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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-01-169
Date: October 2005

Rehabilitation of Jointed Portland Cement Concrete Pavements: SPS-6, Initial Evaluation and Analysis

APPENDIX A: DESCRIPTION OF REHABILITATION TECHNIQUES

The section summaries provided in this appendix are based on information provided in the SPS-6 construction reports, deviation reports, and the individual construction data sheets. An exception to this statement is made for the Michigan site, where the individual construction data sheets were not available

ALABAMA

Section 010601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JPCP did not receive any rehabilitation, and the existing distresses, joints, and repairs were left intact.

Section 010602: Minimum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received some full-depth, doweled-concrete repairs of severely distressed areas, sealing of transverse and longitudinal joints, full-surface diamond grinding, and bituminous shoulder removal and replacement.

Sections 010603 and 010606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum and Maximum Preparation

Section 010603 received no preparation prior to overlay. Section 010606 received maximum pavement preparation prior to overlay. In this section, the maximum pavement preparation consisted of full-depth pavement repair on all deteriorated joints and cracks, load-transfer restoration, and subdrainage retrofitting. Both sections were rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. The overlay was placed in two lifts (71-mm (2.7-inch)) hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) and 31-mm (1.2-inch) base layer).

Section 010604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received minimum preparation followed by a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. An 81-mm (3-inch) bituminous shoulder was removed and replaced. In this section, the asphalt surface was sawed directly above the joints and midslab cracks in the original concrete pavement. Joints were sawed to an average depth of 38 mm (1.5 inches) and were immediately cleaned and sealed using a sealant (AASHTO M213). The saw and seal operation is designed to anticipate the location of future reflection cracking and provide a clean, straight joint in the asphalt surface that can be properly maintained.

Section 010605: Maximum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received full-depth, doweled-concrete repairs of failed joints and midpanel cracks. Faulted joints and midslab cracks were subsealed. The concrete surface was diamond ground to remove faults. Transverse and longitudinal joints were routed and sealed using an elastic, hot-poured sealant. This section also received load-transfer restoration. A filter mat underdrain system was installed and the bituminous shoulder was removed and replaced.

Sections 010607 and 010608: 102-mm (4-inch) and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated PCC

These sections were rehabilitated by cracking and seating the JPCP slab and placing an AC overlay. The machine dropped a 4.9-metric ton (5.4-ton) load at a height of 1.8 m every 0.46 m (6 feet every 1.5 feet). This caused longitudinal cracking down the center of the lane. Coring on top of the marks left by the 4.9 metric ton (5.4-ton) load confirmed that the 254-mm- (10-inch-) thick pavement was cracked to its full depth. Two passes of a 27.2-metric ton (30-ton) roller were used to seat the cracked slabs before overlay. Subdrainage systems were retrofitted using a 25-mm by 457-mm (1-inch by 18-inch) drainage mat and the bituminous shoulder was removed and replaced. Section 010607 received a 102-mm (4-inch) AC overlay and section 010608 received a 203-mm (8-inch) AC overlay. A pass is defined as one round trip over a given area of the section.

Sections 010661, 010662, and 010663: Alabama Supplemental Test Sections, Rubblization and AC Overlay

These three sections were rubblized using a Badger Breaker® (Model MHB). Following rubblization, an Ingersoll-Rand® 27.2-metric ton (30-ton) vibratory steel roller (Model SD-150D) made two passes over each section. After the roller completed its second pass, the rubble was reduced in size from 203 mm (8 inches) to approximately 76 mm (3 inches) in diameter. It was noted that approximately 0.61 m (2 feet) of section 010661 was not rubblized. The sections received three passes of a 9.1-metric ton (10-ton) vibratory roller and one pass of the haul trucks backing up to the paver as part of the seating process. Section 010661 received a 102-mm (4-inch) overlay, section 010662 received a 203-mm (8-inch) overlay, and section 010663 received a 241-mm (9.5-inch) overlay.

ARIZONA

Section 040601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JPCP did not receive any rehabilitation. It receives routine maintenance as typically performed by the Arizona Department of Transportation (DOT). Three to five years of service is desired from this section.

Section 040602: Minimum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received some partial-depth spall repairs, joint and crack sealing touch-up, shoulder milling and replacement, and joint sealing between the shoulders and existing JPCP.

