvert and the flared wingwalls at each side of the entrance are 10 degrees and 30 degrees, respectively. Figure 69c, in the lower left, is of 30degree skew. The direction of the culvert is at a modest angle, presumably 30 degrees, to the road alignment, which rises from left to right. The angles between the direction of the culvert and the flared wingwalls at each side of the entrance are 15 degrees and 30 degrees, respectively. Figure 69d, in the lower right, is of 45degree skew. The direction of the culvert is at an angle, presumably 45 degrees, to the road alignment, which rises sharply from left to right. The angles between the direction of the culvert and the wingwalls at each side of the entrance are 0 degrees and 35 degrees, respectively.
Figure 70. Graph. Inlet control comparison, skew angles.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Five models are plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Four of the models are FCT30, differing only in their skew: 0, 15, 30, and 45 degrees. The FCT30 models are triple barrel and have no corner fillets. The fifth model is HDS5 12 slash 3 and has skew approximation of 15 to 45 degrees. For the unsubmerged condition, the FCT30 plots for 15, 30, and 45 degrees, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.5, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1.1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plots for FCT30 at 0 skew and for HDS5 12 slash 3 are also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. For FCT30 at 0 skew, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For HDS5 12 slash 3, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 1.5 and 0.6, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the FCT30 plots for 15, 30, and 45 degrees are similar and rise to the right. The three plots begin at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.9, respectively. The xaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6. The yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points range approximately from 1.9 to 2.1. The submerged condition plots for FCT30 at 0 skew and for HDS5 12 slash 3 are also in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise to the right. For FCT30 at 0 skew, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 2, respectively. For HDS5 12 slash 3, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively.
Figure 71. Graph. Entrance loss coefficients versus the Reynolds number, HDS5 8 slash 3.
The xaxis is HW divided by D, which is a dimensionless ratio, and ranges from 0 to 4. The yaxis is the entrance loss coefficient K subscript e, which is also dimensionless, and ranges from 0 to 1.4. Nine sets of entrance loss coefficients are plotted. Each set has a Reynolds number open parenthesis a dimensionless number close parenthesis. The Reynolds numbers are: 65,000, 81,000, 130,000, 146,000, 162,000, 178,000, 194,000, 227,000, and 260,000. The plotted points are between approximately 1 and 3.75 on the xaxis and approximately 0.6 and 1 on the yaxis. The plotted points with low Reynolds numbers are generally more scattered and in the lower portion of the xaxis range.
Figure 72. Graph. Standard deviation of K subscript e versus the Reynolds number.
The xaxis is the Reynolds number open parenthesis a dimensionless number close parenthesis and ranges from 50,000 to 300,000. The yaxis is the standard deviation open parenthesis also a dimensionless number close parenthesis and ranges from 0.00 to 0.16. Nine points are plotted. Each point is the standard deviation of one of the nine sets of entrance loss coefficients plotted in figure 71. Each of the nine sets in figure 71 has a Reynolds number. Consequently, each of the points in figure 72 is associated with a Reynolds number. A trend line is fitted through the nine points. The line is roughly a decreasing exponential function. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost edge of the line are approximately 65,000 and 0.14 respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost edge of the line are approximately 260,000 and 0.04, respectively. The point for the standard deviation of the set of entrance loss coefficients with the Reynolds number of 162,000 is something of an outlier, being well above the trend line.
Figure 73. Diagram. Culvert contraction.
This twodimensional figure shows the contraction and subsequent expansion of flow entering a culvert. The left side of the diagram is the approach area to the culvert and is labeled A subscript lowercase a. Shortly after entering the culvert, the flow reaches its narrowest point, which is labeled contracted area A subscript c. As the flow continues through the culvert, it expands to occupy the full culvert area, which is labeled A. In terms of size, A subscript lowercase a is the largest area and A subscript c is the smallest.
Figure 74. Equation. Expansion loss equation.
H subscript Le equals H subscript Lc, which in turn is equal to three alternatives. The first alternative is the product of two terms. The first term is the square of the difference between the quotient of A divided by A subscript c, all minus 1. The second term is the quotient of V squared divided by the product of 2 times g. The second alternative is also the product of two terms. The first term is the square of the difference between the quotient of A divided by the product of C subscript c times A, all minus 1. The second term is the quotient of V squared divided by the product of 2 times g. The third alternative is again the product of two terms. The first term is the square of the difference between the quotient of 1 divided by the product of C subscript c, all minus 1. The second term is the quotient of V squared divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 75. Equation. Exit loss, with coefficient of 1.
H subscript Lo equals the product of 1 times the difference between two quotients. The first quotient is V squared divided by the product of 2 times g. From this quotient is subtracted the second quotient, which is V subscript lowercase d, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 76. Equation. Downstream velocity.
V subscript lowercase d equals the quotient of Q divided by the product of W subscript TB times T W.
Figure 77. Equation. Exit loss, with coefficient K subscript o.
H subscript Lo equals the product of K subscript o times the difference between two quotients. The first quotient is V squared divided by the product of 2 times g. From this quotient is taken the second quotient, which is V subscript lowercase d, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 78. Diagram. Flow expansion in the tailbox for high tailwater.
The figure is a twodimensional overhead perspective of a portion of the experimental setup. The portion is the tailbox area at the culvert's exit. The culvert's exit is on the left side of the figure. The culvert's width is labeled B. The tailbox is an openended rectangle, with the open end being downstream, which is on the right side of the figure. The tailbox is wider than the culvert, with equal portions of the tailbox's wider width being on each side of the culvert's exit. Five pressure ports are located in a lefttoright line in the center of the tailbox. A dotted line begins near each side of the culvert's exit. The two dotted lines become further apart as the distance from the culvert's exit increases. The dotted lines represent the area of the flow exiting the culvert. The horizontal length of each dotted line is approximately 3B, or three times the width of the culvert. The angle of the flow's flare, or the angle between the dotted line and the horizontal, is 5.6 degrees. Three velocity profiles are shown in the tailbox area. The velocity profiles indicate different velocities in the flow at a particular point in the tailbox area. Velocity profile 1 is just to the right of the culvert's exit. The maximum velocity is 65.2 centimeters per second. The slower velocities are near the edges of the flow and in the middle. Velocity profile 2 is approximately halfway to the 3B distance, and past the second pressure port. The maximum velocity is 57.1 centimeters per second. The slower velocities are near the edges of the flow. Velocity profile 3 is at the 3B distance, and past the fifth pressure port. The maximum velocity is 43.3 centimeters per second. The slower velocities are near the edges of the flow.
Figure 79. Diagram. Flow expansion in the tailbox for low tailwater.
The figure is a twodimensional overhead perspective of a portion of the experimental setup. The portion is the tailbox area at the culvert's exit. The culvert's exit is on the left side of the figure. The culvert's width is labeled B. The tailbox is an openended rectangle, with the open end being downstream, which is on the right side of the figure. The tailbox is wider than the culvert, with equal portions of the tailbox's wider width being on each side of the culvert's exit. Five pressure ports are located in a lefttoright line in the center of the tailbox. A dotted line begins near each side of the culvert's exit. The two dotted lines become further apart as the distance from the culvert's exit increases. The dotted lines represent the area of the flow exiting the culvert. The horizontal length of each dotted line is approximately 3B, or three times the width of the culvert. The angle of the flow's flare, or the angle between the dotted line and the horizontal, is 6.0 degrees. Three velocity profiles are shown in the tailbox area. The velocity profiles indicate different velocities in the flow at a particular point in the tailbox area. Velocity profile 1 is just to the right of the culvert's exit. The maximum velocity is 143.7 centimeters per second. The slower velocities are near the edges of the flow and in the middle. Velocity profile 2 is approximately halfway to the 3B distance, and past the second pressure port. The maximum velocity is 95.1 centimeters per second. The slower velocities are near the edges of the flow. Velocity profile 3 is at the 3B distance, and past the fifth pressure port. The maximum velocity is 76.8 centimeters per second. The slower velocities are near the edges of the flow.
