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Publication Number: FHWA-04-044
Date: February 2004

Incremental Costs and Performance Benefits of Various Features of Concrete Pavements

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APPENDIX C. SUMMARY OF DATA COLLECTION RESPONSES

As described in chapter 2, two surveys were produced and distributed under this project, one targeted to SHAs (to solicit relative performance data) and one for PCC paving contractors (to solicit relative cost data). Although these were separate surveys, the pavement design variables presented in each questionnaire are identical; results from each data collection effort thus can be paired directly for analysis.

Both surveys were structured so that only one design feature (from the standard design) was changed at a time, and the survey participants were then asked to assess what effect that change might have in terms of the costs (contractor questionnaire) or relative performance (agency questionnaire). In this way, the relative effects of the change in that one design feature could be determined. As described in chapter 2, all cost and performance changes were collected in terms of ratios that were relative to the expected cost and performance of the standard design section (i.e., cost and performance ratios associated with the design features defining the standard pavement section were 1.00). For example, if a contractor participant estimated that a particular design feature change was expected to cost 5 percent more than the original expected cost of the standard pavement section, then the participant defined the associated cost ratio as 1.05. Likewise, if an agency participant estimated that a particular design feature change would result in 3 percent decrease in performance (in comparison to the expected performance of the standard pavement section) then the participant defined the associated performance ratio as 0.97 (i.e., 1.00 –0.03 = 0.97). Survey respondents were asked to not enter a rating if they had no experience with a particular design feature.

Table 18 presents the raw data collected from the agency (performance) surveys, and also provides a statistical summary (mean, standard deviation, median, and range) of the overall results. Table 19 presents similar information for the contractor (cost) surveys. A blank cell in either of these tables indicates a “no response” from the participant.


Table 18. Raw data and summary of agency (performance) surveys.
Feature Category Description Performance Survery Responses
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Subgrade
Lime treated subgrade
0.951.00 0.500.901.05 1.09
Base
No base
0.900.85 0.700.800.900.700.93
Asphalt-treated base (ATB)
1.02   0.801.051.101.27
Cement-treated base (CTB)
1.03  0.750.801.001.051.27
Drainage
Open-graded, non-stabilized base (with underdrains)
1.081.301.201.501.151.25 1.87
Asphalt-treated permeable base (with underdrains
1.091.40 1.751.151.40 2.36
Asphalt-treated permeable base (without underdrains
1.051.30  1.201.10 1.76
Cement-treated permeable base (with underdrains)
1.101.35 1.601.151.350.802.36
Cement-treated permeable base (without underdrains)
1.06130  1.201.10 1.76
Thickness/
Slab Size
200-m (8-in) JCP with 3.7-m (12-ft) joint spacing
0.850.28 0.250.950.750.750.25
300-m (12-in) JCP with 5.5-m (18-ft) joint spacing
1.153.00 3.001.001.501.203.30
250-m (10-in) JCP with 9.1-m (30-ft) joint spacing
0.98   0.80 0.751.00
240-m (9.5-in) CRCP with epoxy-coated deformed bars
1.05   1.00 1.10 
240-m (9.5-in) CRCP with non-coated deformed bars
1.03   0.80 1.05 
Cross Section
Trapezoidal cross section, 275 to 200 mm (11 to 8in)
0.95   1.05   
Thickened edge cross section, 275 mm (11 in) at edges
0.95   1.05   
Joints/Load
Transfer
Non-coated dowels
0.96  1.050.960.95 1.00
Skewed joints
1.00  0.800.95  1.00
No dowels
0.87  0.600.750.80 0.43
Reduced number of dowels
0.90   0.980.900.740.75
Joint Sealing
Hot-poured sealant with widening cut
1.00   0.801.000.951.00 
Silicone sealant with widening cut
0.97  1.301.101.051.00 
Silicone sealant without widening cut
0.99  0.901.050.951.00 
Preformed compression sealant
1.03  1.001.151.251.000.90
No sealant
0.90  0.700.950.901.000.60
Shoulders
400-mm (16-in) gravel shoulder
0.90   0.95  1.00
150-mm (6-in) tied PCC shoulder
1.08  1.201.05 1.051.25
250-mm (10-in) tied PCC shoulder
1.101.15 1.301.101.101.051.58
0.6-m (2-ft) widened PCC slab
1.10  1.351.101.101.101.58
Strength/
Materials
5.2 Mpa (750 lb/yd2 flexural strength
1.00  1.000.901.05 1.63
High-early strength
1.001.00 0.900.901.05 1.00
Well-graded mix
1.001.20 n/a1.051.05 2.00
Initial
Smoothness
79 to 110 mm/km (5 to 7 in/mi)
 1.00 1.10   1.01
47 to 79 mm/km (3 to 5 in/mi)
 1.02 1.20   1.02
16 to 47 mm/km (1 to 3 in/mi)
 1.03 1.30   1.03
< 16 mm/km (1 in/mi)
 1.03     1.05