Sections 040603 and 040606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum and Maximum Preparation

These sections were rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. Section 040603 received minimum preparation prior to overlay, which included spall repair and partial- and full-depth patching. The overlay was placed in two lifts (51 mm (2 inches) each). Tack coats were applied between lifts and on top of the concrete pavement. A 16-mm (0.7-inch) AC friction course (ACFC) was added to this section approximately 1 month after construction. Section 040606 received maximum preparation prior to overlay, which included removing existing AC patches, full-depth removal and replacement of existing slabs (including dowels and tie bars), partial-depth spall repair, and milling and replacing existing AC shoulders. The overlay was placed in two lifts (51 mm (2 inches) each). Tack coats were applied between lifts and on top of the concrete pavement. A 16-mm (0.7-inch) ACFC was added to this section approximately 1 month after construction.

Section 040604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received minimum preparation followed by a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. Minimum restoration included partial-depth spall repair and partial- and full-depth patching. The overlay was placed in two lifts (51 mm (2 inches) each). Tack coats were applied between lifts and on top of the concrete pavement. On this section, the asphalt surface was sawed directly above the joints and working cracks in the JPCP.

Section 040605: Maximum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received maximum preparation, which included AC patching, removing and replacing slabs, and installing tie bars and dowels. Partial-depth spall repair and diamond grinding of the pavement surface were also performed. The new and existing joints, cracks, and longitudinal shoulder joints were also sawed and sealed.

Sections 040607 and 040608: 102-mm (4-inch) and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated PCC

These sections were rehabilitated by cracking and seating the JPCP slab and placing an AC overlay. The existing JPCP was cracked and seated according to special provisions. Section 040607 received a 102-mm (4-inch) AC overlay. The overlay was placed in two lifts (51 mm (2 inches) each). Section 040608 received a 203-mm (8-inch) AC overlay. The overlay was placed in three lifts (76 mm, 76 mm, and 51 mm (3 inches, 3 inches, and 2 inches)) for a total thickness of 203 mm (8 inches). Tack coats were applied between lifts and on top of the concrete pavement. A 16-mm (0.7 inch) ACFC was added to both sections approximately 1 month after construction.

Section 040609: Arizona Rehabilitation: Rubblizing and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlay

This existing pavement consisted of 203-mm to 229-mm (8-inch to 9-inch) PCC according to the project's special provisions. The pavement was broken into nominal 25-mm to 51-mm (1-inch to 2-inch) pieces and compacted with a vibratory roller and a tack coat was placed prior to overlay. The overlay was placed in three lifts (76 mm, 76 mm, and 51 mm (3 inches, 3 inches, and 2 inches)) for a total thickness of 203 mm (8 inches). Tack coats were applied between lifts and on top of the concrete pavement.

Sections 040610, 040611, and 040612: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated PCC

These sections were rehabilitated by cracking and seating the JPCP slab and placing a 102-mm (4-inch) AC overlay. The existing JPCP was cracked and seated according to special provisions. Section 040610 received two 51-mm (2 inch) lifts of AC (top size was 19.1 mm (0.75 inch)) with binder coat and paving fabric between lifts. Section 040611 received a 51-mm (2-inch) lift of AC (top size was 19.1-mm (0.75 inch)) and a 51-mm (1-inch) lift of asphalt-rubber AC-ARAC (top size was 12.7 mm (.5 inch)) on the top. Section 040612 received a 51-mm (1-inch) lift of asphalt-rubber AC-ARAC (top size was 12.7 mm(0.5 inch)) and a 51-mm (2 inch) lift of AC (top size was 19.1 mm (0.75 inch)) on the top. Tack coats were applied between lifts and on top of the concrete pavement. A 16-mm (0.6-inch) ACFC was added to both sections approximately 1 month after construction.

Section 040613: Cracking and Seating With 254-mm (10-inch) PCC Overlay

This section received cracking and seating with a normal crack spacing of 0.91 m by 0.91 m (3 feet by 3 feet). The pavement was then rolled until the broken pieces were seated. A 203-mm (8-inch) AC overlay was placed and 152 mm (6 inches) of the 203-mm (8-inch) overlay were milled off, leaving 51 mm (2 inches) in place as an AC bondbreaker. A new unbonded 203-mm (8-inch) PCC overlay was constructed with dowels and tie bars.

Sections 040614 and 040618: No Preparation With 140-mm (5.5-inch) Overlay

This section received no preparation on the existing surface. The overlay was placed in three lifts (76-mm (3-inch) AC (top size was 19.1 mm (0.75 inches)), 51-mm (2-inch) ARAC, and 13-mm (0.5-inch) AR-ACFC) for a total thickness of 140 mm (5.5 inches). Tack coats were applied between lifts and on top of the concrete pavement.