Figure 80. Diagram. Vertical flow expansion in the tailbox and projected E G L.
The figure is a twodimensional side perspective of a portion of the experimental setup. The portion is the tailbox at the culvert's exit. The culvert's exit is on the left side of the figure. The tailbox is a rectangle and larger than the culvert. Five pressure ports are located in a lefttoright line on the bottom of the tailbox. The depth of the tailwater in the tailbox is labeled T w. The tailwater's surface, which is the H G L, is above the culvert's exit. Dotted lines within the tailwater indicate the flow from the culvert's exit. As it moves to the right, the flow spreads upward toward the H G L and downward to the bottom of the tailbox. The angle of the flow's upward movement is 4.2 degrees, and the angle of its downward movement is 8.0 degrees. Six velocity profiles are shown in the tailwater. Above the tailwater or on its upper surface, directly above each pressure port, is a point on a hypothetical E G L that is projected to the culvert outlet plane. As suggested in the text, the point could be calculated from the flow velocities. The E G L slopes slightly downward from left to right. The distance between the E G L and the H G L is the quotient of V subscript D, all squared, divided by the product of 2 times g. On the left side of the tailbox, the distance the E G L drops as it enters the tailbox is labeled H subscript Lo.
Figure 81. Graph. Transition area, unsubmerged and submerged inlet flow conditions.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. One model is plotted. The model is FCS0 with a single barrel and no corner fillets. The plot is divided into three sections: unsubmerged regression data, a transition area, and submerged regression data. For the section of unsubmerged regression data, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively; the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.3 and 0.9, respectively. For the transition area, where the plotted line is predicted by fifthorder polynomials, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost edge are approximately 2.3 and 0.9, respectively; the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost edge are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively. For the section of submerged regression data, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively; the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 5.8 and 2.1, respectively.
Figure 82. Equation. Transition area, unsubmerged and submerged inlet flow conditions.
The quotient H W subscript i divided by D equals the sum of six terms. The first term is lowercase a. The second term is the product of b times the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The third term is the product of c times the quotient to the power of 2 of Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The fourth term is the product of lowercase d times the quotient to the power of 3 of Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The fifth term is the product of e times the quotient to the power of 4 of Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The sixth term is the product of f times the quotient to the power of 5 of Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5.
Figure 83. Graph. PC and FC single barrel models parenthesis sketches 1, 7, 11 in figure 93 end parenthesis.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three single barrel modelsFCS30, FCS0, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 2.1, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 84. Graph. PC and FC multiple barrel models parenthesis sketches 1, 2, 7, 8, 11, 12 in figure 93 end parenthesis.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three multiple barrel modelsFC0, FC30, and PCare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Each plot is a result of combining double, triple, and quad barrel versions of that particular model. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FC0 and PC, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FC30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FC0 and PC begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FC0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls and 6inch corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot for the PC modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 1.8, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FC30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls and 6inch corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 85. Graph. Combined corner fillet data, FCS0 and PCA models parenthesis sketches 7, 10, 11, 14 in figure 93 end parenthesis.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCS0 and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Each model has a single barrel, and for plotting purposes the 0, 6, and 12inch corner fillets versions are combined. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the two plots begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwallsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevelrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 86. Graph. Combined multiple barrel data, FC0 models parenthesis sketches 7, 8 in figure 93 end parenthesis.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. The graph contains two plots, one for the single barrel FCS0 model and one that combines the double, triple, and quad barrel versions of the FC0 model. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 0degreeflared wingwalls and 6inch corner fillets. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the two plots begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 single barrel model rises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the combined multiple barrel FC0 models rises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively.
Figure 87. Graph. Combined multiple barrel data, FC30 models parenthesis sketches 1, 2 in figure 93 end parenthesis.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. The graph contains two plots, one for the single barrel FCS30 model and one that combines the double, triple, and quad barrel versions of the FC30 model. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 30degreeflared wingwalls and 6inch corner fillets. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the two plots begin at approximately the same xaxis coordinate, 4. For the yaxis coordinate, the beginning point for the single barrel plot is approximately 1.2, and the beginning point for the multiple barrel plot is approximately 1.25. In rising to the right, the two plots converge, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 88. Graph. Combined multiple barrel data, PC models parenthesis sketches 11, 12 in figure 93 end parenthesis.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. The graph contains two plots, one for the single barrel PCA model and one that combines the double, triple, and quad barrel versions of the PC model. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 8 inchradius top bevels and 12inch corner fillets. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the two plots begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4.1 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the PCA single barrel model rises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 2.05, respectively. The plot for the combined multiple barrel PC models rises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 1.8, respectively.
Figure 89. Graph. Combined spantorise data, FCS0 models parenthesis sketches 7, 9 in figure 93 end parenthesis.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. The graph contains two plots, one for the 1to1 spantorise FCS0 model and one that combines the 2to1, 3to1, and 4to1 spantorise versions of the FCS0 model. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 0degreeflared wingwalls and no corner fillets. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are very close together. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the two plots begin at approximately the same xaxis coordinate, 4. For the yaxis coordinate, the beginning point for the 1to1 spantorise plot is approximately 1.25, and the beginning point for the combined plot is approximately 1.3. In rising to the right, the two plots converge, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively.
Figure 90. Graph. Combined spantorise data, FCS30 models parenthesis sketches 1, 3 in figure 93 end parenthesis.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. The graph contains two plots, one for the 1:1 spantorise FCS30 model and one that combines the 2to1, 3to1, and 4to1 spantorise versions of the FCS30 model. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 30degreeflared wingwalls and no corner fillets. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are very close together. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the 1to1 spantorise plot begins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.1, respectively; the plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 1.9, respectively. The combined spantorise plot begins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively; the plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 91. Graph. Combined spantorise data, PCA models parenthesis sketches 10, 13 in figure 93 end parenthesis.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. The graph contains two plots, one for the 1to1 spantorise PCA model and one that combines the 2to1, 3to1, and 4to1 spantorise versions of the PCA model. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 8inchradius top bevels and no corner fillets. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are very close together. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the two plots begin at approximately the same xaxis coordinate, 4. For the yaxis coordinate, the beginning point for the 1to1 spantorise plot is approximately 1.25, and the beginning point for the combined plot is approximately 1.35. In rising to the right, the two plots converge, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 92. Graph. Skewed and nonskewed headwalls, FCT30 models parenthesis sketches 4, 5 in figure 93 end parenthesis.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. The graph contains two plots, one for the FCT30 model with no headwall skew and one that combines the results of 15, 30, and 45degree headwall skews of the FCT30 model. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have no corner fillets and 30degreeflared wingwalls. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right. The leftmost point for the plot for the no skew headwall has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. The leftmost point for the plot for the combined headwall skews has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 0.5 and 0.5, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 1.1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the two plots begin at approximately the same xaxis coordinate, 4. For the yaxis coordinate, the beginning point for the no headwall skew plot is approximately 1.2, and the beginning point for the combined headwall skews plot is approximately 1.9. In rising to the right, the two plots converge, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 93. Sketches. Thumbnail sketches of inlets recommended for implementation.