Table 18. Raw data and summary of agency (performance) surveys. (continuted)
Feature Category Description Performance Survery Responses Mean Standard Deviation Median High Low
9 10 11 12
Subgrade
Lime treated subgrade
   0.500.860.25 0.95 1.090.50
Base
No base
   0.300.760.21 0.83 0.930.30
Asphalt-treated base (ATB)
 1.20 1.301.110.17 1.10 1.300.80
Cement-treated base (CTB)
 0.75 0.400.880.26 0.90 1.270.40
Drainage
Open-graded, non-stabilized base (with underdrains)
1.35  1.201.320.24 1.25 1.871.08
Asphalt-treated permeable base (with underdrains
  1.801.201.520.43 1.40 2.361.09
Asphalt-treated permeable base (without underdrains
 1.20  1.270.26 1.20 1.761.05
Cement-treated permeable base (with underdrains)
   0.501.280.56 1.25 2.360.50
Cement-treated permeable base (without underdrains)
    1.280.28 1.20 1.761.06
Thickness/
Slab Size
200-m (8-in) JCP with 3.7-m (12-ft) joint spacing
   0.800.570.30 0.75 0.950.25
300-m (12-in) JCP with 5.5-m (18-ft) joint spacing
   1.002.051.06 1.50 3.301.00
250-m (10-in) JCP with 9.1-m (30-ft) joint spacing
   1.000.910.12 0.98 1.000.75
240-m (9.5-in) CRCP with epoxy-coated deformed bars
    1.050.05 1.05 1.101.00
240-m (9.5-in) CRCP with non-coated deformed bars
2.03  0.701.120.53 1.03 2.030.70
Cross Section
Trapezoidal cross section, 275 to 200 mm (11 to 8in)
    1.000.07 1.00 1.050.95
Thickened edge cross section, 275 mm (11 in) at edges
    1.000.07 1.00 1.050.95
Joints/Load
Transfer
Non-coated dowels
1.00 1.000.800.970.07 0.98 1.050.80
Skewed joints
 1.001.001.000.960.07 1.00 1.000.80
No dowels
0.430.400.550.500.590.18 0.55 0.870.40
Reduced number of dowels
   0.800.850.10 0.85 0.980.74
Joint Sealing
Hot-poured sealant with widening cut
 1.20 1.000.990.12 1.00 1.200.80
Silicone sealant with widening cut
1.00 1.051.001.060.11 1.03 1.300.97
Silicone sealant without widening cut
   1.000.980.05 1.00 1.050.90
Preformed compression sealant
   1.001.050.12 1.00 1.250.90
No sealant
   1.000.860.15 0.90 1.000.60
Shoulders
400-mm (16-in) gravel shoulder
1.00 1.001.000.980.04 1.00 1.250.90
150-mm (6-in) tied PCC shoulder
   1.201.140.09 1.14 1.751.05
250-mm (10-in) tied PCC shoulder
1.571.401.751.201.300.24 1.20 1.751.05
0.6-m (2-ft) widened PCC slab
1.571.301.751.401.340.24 1.33 1.751.10
Strength/
Materials
5.2 Mpa (750 lb/yd2 flexural strength
1.63  1.001.170.32 1.00 1.630.90
High-early strength
1.00  0.900.970.06 1.00 1.050.90
Well-graded mix
    1.260.42 1.05 2.001.00
Initial
Smoothness
79 to 110 mm/km (5 to 7 in/mi)
 1.001.051.001.030.04 1.01 1.101.00
47 to 79 mm/km (3 to 5 in/mi)
 1.051.201.001.080.09 1.04 1.201.00
16 to 47 mm/km (1 to 3 in/mi)
 1.101.251.001.120.13 1.07 1.301.00
< 16 mm/km (1 in/mi)
 1.151.251.001.100.10 1.05 1.251.00