Sections 040615 and 040617: Cracking and Seating With 140-mm (5.5-inch) Overlay

These sections received cracking and seating on the existing PCC. The overlay was placed in three lifts (76-mm (3-inch) AC (top size was 19.1 mm (0.75 inches)), 51-mm (2-inch) ARAC, and 13-mm 0.5 inch) AR-ACFC) for a total thickness of 140 mm (5.5 inches). Tack coats were applied between lifts and on top of the concrete pavement.

Sections 040616 and 040619: Rubblizing With 140-mm (5.5-inch) Overlay

These sections received rubblizing of the existing PCC. The overlay was placed in three lifts (76-mm (3-inch) AC (top size was 19.1 mm (0.75 inches)), 51-mm (2-inch) ARAC, and 13-mm (0.5-inch) AR-ACFC) for a total thickness of 140 mm (5.5 inches). Tack coats were applied between lifts and on top of the concrete pavement.

ARKANSAS

Section 05A601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JPCP received joint and crack sealing, some full-depth repairs, and partial-depth patching.

Section 05A602: Minimum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received some full-depth repairs, partial-depth patching, sealing of transverse and longitudinal joints and cracks, joint resealing, and full-surface diamond grinding.

Sections 05A603 and 05A606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum and Maximum Preparation

Section 05A603 received minimum preparation prior to overlay. The preparation consisted of some full-depth repairs, partial-depth patching, crack sealing, and joint resealing. Section 05A606 received maximum pavement preparation prior to overlay. The maximum pavement preparation consisted of full-depth pavement repair on all deteriorated joints and cracks, load-transfer restoration, joint resealing, crack sealing, and subdrainage retrofitting. Both sections were rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. The in-place overlay thickness in section 05A603 was 122 mm (4.8 inches) and the overlay thickness in section 05A606 was 130 mm (5 inches).

Section 05A604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received minimum preparation followed by a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. The preparation consisted of some full-depth repairs, partial-depth patching, crack sealing, and joint resealing. In this section, the asphalt surface was sawed directly above the joints and midslab cracks in the original concrete pavement. Joints were sawed to an average depth of 38 mm (1.5 inches) and then immediately cleaned and sealed. The saw and seal operation is designed to anticipate the location of future reflection cracking and provide a clean, straight joint in the asphalt surface that can be properly maintained.

Section 05A605: Maximum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received full-depth concrete repairs of failed joints and midpanel cracks. The concrete surface was diamond ground to remove faults. The other preparation included partial-depth patching, joint resealing, crack sealing, and load-transfer restoration. A drainage pipe was retrofitted.

Sections 05A607 and 05A608: 102-mm and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated PCC

These sections were rehabilitated by cracking and seating the JPCP slab and placing an AC overlay. The pavement was broken by a guillotine-type drop hammer and seated by one pass of a 45.3-metric ton (50-ton) roller before being overlaid. After the subcontractor (for the cracking and seating process) had left the project, it was noticed that the cracking process did not fully crack the entire depth of the existing concrete pavement.

Some other deviations during overlay placement on section 05A607 were also recorded:

  • HMAC level-up layer between station 4+00 and 4+50 was placed on the first layer of HMAC binder. More than a month later, the surface HMAC layer was placed on top of the binder layer.
  • Another deviation occurred when the asphalt paver had to stop paving temporarily and left a transverse cold joint in the surface layer.

Subdrainage systems were retrofitted using 102-mm (4-inch) drainage pipes. Section 05A607 received an overlay with an average thickness of 124 mm (4.8 inches) and section 05A608 received an AC overlay with an average thickness of 239 mm (9.4 inches).

CALIFORNIA

Section 060601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JPCP did not receive any rehabilitation, and the existing distresses, joints, and repairs were left intact. This section is also referred to as section 063005 (a GPS-7B section).

Section 060602: Minimum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received some full-depth repairs, spall repairs, sealing of transverse and longitudinal joints and cracks, and full-surface diamond grinding. Cracks and joints were routed, cleaned, and sealed with asphalt-rubber joint sealant that conformed to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D3405.

Section 060603: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum Preparation

This section received some full-depth repairs and spall repairs prior to overlay. The section was rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4 inches) asphalt overlay.

Section 060604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received minimum preparation followed by an actual 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. The preparation consisted of some full-depth repairs. Any spalls present within the section were sawed out and replaced with PCC. At the completion of the overlay, 10-mm-wide by 38-mm-deep (0.4-inches-deep by 1.5-inches-deep) saw cuts were made over the referenced joints. The saw cuts were then sealed with an asphalt-rubber joint sealant that conformed to ASTM D3405.