Thumbnail sketches of inlets recommended for implementation. This figure contains fourteen sketches of inlets for box culverts, labeled as figure 93a, sketch 1, through 93n, sketch 14. Each sketch contains one or more drawings of inlets. Each drawing is a perspective, or threedimensional, drawing, with the near portion of the model on the left side and the distant portion on the right side. Here follows a description of each sketch. Figure 93a, sketch 1, contains one drawing of an inlet. The inlet is a single barrel with 30degreeflared wingwalls and the top edge beveled at 45 degrees. Figure 93b, sketch 2, contains three drawings of inlets. The inlets have 30degreeflared wingwalls and the top edges beveled at 45 degrees. The first inlet has two barrels; the second has three; and the third has four. Figure 93c, sketch 3, contains three drawings of inlets. The inlets have 30degreeflared wingwalls, the top edges beveled at 45 degrees, and single barrels. The first inlet has a 1to1 spantorise ratio; the second has a 2to1 spantorise ratio; and the third has a 3to1 spantorise ratio. Figure 93d, sketch 4, contains one drawing of an inlet. The inlet has three barrels, 30degreeflared wingwalls, top edges beveled at 45 degrees, and a headwall skewed 15 degrees. Figure 93e, sketch 5, contains two drawings of inlets. The inlets have three barrels, 30degreeflared wingwalls, and top edges beveled at 45 degrees. The first inlet has a headwall skewed 30 degrees; the second has a headwall skewed 45 degrees. Figure 93f, sketch 6, contains one drawing of an inlet. The inlet has a single barrel, 0degreeflared wingwalls, and a squareedged crown. Figure 93g, sketch 7, contains two drawings of inlets. The inlets have single barrels, 0degreeflared wingwalls that are extended, and top edges beveled at 45 degrees. The first inlet has no corner fillets; the second has 6inch corner fillets. Figure 93h, sketch 8, contains three drawings of inlets. The inlets have 0degreeflared wingwalls that are extended and top edges beveled at 45 degrees. The first inlet has two barrels; the second has three; and the third has four. Figure 93i, sketch 9, contains three drawings of inlets. The inlets have single barrels, 0degreeflared wingwalls that are extended, and top edges beveled at 45 degrees. The first inlet has a 1to1 spantorise ratio; the second has a 2to1 spantorise ratio; and the third has a 3to1 spantorise ratio. Figure 93j, sketch 10, contains two drawings of inlets. The inlets have single barrels, 0degreeflared wingwalls that are extended, and crowns rounded at an 8inch radius. The first inlet has no corner fillets; the second has 6inch corner fillets. Figure 93k, sketch 11, contains one drawing of an inlet. The inlet has a single barrel, 0degreeflared wingwalls that are extended, a crown rounded at an 8inch radius, and 12inch corner fillets. Figure 93l, sketch 12, contains three drawings of inlets. The inlets have 0degreeflared wingwalls that are extended, crowns rounded at an 8inch radius, and 12inch corner fillets. The first inlet has two barrels; the second has three barrels, with an extended wall between the second barrel and the rightmost barrel; and the third has four barrels, with an extended wall between the two barrels in the center. Figure 93m, sketch 13, contains three drawings of inlets. The inlets have single barrels, 0degreeflared wingwalls that are extended, crowns rounded at an 8inch radius, and 12inch corner fillets. The first inlet has a 1to1 spantorise ratio; the second has a 2to1 spantorise ratio; and the third has a 3to1 spantorise ratio. Figure 93n, sketch 14, contains one drawing of an inlet. The inlet has a single barrel, 0degreeflared wingwalls that are extended, a top edge beveled at 45 degrees, and 12inch corner fillets.
Figure 94. Graph. Inlet control, FDS0 and PCA, no corner fillets.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two models are plotted, the FCS0 model with no corner fillets and a 4inchstraight top bevel, and the PCA model with no corner fillets and an 8inchradius bevel. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the two plots begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 model rises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA model rises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 95. Graph. Inlet control, FCS0 and PCA, 6inch corner fillets.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCS0 and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge, but not by much. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises most steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 6inch corner filletsrises the least, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 96. Graph. Inlet control, FCS0 and PCA, 12inch corner fillets.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCS0 and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4.1 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge, but not by much. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 12inch corner filletsrises most steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 2.25, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises the least, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 2.05, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 97. Graph. Inlet control, FCS30, FCS0, and PCA.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS30, FCS0, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge, but not by much. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises most steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 2.1, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsis a bit lower than the plots for the FCS0 and PCA models. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 1.9, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters
Figure 98. Graph. Inlet control, PCA, 6 and 12inch corner fillets.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio H W divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two PCA models are plotted, one model with 6inch corner fillets and one model with 12inch corner fillets. Each model has an 8inchradius top bevel and a 2to1 spantorise ratio. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. Each model is plotted for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.35, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge, but only barely. The plot for the model with 6inch fillets rises most steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The plot for the model with 12inch fillets rises a slightly lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 2, respectively.
Figure 99. Graph. Inlet control, field cast hybrid inlet with 4inchradius bevel on wingwalls.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCS0 and FChybridare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models have a single barrel, a field cast top bevel, and 0inch corner fillets. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1.1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are again virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.25, respectively. The FCS0 model has a field cast top plate and field cast wingwalls. The FChybrid model has a field cast top plate and precast wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 100. Graph. Inlet control, precast hybrid inlet with no bevel on wingwalls.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsPCA and PChybridare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models have a single barrel, an 8inchradius top bevel, and 0inch corner fillets. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1.1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge, but not by much. The plot for the PCA modelwith a precast top plate and precast wingwallsrises most steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot for the PChybrid modelwith a precast top plate and field cast wingwallsrises the least, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 101. Graph. Inlet control, FCS0, FCD0, FCT0, and FCQ0.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four modelsFCS0 single, FCD0 double, FCT0 triple, and FCQ0 quadare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 6inch corner fillets and 0degreeflared wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the four plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCD0 double, FCT0 triple, and FCQ0 quad are virtually identical. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively. The plots rise to the right, and the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot of FCS0 single for the submerged condition is slightly steeper than the other three plots. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively. Its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively.
Figure 102. Graph. Inlet control, FCS0, FCD0E, FCT0E, and FCQ0E.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four modelsFCS0 single, FCD0E double, FCT0E triple, and FCQ0E quadare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 6inch corner fillets and 0degreeflared wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. The last three models have extended center walls. For the unsubmerged condition, the four plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are very close. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plot of FCS0 single is the steepest of the four plots, all of which rise to the right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point of FCS0 single are approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plots for FCT0E triple and FCQ0E quad for the submerged condition are very close. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot of FCD0E double for the submerged condition is slightly flatter than the plots for FCT0E triple and FCQ0E quad. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point for FCD0E double are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively. Its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively.
