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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-07-036
Date: March 2007

Junction Loss Experiments: Laboratory Report

APPENDIX B. VELOCITY PROFILES USED IN THE MINICULVERT RUNS

The following images show the velocity profile in the outflow pipe from the miniculvert experiments. These were used to validate Ko. Blue indicates low velocity, while the spectrum toward red reflects increasing magnitudes of local velocity.

Figure 36. Image. Velocity profile at the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 42 centimeters per second (16 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image is the first of four for the flow rate of 42 centimeters per second. The image shows three small red areas of highest velocity in a crescent shape along the right center of the pipe. A red-orange area of next highest velocities surrounds the red areas.

Figure 36. Image. Velocity profile at the outlet for Q/Ao = 42 cm/s (16 inches/s).

Figure 37. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.867 V subscript max at the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 42 centimeters per second (16 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image shows a subset of the velocity profile from figure 36, limiting the display to velocities greater than 0.867 times the maximum velocity. The three small red areas of highest velocity and the red-orange area of next highest velocities are identical to what was shown in figure 36.

Figure 37. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.867Vmax at the outlet for Q/Ao = 42 cm/s (16 inches/s).

Figure 38. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.90 V subscript max at the outlet for Q divided A subscript o equals 42 centimeters per second (16 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between.  This particular image shows a subset of the velocity profile from figure 36, limiting the display to velocities greater than 0.90 times the maximum velocity. The red area of highest velocity is identical to that of figure 36, but the red-orange areas of next highest velocities are smaller because a smaller range of velocities is displayed.

Figure 38. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.90Vmax at the outlet for Q/Ao = 42 cm/s (16 inches/s).

Figure 39. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.925 V subscript max at the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 42 centimeters per second (16 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image shows a subset of the velocity profile from figure 36, limiting the display to velocities greater than 0.925 times the maximum velocity. The red area of highest velocity is identical to that of figure 36, but the red-orange area of next highest velocities is smaller because a smaller range of velocities is displayed.

Figure 39. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.925Vmax at the outlet for (16 inches/s)Q/Ao = 42 cm/s (16 inches/s).

Figure 40. Image. Velocity profile 5 millimeters (0.19 inch) from the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 57 centimeters per second. This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image is the first of four for the flow rate of 57 centimeters per second. This image shows a single medium-sized red area of highest velocity in the upper right part of the pipe's center region, a red-orange area of next highest velocities on the right side of the pipe's center, and a yellow area of moderate velocities toward the lower left.

Figure 40. Image. Velocity profile 5mm (0.19 inch) from the outlet for Q/Ao = 57 cm/s (22 inches/s).

Figure 41. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.867 V subscript max 5 millimeters (0.19 inch) from the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 57 centimeters per second (22 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image shows a subset of the velocity profile from figure 40, limiting the display to velocities greater than 0.867 times the maximum velocity. The red area of highest velocity and the red-orange area of next highest velocities are identical to that of figure 40.

Figure 41. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.867Vmax 5mm (0.19 inch) from the outlet for Q/Ao = 57 cm/s (22 inches/s).

Figure 42. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.90 V subscript max 5 millimeters (0.19 inch) from the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 57 centimeters per second (22 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image shows a subset of the velocity profile from figure 40, limiting the display to velocities greater than 0.90 times the maximum velocity. The red area of highest velocity is identical to that of figure 40, but the red-orange area of next highest velocities is smaller because a smaller range of velocities is displayed.

Figure 42. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.90Vmax 5mm (0.19 inch) from the outlet for Q/Ao = 57 cm/s (22 inches/s).

Figure 43. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.925 V subscript max 5 millimeters (0.19 inch) from the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 57 centimeters per second (22 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image shows a subset of the velocity profile from figure 40, limiting the display to velocities greater than 0.925 times the maximum velocity. The red area of highest velocity is identical to that of figure 40, but the red-orange area of next highest velocities is smaller because a smaller range of velocities is displayed.

Figure 43. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.925Vmax 5mm (0.19 inch) from the outlet for Q/Ao = 57 cm/s (22 inches/s).

Figure 44. Image. Velocity profile 5 millimeters (0.19 inch) from the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 69 centimeters per second (27 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image is the first of four for the flow rate of 69 centimeters per second. The image shows a red area of highest velocity occupying most of the right half of the pipe's center region. An area of red-orange for the next highest velocities extends over the pipe's center into the left half of the pipe's center region.

Figure 44. Image. Velocity profile at the outlet for Q/Ao = 69 cm/s (27 inches/s).

Figure 45. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.867 V subscript max 5 millimeters (0.19 inch) from the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 69 centimeters per second (27 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image shows a subset of the velocity profile from figure 44, limiting the display to velocities greater than 0.867 times the maximum velocity. The red area of highest velocity and the red-orange area of next highest velocities are identical to that of figure 44.

Figure 45. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.867Vmax at the outlet for Q/Ao = 69 cm/s (27 inches/s).

Figure 46. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.90 V subscript max at the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 69 centimeters per second (27 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image shows a subset of the velocity profile from figure 44, limiting the display to velocities greater than 0.90 times the maximum velocity. The red area of highest velocity is identical to that of figure 44, but the red-orange area of next highest velocities is smaller because a smaller range of velocities is displayed.

Figure 46. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.90Vmax at the outlet for Q/Ao = 69 cm/s (27 inches/s).

Figure 47. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.925 V subscript max at the outlet for Q divided by A subscript o equals 69 centimeters per second (27 inches per second). This is one in a series of images in appendix B showing velocity profiles from miniculvert experiments. The images have a spectrum of colors with blue indicating the lowest velocity, red the highest, and cyan, green, yellow, and orange spanning the moderate velocities in between. This particular image shows a subset of the velocity profile from figure 44, limiting the display to velocities greater than 0.925 times the maximum velocity. The red area of highest velocity is identical to that of figure 44, but the red-orange area of next highest velocities is smaller because a smaller range of velocities is displayed.

Figure 47. Image. Area where V is greater than 0.925Vmax at the outlet for Q/Ao = 69 cm/s (27 inches/s).

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). The hydraulics and hydrology research program at the TFHRC Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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