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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-01-167
Date: April 2005

Structural Factors of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements: SPS-2—Initial Evaluation and Analysis

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Foreword

The Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program Specific Pavement Studies 2 (SPS-2) experiment, Strategic Study of Structural Factors of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements (JPCP), is one of the key components of the LTPP program. The main objective of this experiment is to determine the relative influence and long-term effectiveness of JPCP design features and site conditions on performance. This report documents the first comprehensive review and evaluation of the SPS-2 experiment as it exists today. The evaluation concludes that many important and useful findings and results can be obtained from the SPS-2 sites despite several limitations resulting from not constructing a few of the test sites and a few construction deviations that occurred. In addition, some materials and traffic data are missing from some sites or sections. These data are important to achieving the objectives of the experiment, and are now being sought from the SPS-2 sites.

Some interesting and important early trends have been identified that will be useful to the design and construction of JPCP, even though the oldest sections were no more than 7.5 years old at the time of this study. As time and traffic loadings accumulate at the SPS-2 sites, additional valuable performance data will be obtained. For example, the direct comparison of performance of designs with and without a permeable subdrainage layer is of intense interest to the State highway agencies. Future analyses of the performance data from the SPS-2 experiment will lead to new and important findings on the value of subdrainage, base type (treated and unbound), widened lanes, strength of concrete, subgrade soil, traffic level, and climate. These findings will lead to more reliable and cost-effective designs of JPCP.

This report will be of interest to highway agency engineers involved in design, construction, and management of the pavements as well as future researchers who will analyze the performance of the SPS-2 sections.

T. Paul Teng, P.E.
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development

 

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

 

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-RD-01-167

2. Government Accession No.

3. Recipient's Catalog No.

4. Title and Subtitle

STRUCTURAL FACTORS OF JOINTED PLAIN CONCRETE PAVEMENTS: SPS-2—INITIAL EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS

5. Report Date

April 2005

6. Performing Organization Code

7. Author(s)

Y. Jane Jiang and Michael I. Darter

8. Performing Organization Report No.

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

ERES Consultants
A Division of Applied Research Associates, Inc.
9030 Red Branch Road, Suite 210
Columbia, MD 21045

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

C6B

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61-96-C-00003

12. Sponsoring Agency's Name and Address

Office of Engineering Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Draft Final Report
October 1999 to February 2000

14. Sponsoring Agency's Code

15. Supplementary Notes

Work was conducted as part of the LTPP Data Analysis Technical Support Contract. Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative (COTR): Cheryl Allen Richter, HRDI-13

16. Abstract

The SPS-2 experiment, Strategic Study of Structural Factors for Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements (JPCP), is one of the key components of the LTPP program. The main objective of this experiment is to determine the relative influence and long-term effectiveness of JPCP design features (including slab thickness, PCC flexural strength, base type and drainage, and slab width) and site conditions (traffic, subgrade type, climate) on performance. This report documents the first comprehensive review and evaluation of the SPS-2 experiment. Thirteen SPS-2 projects have been constructed with one additional site under construction. At each site, there are 12 core sections plus various numbers of supplemental sections.

The data availability and completeness for the SPS-2 experiment are good overall. A high percentage of the SPS-2 data are at level E—greater than 82 percent for all data types, and greater than 99 percent for many. However, a significant amount of data are still missing, especially traffic, distress and faulting surveys, and key materials testing data. These deficiencies need to be addressed before a comprehensive analysis of the SPS-2 experiment is conducted. Required experimental pavement design factors and site conditions were compared with the actual constructed values. Most SPS-2 sections follow the experiment design for the large majority of the design factors. When comparing designed versus constructed, eight SPS-2 projects can be characterized as good to excellent, four projects are considered poor to fair, and one new SPS-2 project does not yet have enough data in the IMS database to be evaluated.