Figure 103. Graph. Inlet control, FCS30, FCD30, FCT30, and FCQ30.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four modelsFCS30 single, FCD30 double, FCT30 triple, and FCQ30 quadare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 6inch corner fillets and 30degreeflared wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the four plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCD30 double, FCT30 triple, and FCQ30 quad are very close. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The plots rise to the right, and the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The plot of FCS0 single for the submerged condition is slightly steeper than the other three plots. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.15, respectively. Its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 104. Graph. Inlet control, FCS30, FCD30E, FCT30E, and FCQ30E.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four modelsFCS30 single, FCD30E double, FCT30E triple, and FCQ30E quadare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. All of the models have 6inch corner fillets and 30degreeflared wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. The last three models have extended center walls. For the unsubmerged condition, the four plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are very similar. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCD30E double, FCT30E triple, and FCQ30E quad are very close. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The plots rise to the right, and the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The plot of FCS0 single for the submerged condition is slightly steeper than the other three plots. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.15, respectively. Its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 105. Graph. Inlet control, FCS0 and FCS30.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCS0 with 0degreeflared wingwalls and FCS30 with 30degreeflared wingwallsare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are single barrel with 6inch corner fillets. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right. For the FCS0 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the FCS30 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right. For the FCS0 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. For the FCS30 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.15, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 106. Graph. Inlet control, FCD0 and FCD30.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCD0 with 0degreeflared wingwalls and FCD30 with 30degreeflared wingwallsare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are double barrel with 6inch corner fillets. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right. For the FCD0 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the FCD30 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right. For the FCD0 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. For the FCD30 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 107. Graph. Inlet control, FCT0 and FCT30.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCT0 with 0degreeflared wingwalls and FCT30 with 30degreeflared wingwallsare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are triple barrel with 6inch corner fillets. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right. For the FCT0 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the FCT30 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right. For the FCT0 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. For the FCT30 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 108. Graph. Inlet control, FCQ0 and FCQ30.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsFCQ0 with 0degreeflared wingwalls and FCQ30 with 30degreeflared wingwallsare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are quad barrel with 6inch corner fillets. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right. For the FCQ0 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. For the FCQ30 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right. For the FCQ0 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. For the FCT30 model, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 109. Graph. Inlet control, FCD0 and FCD0E.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsthe nonextended center wall FCD0 and the extended center wall FCD0Eare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are double barrel with 6inch corner fillets and 0degreeflared wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right and are virtually identical. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right, and also are virtually identical. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2.15, respectively.
Figure 110. Graph. Inlet control, FCT0 and FCT0E.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsthe nonextended center wall FCT0 and the extended center wall FCT0Eare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are triple barrel with 6inch corner fillets and 0degreeflared wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right and are very similar. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right. The plots begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the plots diverge slightly. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point of FCT0E are approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point of FCT0 are approximately 6 and 2.15, respectively.
Figure 111. Graph. Inlet control, FCQ0 and FCQ0E.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsthe nonextended center wall FCQ0 and the extended center wall FCQ0Eare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are quad barrel with 6inch corner fillets and 0degreeflared wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right and are very similar. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right. The plots begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the plots diverge slightly. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point of FCQ0E are approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point of FCQ0 are approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively.
Figure 112. Graph. Inlet control, FCD30 and FCD30E.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsthe nonextended center wall FCD30 and the extended center wall FCD30Eare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are double barrel with 6inch corner fillets and 30degreeflared wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right and are virtually identical. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right, and also are virtually identical. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 113. Graph. Inlet control, FCT30 and FCT30E.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsthe nonextended center wall FCT30 and the extended center wall FCT30Eare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are triple barrel with 6inch corner fillets and 30degreeflared wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right and are very close. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right, and also are very close. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 114. Graph. Inlet control, FCQ30 and FCQ30E.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsthe nonextended center wall FCQ30 and the extended center wall FCQ30Eare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are double barrel with 6inch corner fillets and 30degreeflared wingwalls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right and are very close. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right, and also are very close. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 115. Graph. Inlet control, PCA, PCB, PCC, and PCD.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four modelsPCA single, PCB double, PCC triple, and PCD quadare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Each of the models has an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner fillets. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the four plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are very close. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, also rise from left to right. The plots of PCB double and PCD quad are virtually identical. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4.1 and 1.3, respectively; the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6.2 and 1.8, respectively. The plot of PCC triple for the submerged condition is slightly steeper than the plots of PCB double and PCD quad. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are approximately 4.1 and 1.35, respectively; its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 1.95, respectively. The plot of PCA single is the steepest of the submerged condition plots. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are approximately 4.1 and 1.25, respectively; its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 2.1, respectively.
Figure 116. Graph. Inlet control, PCA, PCBE, PCCE, and PCDE.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four modelsPCA single, PCBE double, PCCE triple, and PCDE quadare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Each of the models has 12inch corner fillets. All of the models except PCA have extended center walls. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the four plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, also rise from left to right. The plots of PCBE and PCDE are virtually identical. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4.1 and 1.35, respectively; the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6.2 and 2, respectively. The plot of PCCE for the submerged condition is not as steep as the plots of PCBE and PCDE. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are approximately 4.1 and 1.35, respectively; its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 1.9, respectively. The plot of PCA is the steepest of the submerged condition plots. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are approximately 4.1 and 1.25, respectively; its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 2.1, respectively.
Figure 117. Graph. Inlet control, PCB and PCBE.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsthe nonextended center wall PCB and the extended center wall PCBEare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Each model has a double barrel, an 8inchradius top bevel, and 12inch corner fillets. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.6 and 1, respectively. For the submerged condition, the two plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are again virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4.1 and 1.3, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point of PCBE, and of both plotted lines, are approximately 6.2 and 2, respectively. The rightmost point of PCB, with xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.2 and 1.8, was assumed to be an outlier and was disregarded in computing the plot for PCB.
Figure 118. Graph. Inlet control, PCC and PCCE.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Two modelsthe nonextended center wall PCC and the extended center wall PCCEare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. Both models are triple barrel with 12inch corner fillets and 8inchradius top bevels. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. For the unsubmerged condition, the two plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, rise from left to right and are virtually identical. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.6 and 1, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition are in the upper right portion of the graph and also rise from left to right, and also are virtually identical. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4.1 and 1.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 6.2 and 1.9, respectively.
Figure 119. Graph. Inlet control, FCS30, FCS0, and PCA.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS30, FCS0, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.25, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 2.1, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsroughly parallels but is lower than the plot for the FCS0 model. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 1.9, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 120. Graph. Inlet control, FCD30, FCD0, and PCB.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCD30, FCD0, and PCBare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCD0 and PCB, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.35, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCD30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCD0 and PCB begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCD0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot for the PCB modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 1.7, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCD30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsroughly parallels but is lower than the plot for the FCD0 model. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 1.9, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 121. Graph. Inlet control, FCT30, FCT0, and PCC.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCT30, FCT0, and PCCare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCT0 and PCC, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCT30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCT0 and PCC begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCT0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot for the PCC modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 1.9, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCT30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsroughly parallels but is lower than the plot for the FCT0 model. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 122. Graph. Inlet control, FCQ30, FCQ0, and PCD.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCQ30, FCQ0, and PCDare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCQ0 and PCD, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCQ30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCQ0 and PCD begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCQ0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The plot for the PCD modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and 12inch corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6.1 and 1.8, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCQ30 modelwith 30degree wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and 6inch corner filletsroughly parallels but is lower than the plot for the FCQ0 model. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 123. Graph. Inlet control, FCS0, various spantorise ratios.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four FCS0 models are plotted. The models differ in their spantorise ratios: 1to1, 2to1, 3to1, and 4to1. Each model has no corner fillets and 0degreeflared wingwalls. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are very close but do show a small loss in performanceevidenced by slightly higher plotsas the spantorise ratio increases. The plots rise from left to right. The xaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5. The yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points range from approximately 0.35 to 0.4, with the leftmost point of the 1to1 spantorise plot being the lowest. The x axis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5. The yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points range from approximately 1 to 1.05, with the rightmost point of the 1to1 spantorise plot being the lowest. For the submerged condition, the four plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are very close. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.35, respectively, except that the yaxis coordinate of the leftmost point of the 1to1 spantorise plot is approximately 1.25. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points of all four plots are approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively.
