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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-07-036
Date: March 2007

Junction Loss Experiments: Laboratory Report


  1. Chang, F.M., R.T. Kilgore, D.C. Woo, and M.P. Mistichelli, Energy Losses through Junction Manholes, FHWA-RD-94-080, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1994.
  2. Brown, S.A., S.M. Stein, J.C. Warner, Urban Drainage Design Manual, 2nd Ed., Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 22, FHWA-NHI-01-021, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, 2001.
  3. Young, G. Kenneth, D.R. Pearson, S.M. Stein, J.S. Krolak, and A.T. Atayee, HYDRAIN Integrated Drainage Design Computer System (version 6), FHWA-SA-96-064, Washington, DC, 1996.
  4. Kilgore, R.T., A Proposed Storm Drain Energy Loss Methodology for Access Holes, unpublished research report, January 27, 2006.
  5. Marsalek, J., Head Losses at Selected Sewer Manholes, American Public Works Association, Special Report 52, Chicago, IL, 1985.
  6. Sangster, W.M., H.W. Wood, E.T. Snerdon, and H.G. Bossy, Pressure Changes at Storm Drain Junctions, Engineering Series, Bulletin 41, Engineering Experiment Station, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 1958.
  7. Norman, J.M., R.J. Houghtalen, and W.J. Johnston, Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts (HDS 5), FHWA-NHI-01-020, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, 2001.
  8. Morris, H.M., Applied Hydraulics in Engineering, The Ronald Press Company, New York, NY, 1963.

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