The evaluation has shown that several problems may limit the results that can be obtained from the SPS-2 experiments if not rectified. Specifically, no SPS-2 projects were built on certain subgrade types and in some climates. Some SPS-2 sites had construction deviations, and significant materials data and traffic data are missing from other sites or sections. One site has excessive early cracking that will limit its usefulness. However, even though the SPS-2 sections are relatively young (oldest project is 7.5 years) and a large majority show no or little distress, some interesting and important early trends have already been identified that will be very useful to the design and construction of JPCP. As time and traffic loadings accumulate, much more valuable performance data will be obtained. The Federal Highway Administration is conducting a concerted effort to obtain missing data. Recommendations for future analyses are provided in the last chapter of this report. Valuable information will be obtained from this experiment if these studies are carried out.

17. Key Words

Design factors, experimental design, JPCP, LTPP, performance trends, SPS-2.

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

203

22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

SI (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors

Preface

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. EVALUATION OF THE SPS-2 EXPERIMENT
  3. ASSESSMENT OF DATA AVAILABILITY AND COMPLETENESS
  4. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN VERSUS ACTUAL CONSTRUCTION
  5. SPS-2 PROJECT STATUS SUMMARIES
  6. INITIAL EVALUATION OF KEY PERFORMANCE TRENDS
  7. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDIX A. SUMMARY OF SPS-2 PROJECT NOMINATION AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES

APPENDIX B. SUMMARY OF SPS-2 PROJECT CONSTRUCTION AND DEVIATION REPORTS

REFERENCES

List of Figures

  1. Test section details for a full factorial SPS-2 experiment located at two sites (01 to 12 and 13 to 24)
  2. Geographic distribution of the constructed SPS-2 projects
  3. LTPP data collection and data movement flowchart
  4. Frequency distribution of the mean PCC slab thickness for SPS-2 203-mm cells
  5. Frequency distribution of the mean PCC slab thickness for SPS-2 279-mm cells
  6. Frequency distribution of the 14-day modulus of rupture for SPS-2 3.8-MPa cells
  7. Frequency distribution of the 14-day modulus of rupture for SPS-2 6.2-MPa cells
  8. Time-series plot of modulus of rupture for SPS projects in Arizona, Arkansas, and Colorado
  9. Time-series plot of modulus of rupture for SPS projects in Delaware, Iowa, and Kansas
  10. Time-series plot of modulus of rupture for SPS projects in Nevada, Ohio, and Washington
  11. Frequency distribution of the 1-year modulus of rupture for 3.8-MPa cells
  12. Frequency distribution of the 1-year modulus of rupture for 6.2-MPa cells
  13. Distribution of the mean joint faulting values for SPS-2 sections (total 155 sections)
  14. Mean edge joint faulting for different categories
  15. Sample faulting time history plot-heavily trafficked Michigan SPS-2 sections by base types
  16. Distribution of the transverse cracking for SPS-2 sections (total 155 sections)
  17. SPS-2 mean percentage of slabs cracked transversely for different categories
  18. Sample time history plot for transverse cracking, Michigan SPS-2 project
  19. Distribution of the longitudinal cracking for SPS-2 sections (total 155 sections)
  20. SPS-2 mean total longitudinal cracking for different categories
  21. Sample time history plot for longitudinal cracking-heavily trafficked Michigan SPS-2 project
  22. Distribution of the initial IRI for SPS-2 sections (total 155 sections, mean = 1.30 m/km)
  23. SPS-2 mean initial IRI for different site conditions and design features
  24. Distribution of the IRI for SPS-2 sections (January 2000) (total 155 sections)
  25. Recommended future analyses for SPS-2-Site-by-site analysis of SPS-2 projects to gain understanding of performance of individual test sections (initial stage)
  26. Recommended future analyses for SPS-2 experiment-study of the effect of the experimental factors on rigid pavement performance
  27. Recommended future analyses for SPS-2 experiment-determination of the optimum pavement design features
  28. Recommended future analyses for SPS-2 experiment -quantify the relationships between as-designed and as-built concrete slab thickness and strength
  29. Recommended future analyses for SPS-2 experiment-calibration and validation of the pavement transfer functions
  30. Recommended future analyses for SPS-2 experiment -mechanistic analyses of JPCP
  31. Recommended future analyses for SPS-2 experiment -cost/benefit analyses of JPCP