Figure 124. Graph. Inlet control, FCS30, various spantorise ratios.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four FCS30 models are plotted. The models differ in their spantorise ratios: 1to1, 2to1, 3to1, and 4to1. Each model has no corner fillets and 30degreeflared wingwalls. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. For the submerged condition, the plots show a decrease in performanceevidenced by higher plotsas the spantorise ratio increases. The lowest plot is for the 1to1 spantorise ratio. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are 4 and 1.1, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its rightmost point are 6 and 1.9, respectively. The highest plot is for the 4to1 spantorise ratio. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are 4 and 1.25, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its rightmost point are 6 and 2.05, respectively.
Figure 125. Graph. Inlet control, PCA, various spantorise ratios.
The xaxis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Four PCA models are plotted. The models differ in their spantorise ratios: 1to1, 2to1, 3to1, and 4to1. Each model has no corner fillets and an 8inchradius top bevel. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters. The plots are for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are very close but do show a small loss in performanceevidenced by slightly higher plotsas the spantorise ratio increases. The plots rise from left to right. The xaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5. The yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points range from approximately 0.35 to 0.4, with the leftmost point of the 1to1 spantorise plot being the lowest. The x axis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5. The yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points range from approximately 1 to 1.05, with the rightmost point of the 1to1 spantorise plot being the lowest. For the submerged condition, the four plots, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, are very close. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 4 and 1.35, respectively, except that the yaxis coordinate of the leftmost point of the 1to1 spantorise plot is approximately 1.25. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points of all four plots are approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 126. Graph. Inlet control, FCS30, FCS0, and PCA, 1to1 spantorise ratio.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS0, FCS30, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. The spantorise ratio of each model is 1to1. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, each model has a unique plot, all of which rise to the right. The plot of the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively . The submerged condition plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.3, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.1, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 1.9, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 127. Graph. Inlet control, FCS30, FCS0, and PCA, 2to1 spantorise ratio.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS0, FCS30, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. The spantorise ratio of each model is 2to1. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and no corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 128. Graph. Inlet control, FCS30, FCS0, and PCA, 3to1 spantorise ratio.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS0, FCS30, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. The spantorise ratio of each model is 3to1. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.25, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.8, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.3, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and no corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.05, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 129. Graph. Inlet control, FCS30, FCS0, and PCA, 4to1 spantorise ratio.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. Three modelsFCS0, FCS30, and PCAare plotted, each for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. The spantorise ratio of each model is 4to1. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots of FCS0 and PCA, which are in the lower left corner of the graph, are virtually identical. They rise from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.45, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1.05, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot of FCS30 is also in the lower left corner of the graph but a bit lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively. The x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. For the submerged condition, which is in the upper right portion of the graph, the plots of FCS0 and PCA begin at approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates, 4 and 1.35, respectively. In rising to the right, the two plots diverge. The plot for the FCS0 modelwith 0degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsrises more steeply, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.2, respectively. The plot for the PCA modelwith an 8inchradius top bevel and no corner filletsrises a lesser amount, ending at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The submerged condition plot for the FCS30 modelwith 30degreeflared wingwalls, a 4inchstraight top bevel, and no corner filletsbegins at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively. The plot ends at xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.05, respectively. One inch equals 2.54 centimeters.
Figure 130. Graph. Inlet control, FCT30 at various headwall skews.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. The FCT30 model at four headwall skews0, 15, 30, and 45 degreesis plotted, each plot being for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. The FC model is triple barrel with no corner fillets and nonextended center walls. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots are in the lower left corner of the graph and rise from left to right. Three of the plots, for skews of 15, 30, and 45 degrees, are very close. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.5, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 1.05, respectively. The plot for 0degree skew is lower. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 0.9, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, also rise from left to right. The leftmost points of the plots for skews of 15, 30, and 45 degrees have approximately the same xaxis and yaxis coordinates: 4 and 1.45, respectively. The rightmost point for the plot of the 15degree skew has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The rightmost point for the plot of the 30degree skew has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2.1, respectively. The rightmost point for the plot of the 45degree skew has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 0.9, respectively. The submerged condition plot of the 0degree skew is steeper than the other three plots. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of its leftmost point are approximately 4 and 1.25, respectively; its rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 131. Graph. Inlet control, FCS30, 0 and 30degree skews.
The x axis is the quotient of Q divided by the product of A times D to the 0.5 power and is in feet to the onehalf power per second, ranging from 0 to 7. One foot to the onehalf power per second equals 0.552 meters to the onehalf power per second. The yaxis is the dimensionless ratio HW divided by D and ranges from 0 to 2.5. The FCS30 model with a 3to1 spantorise ratio is plotted for two headwall skews0 and 30 degrees. Each plot is for two conditions: inlet control unsubmerged and inlet control submerged. The FCS30 model has no corner fillets and 30degreeflared wingwalls. For the unsubmerged condition, the plots are in the lower left corner of the graph and rise from left to right. For the plot for 0degree skew, the xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost points are approximately 0.5 and 0.3, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost points are approximately 2.5 and 0.85, respectively. The unsubmerged condition plot for 30degree skew is higher. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 0.5 and 0.5, respectively; the x axis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 2.5 and 1, respectively. The plots for the submerged condition, which are in the upper right portion of the graph, also rise from left to right. The leftmost point of the plot for 0degree skew has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.2, respectively; the rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively. The leftmost point of the plot for 30degree skew has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 4 and 1.4, respectively; the rightmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 6 and 2, respectively.
Figure 132. Equation. Fifthorder polynomial.
The quotient HW subscript i divided by D equals the sum of six terms. The first term is a. The second term is the product of b times the quotient of the product of K subscript u times Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The third term is the product of c times the quotient to the power of 2 of the product of K subscript u times Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The fourth term is the product of d times the quotient to the power of 3 of the product of K subscript u times Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The fifth term is the product of e times the quotient to the power of 4 of the product of K subscript u times Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5. The sixth term is the product of f times the quotient to the power of 5 of the product of K subscript u times Q divided by the product of A times D to the power of 0.5
Figure 133. Graph. Discharge, tailwater variation.
The xaxis is tailwater elevation in feet and ranges from 82.5 to 86.5. The yaxis is discharge in cubic feet per second and ranges from 0 to 1800. An exponential plot rises from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 82.75 and 50, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 86 and 1600, respectively. For the Q subscript 25, or 25year, peak flow of 773 cubic feet per second, the tailwater elevation is 84.78 feet. For the Q subscript 100, or 100year, peak flow of 1602 cubic feet per second, the tailwater elevation is 86 feet. One foot equals 0.305 meters. One cubic foot per second equals 0.028 cubic meters per second.
Figure 134. Graph. Downstream cross section.
