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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-07-026
Date: February 2007

Bottomless Culvert Scour Study: Phase II Laboratory Report

Appendix A: Scour Maps

Figure 62. Diagram. Scour map, top, and profile ,bottom, culvert submerged, February 11, 2003. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 23 centimeters, and the velocity is 14 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found in the center and near the upper side of the culvert entrance; in the exit bed, a modest area of scour is near the bottom of the figure, and a more pronounced larger area is near the top. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 230 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 143 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 115 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 23 cm; the velocity, V, is 14 cm/s.

Figure 62. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), culvert submerged, February 11, 2003.

Figure 63. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface, February 25, 2003. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 10 centimeters, and the velocity is 14 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. In figure 55a, the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found at the corners of the culvert entrance; in the exit bed, a modest area of scour is near the top of the figure, and a more pronounced larger area is near the bottom. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 100 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 138 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 107 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 10 cm; the velocity, V, is 14 cm/s.

Figure 63. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface, February 25, 2003.

Figure 64. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with circular bevel at exit, March 25, 2003. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 12 centimeters, and the velocity is 15 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model.The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found at the corners of the culvert entrance; in the exit bed, a modest area of scour is near the top of the figure, and a more pronounced larger area is near the bottom. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 120 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 87 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 116 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 12 cm; the velocity, V, is 15 cm/s.

Figure 64. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with circular bevel at exit, March 25, 2003.

Figure 65. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with streamlined bevel at exit, April 7, 2003. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 13 centimeters, and the velocity is 16 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found at the corners of the culvert entrance; in the exit bed, a modest area of scour is near the bottom of the figure, and two smaller areas are near the top. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 130 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 102 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 59 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 13 cm; the velocity, V, is 16 cm/s.

Figure 65. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with streamlined bevel at exit, April 7, 2003.

Figure 66. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with short streamlined bevel at exit, April 29, 2003. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 12 centimeters, and the velocity is 15 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found at the corners of the culvert entrance; in the exit bed, an area of scour is near the top of the figure, and a more pronounced larger area is near the bottom. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 120 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 87 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 63 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 12 cm; the velocity, V, is 15 cm/s.

Figure 66. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with short streamlined bevel at exit, April 29, 2003.

Figure 67. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with wingwalls at outlet, July 22, 2003. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 12 centimeters, and the velocity is 15 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating scour are found at the corners of the culvert entrance; in the exit bed, a pronounced area of scour is near the center of the figure, and a slightly smaller area of scour is just below the pronounced area. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 120 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 116 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 116 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 12 cm; the velocity, V, is 15 cm/s.

Figure 67. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with wingwalls at outlet, July 22, 2003.

Figure 68. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with 8-degree wingwalls at outlet, August 6, 2003. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 12 centimeters, and the velocity is 15 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found at the corners of the culvert entrance; in the exit bed, a pronounced area of scour is slightly above the center of the figure. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 120 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 100 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 91 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 12 cm; the velocity, V, is 15 cm/s.

Figure 68. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with 8-degree wingwalls at outlet, August 6, 2003.

Figure 69. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with 8-degree wingwalls at outlet (smooth walls), October 7, 2003. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 12 centimeters, and the velocity is 15 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found at the corners of the culvert entrance; a modest area of scour is in the culvert barrel; and in the exit bed, a pronounced area of scour is near the top of the figure, and a modest area is near the bottom. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 120 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 78 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 64 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 12 cm; the velocity, V, is 15 cm/s.

Figure 69. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with 8-degree wingwalls at outlet (smooth walls), October 7, 2003.

Figure 70. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with 8-degree wingwalls at outlet and inlet (smooth walls), December 9, 2003. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 12 centimeters, and the velocity is 15 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found along the wingwalls at the culvert entrance; in the exit bed, a modest area of scour is near the top of the figure, and a more pronounced larger area is near the bottom, at the end of the exit wingwall. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 120 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 97 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 97 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 12 cm; the velocity, V, is 15 cm/s.

Figure 70. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), free surface with 8-degree wingwalls at outlet and inlet (smooth walls), December 9, 2003.

Figure 71. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), submerged with 8-degree wingwalls at outlet and inlet (smooth walls), December 16, 2003. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 23 centimeters, and the velocity is 14 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found inside the culvert barrel near the culvert entrance; in the exit bed, an area of scour is near the top of the figure, and another area is near the bottom. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profileshown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 230 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 146 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 106 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 23 cm; the velocity, V, is 14 cm/s.

Figure 71. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), submerged with 8-degree wingwalls at outlet and inlet (smooth walls), December 16, 2003.

Figure 72. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), submerged with 45-degree wingwalls at outlet and inlet, October 27, 2004. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 23 centimeters, and the velocity is 13 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found at the corners of the culvert entrance; a sizeable portion of the culvert barrel has scour; and in the exit bed, a pronounced area of scour is in the center of the figure and a modest area is at the upper left. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 230 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 111 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 110 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 23 cm; the velocity, V, is 13 cm/s.

Figure 72. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), submerged with 45-degree wingwalls at outlet and inlet, October 27, 2004.

Figure 73. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), submerged with 45-degree wingwalls at outlet and inlet and Chang’s pile dissipator at outlet, November 10, 2004. D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 23 centimeters, and the velocity is 13 centimeters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. Areas of darker shading indicating significant scour are found at the corners of the culvert entrance; a sizeable portion of the culvert barrel has scour; and in the exit bed, a pronounced area of scour is in the center of the figure and a modest area is at the upper left. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 230 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 106 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 84 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 23 cm; the velocity, V, is 13 cm/s.

Figure 73. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), submerged with 45-degree wingwalls at outlet and inlet and Chang’s pile dissipater at outlet, November 10, 2004.

Figure 74. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), M D S H A Standard Plan, submerged with 45-degree wingwalls at outlet and inlet, March 19, 2004. Riprap is 25.4 millimeters, D subscript 50 is 2 millimeters, the depth of the water is 23 centimeters, the velocity is 13 centimeters per second, and the discharge is 0.054 cubic meters per second. The top diagram, a scour map, is a plan, or overhead, view, using a laser distance sensor, of the scour caused by flow in the culvert model. The bottom diagram is a longitudinal scour profile of the culvert and scour. For each figure, the approach bed and culvert entrance are to the left, the culvert barrel is in the center, and the culvert exit and exit bed are to the right. The overhead view shows that the culvert entrance is 600 millimeters wide, and the culvert barrel is 1600 millimeters long. An area of darker shading indicating significant scour is in the center of the culvert barrel just inside the entrance; the remainder of the center of the culvert barrel also has scour; and in the exit bed, an area of scour is in the center of the figure. A dotted line connecting the major area of scour in the culvert entrance and the major area of scour in the exit bed indicates the location of the longitudinal scour profile shown in the bottom diagram. The longitudinal scour profile shows the height of the culvert is 150 millimeters, and the depth of the water is 230 millimeters. The major scour hole near the culvert entrance is 153 millimeters below the bed level at the beginning of the experiment. The major scour hole in the exit bed is 122 millimeters below the beginning level of the bed. One millimeter equals 0.0394 inch. One cubic meter per second equals 35.3 cubic foot per second.

Note: D50 is 2 mm; the depth of the water, h, is 23 cm; the velocity, V, is 13 cm/s; the discharge is 0.054 m3/s; the riprap is 25.4 mm.

Figure 74. Diagram. Scour map (top) and profile (bottom), MDSHA Standard Plan, submerged with 45-degree wingwalls at outlet and inlet, March 19, 2004.

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). The hydraulics and hydrology research program at the TFHRC Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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