List of Tables

  1. Original SPS-2 experiment design
  2. SPS-2 experiment design-project site factorial
  3. SPS-2 projects constructed in relation to the project site factorial (note missing cells)
  4. List of constructed SPS-2 core and supplemental sections
  5. Current status of SPS-2 experiment
  6. List of the conducted SPS-2 State supplemental sections and designs
  7. SPS-2 site general information and report availability
  8. SPS-2 site location information
  9. SPS-2 site significant dates and age as of August 1999
  10. Data availability and QC levels for key pavement layer data
  11. Data availability for lane width, drainage, and shoulder data for SPS-2 sections
  12. Data availability assessment and QC levels for SPS-2 key construction data
  13. Data availability assessment and QC levels for other SPS-2 construction data
  14. SPS-2 materials sampling and testing plan for subgrade and bases
  15. SPS-2 materials sampling and testing plan for the PCC surface
  16. Data availability assessment for key PCC material testing tables
  17. Traffic monitoring data availability assessment for SPS-2 experiment
  18. SPS-2 climate information availability
  19. Testing frequencies for SPS-2 monitoring data collection
  20. Summary of the number of the surveys for longitudinal profile data collection
  21. Summary of the number of the surveys for deflection data collection
  22. Summary of the number of the surveys for faulting data collection
  23. Summary of the number of the surveys for manual and photographic distressdata collection
  24. Summary of the number of the surveys for friction data collection
  25. Data availability assessment for SPS-2 dynamic load response data
  26. Summary of the SPS-2 data availability and completeness for key data types
  27. Summary of the SPS-2 data availability and completeness assessment for traffic, climate, and monitoring data types
  28. Summary of the SPS-2 experimental designed versus as-constructed sites, annual precipitation
  29. Summary of the SPS-2 designed versus constructed sites, annual freezing index
  30. Comparison of the SPS-2 designed versus constructed values for subgrade types
  31. Comparison of the designed versus actual values for annual traffic
  32. Designed versus mean constructed SPS-2 PCC slab thickness, mm
  33. Designed versus mean constructed SPS-2 PCC slab flexural strength, MPa
  34. Summary statistics and t-test results for flexural strength data from all SPS-2 sites
  35. Designed versus mean constructed base thickness, mm
  36. Designed versus mean constructed lane width, m
  37. Designed versus constructed data summary for SPS-2 experiment
  38. Designed versus constructed SPS-2 PCC
  39. Arizona SPS-2 project summary
  40. Arkansas SPS-2 project summary
  41. Colorado SPS-2 project summary
  42. Delaware SPS-2 project summary
  43. Iowa SPS-2 project summary
  44. Kansas SPS-2 project summary
  45. Michigan SPS-2 project summary
  46. Nevada SPS-2 project summary
  47. North Carolina SPS-2 project summary
  48. North Dakota SPS-2 project summary
  49. Ohio SPS-2 project summary
  50. Washington SPS-2 project summary
  51. Wisconsin SPS-2 project summary
  52. SPS-2 sections with noticeable distress
  53. Gradation table
  54. Geotextile material properties
  55. Gradation table
  56. Course aggregate requirements
  57. Arizona test section pavement designs
  58. Colorado test section pavement design
  59. Delaware test section pavement designs
  60. Iowa test section pavement design
  61. Iowa test section thickness variations
  62. Kansas test section pavement design
  63. Kansas test section PCC thicknesses
  64. Michigan test section pavement design
  65. North Carolina test section pavement design
  66. North Dakota test section pavement designs
  67. Ohio test section pavement designs
  68. Washington test section pavement design
  69. Wisconsin test section pavement designs

FHWA-RD-01-167

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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