The xaxis is the X distance in feet and ranges from 0 to 500. The yaxis is ground elevation in feet and ranges from 78 to 86. The water surface for the Q subscript 25, or 25year, peak flow is indicated by a horizontal line at approximately 84.7 feet. The stream bed is indicated by a plotted line. The leftmost point has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 70 and 86, respectively. The plot descends gradually to the right to xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 280 and 82, respectively. This point is labeled Edge of channel. The plot then descends sharply to xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 300 and 78.5, respectively. From there, the plot first rises sharply to xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 320 and 82, respectively, then levels off before reaching xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 480 and 83, respectively. After a final sharp rise, the plot reaches its rightmost point, which has xaxis and yaxis coordinates of approximately 500 and 86, respectively. One foot equals 0.305 meters.
Figure 135. Graph. Cross section area versus tailwater elevation.
The xaxis is tailwater elevation in feet and ranges from 82.5 to 86.5. The yaxis is flow area in square feet and ranges from 0 to 1400. An almost linear plot rises from left to right. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the leftmost point are approximately 82.75 and 150, respectively. The xaxis and yaxis coordinates of the rightmost point are approximately 86 and 1300, respectively. The equation for the flow area, A, is superimposed on the graph. A equals the sum of three terms. The first term is the product of 26.107 times the square of TW subscript elev. The second term is the negative product of 4044.9 times TW subscript elev. The third term is 156088. For the Q subscript 25, or 25year, peak flow, A, which is also the yaxis coordinate, is 810.88 square feet. The corresponding tailwater elevation, which is the xaxis coordinate, is 84.78 feet. For the Q subscript 100, or 100year, peak flow, A is 1310.80 square feet. The corresponding tailwater elevation is 86 feet. One foot equals 0.305 meters. One square foot equals 0.093 square meters.
Figure 136. Equation. Downstream flow area for tailwater elevation.
A equals the sum of three terms. The first term is the product of 26.107 times the square of TW subscript elev. The second term is the negative product of 4044.9 times TW subscript elev. The third term is 156088.
Figure 137. Equation. Flow area under headwater elevation.
A equals the sum of three terms. The first term is the product of 26.107 times the square of HW subscript elev. The second term is the negative product of 4045.777 times HW subscript elev. The third term is 156155.95.
Figure 138. Equation. Downstream channel velocity for Q subscript 25.
V subscript TW equals the quotient of Q divided by A, which substituting numbers is 773 divided by 810.88, which is 0.95 feet per second, or 0.29 meters per second. One foot equals 0.305 meters.
Figure 139. Equation. Downstream channel velocity for Q subscript 100.
V subscript TW equals the quotient of Q divided by A, which substituting numbers is 1602 divided by 1310.80, which is 1.22 feet per second, or 0.37 meters per second. One foot equals 0.305 meters.
Figure 140. Equation. Critical depth, below top corner fillets.
The left side of the equation is lowercase d subscript c. The right side of the equation is a quotient. The numerator of the quotient is the sum of two terms. The first term is the quotient to the onethird power of the product of Q squared times B divided by g. The second term is the product of NB times lowercase a squared. The denominator of the quotient is B.
Figure 141. Equation. Critical depth, partially submerged top corner fillets.
The left side of the equation is lowercase d subscript c. The right side of the equation is a quotient. The numerator of the quotient is the sum of two terms. The first term is the quotient to the onethird power of the product of Q squared times the difference of B minus the product of 2 times NB times lowercase a subscript t, all divided by g. The second term is the product of NB times the sum of lowercase a squared plus the square of lowercase a subscript t. The denominator of the quotient is B.
Figure 142. Equation. Normal culvert depth. Q equals the product of four terms.
The first term is the quotient of 1.49 divided by n. The second term is A. The third term is the twothirds power of R subscript h. The fourth term is the onehalf power of S subscript o.
Figure 143. Equations. Flow area and hydraulic radius, depth below top corner fillet.
The figure contains two equations. The first equation is A equals the product of NB times the difference of the product of lowercase d subscript n times span minus lowercase a squared. The second equation is R subscript h equals the quotient of A divided by the product of NB times the sum of span plus the product of 2 times lowercase d subscript n plus the negative of the product of 1.17 times lowercase a.
Figure 144. Equations. Flow area and hydraulic radius, top fillets partially submerged.
The figure contains two equations. The first equation is A equals the product of NB times the difference of the product of lowercase d subscript n times span minus the sum of lowercase a squared plus the square of lowercase a subscript t. The second equation is R subscript h equals the quotient of A divided by the product of NB times the sum of span plus the product of 2 times lowercase d subscript n plus the negative of the product of 1.17 times lowercase a plus the product of 0.848 times the square of lowercase a subscript t.
Figure 145. Equation. Initial depth.
The left side of the equation is the sum of lowercase d subscript o plus the quotient of the square of V subscript o divided by the product of 2 times g. The right side of the equation is the sum of four terms. The first term is TW Elevation. The second term is the quotient of the square of V subscript TW divided by the product of 2 times g. The third term is the negative of Invert Elevation. The fourth term is the product of K subscript o times the difference of the quotient of the square of V subscript o divided by the product of 2 times g, all minus the quotient of the square of V subscript TW divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 146. Equation. For K subscript o equals 1.0.
For K subscript o equals 1.0, lowercase d subscript o equals the difference of TW Elevation minus Invert Elevation.
Figure 147. Diagram. Definition sketch for exit loss.
The figure is a side view of a culvert exit, with the downstream or outlet side being to the right. The horizontal bottom of the culvert entrance is labeled Invert Elev. A dotted horizontal line above the culvert bottom is labeled T w Elev. The difference between T w Elev. and Invert Elev. is labeled lowercase d subscript o. A second dotted line descends diagonally from left to right on the top of the culvert. At the end of the top of the culvert, the line drops vertically to just above the line labeled T W Elev. and then extends horizontally to the right. The distance of the vertical drop is the product of K subscript o times the difference of the quotient of the square of V subscript o divided by the product of 2 times g, all minus the quotient of the square of V subscript TW divided by the product of 2 times g. The vertical distance between top dotted line before it drops at the culvert exit and the horizontal line labeled T W Elev. is the quotient of the square of V subscript o divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 148. Equation. Initial depth ignoring tailwater velocity head.
The term lowercase d subscript o equals the difference of TW elevation minus Invert Elevation at outlet. With a substitute of a number for the last term, the right side of the equation is TW Elevation minus 78.79.
Figure 149. Equations. For lowercase d less than parenthesis D minus lowercase a end parenthesis.
This figure contains four equations. The first equation is delta lowercase d equals a quotient. The numerator of the quotient is D minus lowercase a minus lowercase d subscript o. The denominator of the quotient is 1000. The equation is described as taking 1000 steps in the spreadsheet. The second equation is lowercase d subscript i equals the sum of lowercase d, with the subscript of i minus 1, plus delta lowercase d. The third equation is A subscript i equals the product of NB times the difference of the product of lowercase d subscript i times span minus lowercase a squared. The fourth equation is R subscript hi equals the quotient of A subscript i divided by the product of NB times the sum of span plus the product of 2 times lowercase d subscript i plus the negative of the product of 1.17 times lowercase a.
Figure 150. Equations. For lowercase d less than D but greater than parenthesis D minus lowercase a end parenthesis.
This figure contains five equations. The first equation is delta lowercase d equals the quotient of lowercase a divided by 20. The equation is described as taking 19 steps in the spreadsheet. The second equation is lowercase d subscript i equals the sum of lowercase d, with the subscript of i minus 1, plus delta lowercase d. The third equation is lowercase a subscript ti equals the difference of lowercase d subscript i minus the difference of D minus lowercase a. The fourth equation is A subscript i equals the product of NB times the difference of the product of lowercase d subscript i times span minus the sum of lowercase a squared plus the square of lowercase a subscript ti. The fifth equation is R subscript hi equals the quotient of A subscript i divided by the product of NB times the sum of span plus the product of 2 times lowercase d subscript i plus the negative of the product of 1.17 times lowercase a plus the product of 0.848 times lowercase a subscript ti.