Table 19. Raw data and summary of contractor (cost) surveys.
Feature Category Description Performance Survery Responses
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Subgrade
Lime treated subgrade
0.950.920.951.050.921.080.950.950.951.121.02
Base
No base
0.700.780.880.850.870.960.830.700.940.80 0.88
Asphalt-treated base (ATB)
1.051.151.251.101.101.171.281.101.071.271.24
Cement-treated base (CTB)
0.871.110.941.001.061.081.251.001.051.19 1.21
Drainage
Open-graded, non-stabilized base (with underdrains)
1.311.191.181.101.141.191.341.221.161.23 1.37
Asphalt-treated permeable base (with underdrains
1.381.201.271.201.231.471.441.281.221.351.56
Asphalt-treated permeable base (without underdrains
1.321.211.201.151.241.381.341.201.151.361.46
Cement-treated permeable base (with underdrains)
1.291.231.211.201.151.281.391.301.191.40 1.46
Cement-treated permeable base (without underdrains)
1.331.271.131.151.221.271.441.071.181.43 1.58
Thickness/
Slab Size
200-m (8-in) JCP with 3.7-m (12-ft) joint spacing
0.940.920.940.800.880.900.920.950.970.92 0.86
300-m (12-in) JCP with 5.5-m (18-ft) joint spacing
1.061.081.061.201.101.111.091.081.041.09 1.17
250-m (10-in) JCP with 9.1-m (30-ft) joint spacing
1.101.111.031.251.011.031.021.171.021.18 1.14
240-m (9.5-in) CRCP with epoxy-coated deformed bars
1.151.131.321.301.111.131.171.201.281.29 1.30
240-m (9.5-in) CRCP with non-coated deformed bars
1.111.091.131.251.051.101.131.171.241.251.23
Cross Section
Trapezoidal cross section, 275 to 200 mm (11 to 8in)
0.980.981.000.950.980.971.001.100.990.951.00
Thickened edge cross section, 275 mm (11 in) at edges
0.980.981.001.000.980.971.001.150.991.001.00
Joints/Load
Transfer
Non-coated dowels
0.991.000.990.981.001.000.990.970.990.990.99
Skewed joints
1.011.031.001.101.001.001.011.051.011.001.01
No dowels
0.940.970.940.900.940.940.940.950.910.940.92
Reduced number of dowels
0.980.990.970.950.970.980.970.990.960.970.97
Joint Sealing
Hot-poured sealant with widening cut
1.001.000.990.981.001.000.991.101.000.961.00
Silicone sealant with widening cut
1.011.001.011.051.001.011.011.001.001.051.01
Silicone sealant without widening cut
1.031.00n/a1.021.001.001.010.991.001.01n/a
Preformed compression sealant
1.021.051.011.151.011.071.021.051.011.081.02
No sealant
0.990.990.980.901.000.990.980.901.000.930.99
Shoulders
400-mm (16-in) gravel shoulder
0.840.970.910.950.950.860.900.900.870.910.92
150-mm (6-in) tied PCC shoulder
1.041.081.081.051.031.071.041.301.141.081.37
250-mm (10-in) tied PCC shoulder
1.131.141.101.201.061.151.061.351.221.171.28
0.6-m (2-ft) widened PCC slab
1.041.031.061.101.021.021.011.101.101.051.22
Strength/
Materials
5.2 Mpa (750 lb/yd2 flexural strength
1.031.031.021.101.031.021.011.101.021.061.11
High-early strength
1.051.091.071.40 1.051.101.231.031.101.28
Well-graded mix
1.001.021.001.051.031.011.011.001.001.01n/a
Initial
Smoothness
Aggregate Base
           
79 to 110 mm/km (5 to 7 in/mi)
 1.00n/a1.02 1.001.001.001.00  
47 to 79 mm/km (3 to 5 in/mi)
 1.01n/a1.02 1.021.001.001.00  
16 to 47 mm/km (1 to 3 in/mi)
 1.02n/a1.02 1.021.001.001.04  
< 16 mm/km (1 in/mi)
 1.04n/a1.10 1.041.011.001.07  
Asphalt-treated base (ATB)
           