Figure 151. Equations. For lowercase d equal to D parenthesis the last iteration end parenthesis.
This figure contains three equations. The first equation is lowercase d subscript i equals D. The second equation is A subscript i equals the product of NB times the difference of the product of D times span minus the product of 2 times lowercase a squared. The third equation is R subscript hi equals the quotient of A subscript i divided by the product of NB times the sum of the product of 2 times span plus the product of 2 times D plus the negative of the product of 2.34 times lowercase a.
Figure 152. Equation. Friction slope.
S subscript F equals the square of the quotient of the product of n times Q divided by the product of 1.5 times A subscript m times the twothirds power of R subscript hm.
Figure 153. Equation. Step length. Delta L equals a quotient.
The numerator of the quotient is the difference between two terms. The first term is the sum of lowercase d subscript i plus the quotient of the square of V subscript i divided by the product of 2 times g. The second term is the sum of lowercase d, with the subscript of i plus 1, plus the quotient of the square of V, with the subscript of i plus 1, divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 154. Equation. E G L at upstream culvert end open parenthesis the entrance close parenthesis.
E G L subscript US equals the sum of three terms. The first term is D. The second term is the quotient of the square of V subscript FULL divided by the product of 2 times g. The third term is a product. The first term of the product is the quotient of 29 times n squared times L subscript FULL divided by the fourthirds power of R subscript HFULL. The second term of the product is the quotient of the square of V subscript FULL divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 155. Sketches. Entrance loss coefficients parenthesis K subscript e end parenthesis of culverts in example problem.
This figure contains three sketches, taken from figure 93 and labeled figure 155a through 155c, of the three basic inlets considered in the example problem. Each sketch is a perspective, or threedimensional, drawing, with the near portion of the model on the left side and the distant portion on the right side. Here follows a description of each sketch. Figure 155a, which is from sketch 2 of figure 93, is of an FCD30 model inlet with a double barrel, 30degreeflared wingwalls, and the top edge beveled at 45 degrees. The K subscript e coefficient is 0.32. Figure 155b, which is from sketch 8 of figure 93, is of an FCD0 model inlet with a double barrel, 0degreeflared wingwalls, and the top edge beveled at 45 degrees. The K subscript e coefficient is 0.52. Figure 155c, which is from sketch 12 of figure 93, is of a PCB model inlet with a double barrel, 0degreeflared wingwalls with extended sides, the crown rounded at an 8inch radius, and 12inch corner fillets. The K subscript e coefficient is 0.54.
Figure 156. Equation. Entrance loss.
The term h subscript Le equals the product of K subscript e times the quotient of the square of V subscript US divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 157. Equation. Headwater energy grade line.
HW subscript E G L equals the sum of E G L elevation subscript US plus h subscript Le.
Figure 158. Equation. Headwater hydraulic grade line.
HW subscript E G L equals the sum of HW subscript H G L plus the quotient of the square of V subscript HW divided by the product of 2 times g. V subscript HW divided by the product of 2 times g equals the product of Q divided by A.
Figure 159. Diagram. FCD30 model, Q subscript 100 elevations.
The diagram has three parts. The top part is labeled Section AA and is a headon view of a twobarrel inlet. Each barrel is 9feet wide by 8feet high. The corners of the barrels have 6inch fillets. The middle part of the diagram is labeled Plan View. It is an overhead view of the culvert. Two diagonal slash marks across the culvert indicate the depiction of the culvert's length has been abbreviated in the diagram. The bottom part of the diagram is labeled Profile View and is a side view of the culvert with a number of elevations and a dimension. The dimension is the length of the culvert from the top of the entrance to the top of the exit and is 84.0 feet. Two diagonal slash marks across the culvert indicate the depiction of the culvert's length has been abbreviated in the diagram. The entrance to the culvert is on the left, and the exit is on the right. On the left, the culvert entrance invert has an elevation of 78.81 feet; the HW E G L has an elevation of 89.25 feet; and the E G L has an elevation of 88.58 feet. The vertical drop in the E G L as it enters the culvert is given by the product of K subscript e times the quotient of the square of V subscript e divided by the product of 2 times g. At the culvert's center, the roadway elevation is 90.2 feet, and the critical depth within the culvert is 6.29 feet. On the right, the culvert outlet invert has an elevation of 78.79 feet; the E G L has an elevation of 88.38 feet; and the TW H G L has an elevation of 86 feet. The vertical drop from the E G L to the TW H G L at the exit is given by the product of K subscript o times the difference of the quotient of the square of V subscript o divided by the product of 2 times g, all minus the quotient of the square of V subscript TW divided by the product of 2 times g. One foot equals 0.305 meters.
Figure 160. Diagram. FCD0 model, Q subscript 100 elevations.
The diagram has three parts. The top part is labeled Section AA and is a headon view of a twobarrel inlet. Each barrel is 9feet wide by 8feet high. The corners of the barrels have 6inch fillets. The middle part of the diagram is labeled Plan View. It is an overhead view of the culvert. Two diagonal slash marks across the culvert indicate the depiction of the culvert's length has been abbreviated in the diagram. The bottom part of the diagram is labeled Profile View and is a side view of the culvert with a number of elevations and a dimension. The dimension is the length of the culvert from the top of the entrance to the top of the exit and is 84.0 feet. Two diagonal slash marks across the culvert indicate the depiction of the culvert's length has been abbreviated in the diagram. The entrance to the culvert is on the left, and the exit is on the right. On the left, the culvert entrance invert has an elevation of 78.81 feet; the HW E G L has an elevation of 89.68 feet; and the E G L has an elevation of 88.58 feet. The vertical drop in the E G L as it enters the culvert is given by the product of K subscript e times the quotient of the square of V subscript e divided by the product of 2 times g. At the culvert's center, the roadway elevation is 90.2 feet, and the critical depth within the culvert is 6.29 feet. On the right, the culvert outlet invert has an elevation of 78.79 feet; the E G L has an elevation of 88.38 feet; and the TW H G L has an elevation of 86 feet. The vertical drop from the E G L to the T W H G L at the exit is given by the product of K subscript o times the difference of the quotient of the square of V subscript o divided by the product of 2 times g, all minus the quotient of the square of V subscript TW divided by the product of 2 times g. One foot equals 0.305 meters.
Figure 161. Diagram. PCB model, 12inch corner fillets, Q subscript 100 elevations.
The diagram has three parts. The top part is labeled Section AA and is a headon view of a twobarrel inlet. Each barrel is 9feet wide by 8feet high. The corners of the barrels have 12inch fillets. The middle part of the diagram is labeled Plan View. It is an overhead view of the culvert. Two diagonal slash marks across the culvert indicate the depiction of the culvert's length has been abbreviated in the diagram. The bottom part of the diagram is labeled Profile View and is a side view of the culvert with a number of elevations and a dimension. The dimension is the length of the culvert from the top of the entrance to the top of the exit and is 84.0 feet. Two diagonal slash marks across the culvert indicate the depiction of the culvert's length has been abbreviated in the diagram. The entrance to the culvert is on the left, and the exit is on the right. On the left, the culvert entrance invert has an elevation of 78.81 feet; the H W E G L has an elevation of 89.84 feet; and the E G L has an elevation of 88.66 feet. The vertical drop in the E G L as it enters the culvert is given by the product of K subscript e times the quotient of the square of V subscript e divided by the product of 2 times g. At the culvert's center, the roadway elevation is 90.2 feet, and the critical depth within the culvert is 6.38 feet. On the right, the culvert outlet invert has an elevation of 78.79 feet; the E G L has an elevation of 88.46 feet; and the TW H G L has an elevation of 86 feet. The vertical drop from the E G L to the TW H G L at the exit is given by the product of K subscript o times the difference of the quotient of the square of V subscript o divided by the product of 2 times g, all minus the quotient of the square of V subscript TW divided by the product of 2 times g. One foot equals 0.305 meters.