79 to 110 mm/km (5 to 7 in/mi)
 1.00n/a1.07 1.001.00n/a1.00  
47 to 79 mm/km (3 to 5 in/mi)
 1.01n/a1.07 1.011.00n/a1.00  
16 to 47 mm/km (1 to 3 in/mi)
 1.02n/a1.07 1.021.00n/a1.04  
< 16 mm/km (1 in/mi)
 1.03n/a1.07 1.021.01n/a1.07  
Cement-treated base (CTB)
           
79 to 110 mm/km (5 to 7 in/mi)
 1.00n/a1.07 1.001.00n/a1.00  
47 to 79 mm/km (3 to 5 in/mi)
 1.01n/a1.07 1.011.00n/a1.00  
16 to 47 mm/km (1 to 3 in/mi)
 1.02n/a1.07 1.021.00n/a1.04  
< 16 mm/km (1 in/mi)
 1.03n/a1.07 1.031.01n/a1.07  
Open-graded stabilized drainage layers
            
79 to 110 mm/km (5 to 7 in/mi)
 1.00n/a1.12 1.001.011.01 1.00  
47 to 79 mm/km (3 to 5 in/mi)
 1.01n/a1.12 1.011.011.011.00   
16 to 47 mm/km (1 to 3 in/mi)
 1.02n/a1.12 1.021.011.011.04  
< 16 mm/km (1 in/mi)
 1.03n/a1.12 1.031.011.011.07   


Table 19. Raw data and summary of contractor (cost) surveys. (continuted)
Feature Category Description Performance Survery Responses Mean Standard Deviation Median High Low
12 13 14 15 16
Subgrade
Lime treated subgrade
1.00 0.94 0.94 1.00 0.990.98 0.06 0.95 1.120.92
Base
No base
0.92 0.91 0.89 0.90 0.840.85 0.08 0.88 0.960.70
Asphalt-treated base (ATB)
1.17 1.25 1.18 1.14 1.091.16 0.08 1.16 1.281.05
Cement-treated base (CTB)
1.00 1.04 0.97 1.11 1.111.06 0.10 1.06 1.250.87
Drainage
Open-graded, non-stabilized base (with underdrains)
1.30 1.15 1.10 1.24 1.281.22 0.08 1.21 1.371.10
Asphalt-treated permeable base (with underdrains
1.40 1.24 1.26 1.43 1.341.33 0.11 1.31 1.561.20
Asphalt-treated permeable base (without underdrains
1.40 1.21 1.19 1.48 1.261.28 0.11 1.25 1.481.15
Cement-treated permeable base (with underdrains)
1.40 1.13 1.17 1.34 1.301.28 0.10 1.29 1.461.13
Cement-treated permeable base (without underdrains)
1.42 1.14 1.15 1.22 1.281.27 0.14 1.24 1.581.07
Thickness/
Slab Size
200-m (8-in) JCP with 3.7-m (12-ft) joint spacing
0.95 0.93 0.09 0.96 0.940.87 0.21 0.93 0.970.09
300-m (12-in) JCP with 5.5-m (18-ft) joint spacing
1.10 1.08 1.08 1.06 1.071.09 0.04 1.08 1.201.04
250-m (10-in) JCP with 9.1-m (30-ft) joint spacing
1.10 1.06 1.02 1.05 1.021.08 0.07 1.06 1.251.01
240-m (9.5-in) CRCP with epoxy-coated deformed bars
1.25 1.16 1.24 1.02 1.111.20 0.09 1.19 1.321.02
240-m (9.5-in) CRCP with non-coated deformed bars
1.20 1.11 1.20 1.00 1.071.15 0.08 1.13 1.251.00
Cross Section
Trapezoidal cross section, 275 to 200 mm (11 to 8in)
1.00 0.98 1.00 1.00 1.030.99 0.03 0.99 1.100.95
Thickened edge cross section, 275 mm (11 in) at edges
1.00 0.98 1.00 1.00 1.041.00 0.04 1.00 1.150.97
Joints/Load
Transfer
Non-coated dowels
1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.980.99 0.01 0.99 1.000.97
Skewed joints
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.001.01 0.03 1.01 1.101.00
No dowels
0.96 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.910.94 0.02 0.94 0.970.90
Reduced number of dowels
0.98 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.960.97 0.01 0.97 0.990.95
Joint Sealing
Hot-poured sealant with widening cut
1.00 1.00 0.99 0.79 0.990.99 0.06 1.00 1.100.79
Silicone sealant with widening cut
1.01 1.01 1.01 1.32 1.011.03 0.08 1.01 1.321.00
Silicone sealant without widening cut
1.01 1.00 1.00 1.17 1.001.02 0.05 1.00 1.170.99
Preformed compression sealant
1.02 1.01 1.02 1.58 1.021.07 0.14 1.02 1.581.01
No sealant
1.00 0.99 0.99 0.57 0.980.95 0.11 0.99 1.000.57
Shoulders
400-mm (16-in) gravel shoulder
0.90 0.85 0.94 0.90 0.900.90 0.04 0.90 0.970.84
150-mm (6-in) tied PCC shoulder
1.30 1.06 1.07 1.19 1.111.13 0.11 1.08 1.371.03
250-mm (10-in) tied PCC shoulder
1.24 1.08 1.12 1.24 1.161.17 0.08 1.15 1.351.06
0.6-m (2-ft) widened PCC slab
1.20 1.03 1.05 1.03 1.061.07 0.06 1.05 1.221.01
Strength/
Materials
5.2 Mpa (750 lb/yd2 flexural strength
1.10 1.04 1.02 1.03 1.031.05 0.03 1.03 1.111.01
High-early strength
1.25 1.07 1.03 1.03 1.061.12 0.11 1.07 1.401.03
Well-graded mix
n/a 1.01 n/a 1.00 1.011.01 0.01 1.01 1.051.00
Initial
Smoothness
Aggregate Base
                 