Figure 162. Diagram. PCB model, no corner fillets, Q subscript 100 elevations.
The diagram has three parts. The top part is labeled Section AA and is a headon view of a twobarrel inlet. Each barrel is 9feet wide by 8feet high. The corners of the barrels have no fillets. The middle part of the diagram is labeled Plan View. It is an overhead view of the culvert. Two diagonal slash marks across the culvert indicate the depiction of the culvert's length has been abbreviated in the diagram. The bottom part of the diagram is labeled Profile View and is a side view of the culvert with a number of elevations and a dimension. The dimension is the length of the culvert from the top of the entrance to the top of the exit and is 84.0 feet. Two diagonal slash marks across the culvert indicate the depiction of the culvert's length has been abbreviated in the diagram. The entrance to the culvert is on the left, and the exit is on the right. On the left, the culvert entrance invert has an elevation of 78.81 feet; the H W E G L has an elevation of 89.69 feet; and the E G L has an elevation of 88.56 feet. The vertical drop in the E G L as it enters the culvert is given by the product of K subscript e times the quotient of the square of V subscript e divided by the product of 2 times g. At the culvert's center, the roadway elevation is 90.2 feet, and the critical depth within the culvert is 6.26 feet. On the right, the culvert outlet invert has an elevation of 78.79 feet; the E G L has an elevation of 88.46 feet; and the TW H G L has an elevation of 86 feet. The vertical drop from the E G L to the T W H G L at the exit is given by the product of K subscript o times the difference of the quotient of the square of V subscript o divided by the product of 2 times g, all minus the quotient of the square of V subscript TW divided by the product of 2 times g. One foot equals 0.305 meters.
Figure 163. Equations. Brink depth at culvert outlet.
This figure contains four equations. The first equation is lowercase d subscript o equals the difference of E G L subscript o minus the quotient of the square of V subscript o divided by the product of 2 times g. The second equation is E G L subscript o equals the sum of E G L subscript TW plus h subscript Lo. The third equation is h subscript Lo equals K subscript o times the difference of the quotient of the square of V subscript o divided by the product of 2 times g, all minus the quotient of the square of V subscript TW divided by the product of 2 times g. The fourth equation is V subscript o equals the quotient of Q divided by the product of d subscript o times the total culvert width.
Figure 164. Equation. Headwater E G L.
H W subscript E G L equals the sum of E G L subscript US plus the product of K subscript e times the quotient of the square of V subscript US divided by the product of 2 times g.
Figure 165. Diagram. Net area used for backwater computations.
The diagram is a headon view of a culvert. The culvert's four corners each have a corner fillet. The inside horizontal dimension of the culvert is labeled span. The inside vertical dimension of the culvert is labeled rise equal D. The water line is near the top of the culvert and partially covers the fillets in the top corners. The distance between the water line and the inside bottom of the culvert is labeled lowercase d. The vertical dimension of the bottom corner fillets is labeled lowercase A. The vertical distance that the top corner fillets are under water is labeled lowercase A subscript t.
TABLES WITH SKETCHES
Table 6. Summary of outlet loss coefficients.
This table gives the unsubmerged and submerged outlet loss coefficient, K subscript o, for eleven culvert barrel configurations, labeled a through k. The configurations are not described in words. Instead, they are presented as simple twodimensional sketches. Each sketch is of one or more rectangles, which represent a headon view of a culvert entrance. Here follows a description of each culvert barrel configuration, and the outlet loss coefficients for the configuration. In sketch a, the configuration is a onebarrel square culvert; K subscript o unsubmerged is 0.73 and K subscript o submerged is 1.12. In sketch b, the configuration is a twobarrel culvert, each barrel being square; K subscript o unsubmerged is 1.00 and K subscript o submerged is 1.11. In sketch c, the configuration is a threebarrel culvert, each barrel being square; K subscript o unsubmerged is 0.89 and K subscript o submerged is 0.96. In sketch d, the configuration is a fourbarrel culvert, each barrel being square; K subscript o unsubmerged is 0.94 and K subscript o submerged is 1.08. In sketch e, the configuration is a threebarrel culvert, each barrel being square and the last barrel on the right being slightly separated from the first two; K subscript o unsubmerged is 1.07 and K subscript o submerged is 1.19. In sketch f, the configuration is a fourbarrel culvert, each barrel being square and the two barrels on the right being slightly separated from the first two; K subscript o unsubmerged is 1.04 and K subscript o submerged is 1.03. In sketch g, the configuration is a onebarrel rectangular culvert with a 2to1 spantorise ratio; K subscript o unsubmerged is 0.66 and K subscript o submerged is 0.97. In sketch h, the configuration is a onebarrel rectangular culvert with a 3to1 spantorise ratio; K subscript o unsubmerged is 1.28 and K subscript o submerged is 1.35. In sketch i, the configuration is a onebarrel rectangular culvert with a 4to1 spantorise ratio; K subscript o unsubmerged is 0.85 and K subscript o submerged is 1.11. In sketch j, the configuration is a skewed threebarrel culvert, each barrel being square; K subscript o unsubmerged is 0.86 and K subscript o submerged is 0.99. In sketch k, the configuration is a skewed onebarrel rectangular culvert with a 3to1 spantorise ratio; K subscript o unsubmerged is 1.10 and K subscript o submerged is 1.26.
Table 13. Tests to analyze the effects of bevels and top edges.
This table contains 10 rows, each containing specifications and a sketch for a culvert inlet. Each sketch is a perspective, or threedimensional, drawing, with the near portion of the inlet on the left side and the distant portion on the right side. The specifications pertaining to each sketch provide a description for it.
Table 14. Tests to analyze the effects of multiple barrels.
This table contains 21 rows, each containing specifications and a sketch for a culvert inlet. Each sketch is a perspective, or threedimensional, drawing, with the near portion of the inlet on the left side and the distant portion on the right side. The specifications pertaining to each sketch provide a description for it.
Table 15. Tests to analyze the effects of the spantorise ratio.
This table contains 12 rows, each containing specifications and a sketch for a culvert inlet. Each sketch is a perspective, or threedimensional, drawing, with the near portion of the inlet on the left side and the distant portion on the right side. The specifications pertaining to each sketch provide a description for it.
Table 16. Tests to analyze the effects of skew.
This table contains 6 rows, each containing specifications and a sketch for a culvert inlet. Each sketch is a perspective, or threedimensional, drawing, with the near portion of the inlet on the left side and the distant portion on the right side. The specifications pertaining to each sketch provide a description for it.
Topics: research, infrastructure, hydraulics Keywords: research, infrastructure, hydraulics, Culvert, inlet, headwall, wingwall TRT Terms: research, hydraulics, hydrology, fluid mechanics, earth sciences, geophysics Updated: 04/23/2012