79 to 110 mm/km (5 to 7 in/mi)
  1.00 1.00 1.00 1.001.00 0.01 1.00 1.021.00
47 to 79 mm/km (3 to 5 in/mi)
  1.00 1.00 1.00 1.001.00 0.01 1.00 1.021.00
16 to 47 mm/km (1 to 3 in/mi)
  1.01 1.05 1.00 1.021.02 0.02 1.02 1.051.00
< 16 mm/km (1 in/mi)
  1.01 1.10 1.00 1.051.04 0.04 1.04 1.101.00
Asphalt-treated base (ATB)
                1.00
79 to 110 mm/km (5 to 7 in/mi)
  1.25 1.00 1.00 1.011.04 0.08 1.00 1.251.00
47 to 79 mm/km (3 to 5 in/mi)
  1.26 1.00 1.00 1.011.04 0.09 1.01 1.261.00
16 to 47 mm/km (1 to 3 in/mi)
  1.26 1.05 1.00 1.031.05 0.08 1.03 1.261.00
< 16 mm/km (1 in/mi)
  1.27 1.10 1.00 1.061.07 0.08 1.06 1.271.00
Cement-treated base (CTB)
                1.00
79 to 110 mm/km (5 to 7 in/mi)
  1.04 1.00 1.00 1.001.01 0.03 1.00 1.071.00
47 to 79 mm/km (3 to 5 in/mi)
  1.04 1.00 1.00 1.001.01 0.02 1.00 1.071.00
16 to 47 mm/km (1 to 3 in/mi)
  1.04 1.05 1.00 1.021.03 0.02 1.02 1.071.00
< 16 mm/km (1 in/mi)
  1.04 1.10 1.00 1.051.04 0.03 1.04 1.101.00
Open-graded stabilized drainage layers
                1.00
79 to 110 mm/km (5 to 7 in/mi)
  1.15 1.00 1.00 1.011.03 0.06 1.01 1.51.00
47 to 79 mm/km (3 to 5 in/mi)
  1.16 1.00 1.00 1.011.03 0.06 1.01 1.161.00
16 to 47 mm/km (1 to 3 in/mi)
  1.16 1.05 1.00 1.031.05 0.05 1.03 1.161.00
< 16 mm/km (1 in/mi)
  1.17 1.10 1.00 1.061.06 0.05 1.05 1.171.00

 

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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