Section 060605: Maximum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received full-depth concrete repairs. Because of the poor condition of the slabs and poor load transfer, it was decided to replace all of the slabs in the outside lane. The edge drains were removed and retrofitted.

Section 060606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Maximum Preparation

This section received full-depth pavement repairs prior to overlay and subdrainage retrofitting. Any spalls within the section were cut out and patched with PCC. Any existing partial- or full-depth patches were removed and replaced. Longitudinal edge drains within the section were removed and replaced. This section was rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay.

Sections 060607 and 060608: 102-mm (4-inch) and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated PCC

These sections were cracked with a guillotine-type pavement breaker. The majority of the broken pieces were 457 mm (18 inches) in size. The pavement was then seated with a rubber-tire roller. Longitudinal edge drains within these sections were removed and replaced. The use of the pavement breaker caused considerable spalling in the pavement surface of section 060607. Therefore, several panels were replaced within the section because of spalling.

Section 060609: California Rehabilitation: Crack and No Seat, 107-mm (4.2-inch) AC Overlay

The existing PCC was cracked in a 1.2-m (4-foot) transverse by 1.8-m (6-foot) longitudinal pattern, but was not seated. The purpose of not seating the PCC was to compare this section against section 060610, which was seated. The edge drains were cleaned, but not replaced.

Section 060610: California Rehabilitation: Crack and Seat, 107-mm (4.2-inch) AC Overlay

The existing PCC was cracked in a 1.2-m (4-foot) transverse by 1.8-m (6-foot) longitudinal pattern and was seated. The edge drains were cleaned, but not replaced.

Section 060611: California Rehabilitation: Crack and Seat With Urethane Polymer Resin (UPR) Overlay

This 122-m-long (122-foot-long) section received some slab replacement. The existing PCC was cracked in a 1.2-m (4-foot) transverse by 1.8-m (6-foot) longitudinal pattern and was seated. The cracking and seating created considerable damage to the pavement and the damaged pieces were chipped out. Spall repairs were made prior to placement of an elastic-cement (UPR) overlay with a thickness of 25 mm. A geotextile fabric and a 76-mm (3-inch) AC overlay were then placed over the UPR overlay.

Section 060612: California Rehabilitation: Crack and Seat With Modified Latex Emulsion (MLE) PCC Overlay

The existing PCC was cracked in a 1.2-m (4-foot) transverse by 1.8-m (6-foot) longitudinal pattern and was seated. The cracking and seating created considerable damage to the pavement, which was not repaired because the MLE was expected to fill the cracks prior to placement of the elastic-cement material. The thickness of the MLE PCC overlay was 25 mm (1 inch).

Section 060613: California Rehabilitation: Crack and Seat With AC Overlay and Pavement Reinforcing Mesh

The existing PCC was cracked in a 1.2-m (4-foot) transverse by 1.8-m (6-foot) longitudinal pattern and was seated. The edge drains were cleaned, but not replaced. The laydown thickness of the first lift AC overlay was 40 mm (1.6 inches). After the glass-fiber meshes were placed, another 117-mm (4.6-inch) laydown thickness of AC overlay was placed on top of the mesh.

Section 060614: California Rehabilitation: Crack and Seat With AC Overlay

This section used the standard State rehabilitation strategy consisting of cracking and seating with a 107-mm (4.2-inch) AC overlay. This section was used as a comparison against all other rehabilitated sections.

ILLINOIS

Section 170601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JRCP did not receive any rehabilitation, and the existing distresses, joints, and repairs were left intact.

Section 170602: Minimum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received some full-depth, doweled-concrete repairs of severely distressed areas, sealing of transverse and longitudinal joints, sealing of midslab breaks, and bituminous shoulder removal and replacement.

Sections 170603 and 170606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum and Maximum Preparation

These sections were rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. Section 170603 received minimum preparation prior to overlay, which consisted of bituminous shoulder removal and replacement. Section 170606 received maximum pavement preparation prior to overlay. Preparation work included full-depth pavement repair of failed joints and midpanel cracks, undersealing, subdrainage retrofitting, and bituminous shoulder removal and replacement.

Section 170604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received full-depth repair followed by a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. In this section, the asphalt surface was sawed directly above the joints and midslab cracks in the original concrete pavement. The bituminous shoulder was milled and replaced. Joints were sawed to a depth of one-third the thickness of the asphalt overlay and were then immediately cleaned and sealed using a hot-poured bituminous sealant. The saw and seal operation is designed to anticipate the location of future reflection cracking and provide a clean, straight joint in the asphalt surface that can be properly maintained.

Section 170605: Maximum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received full-depth, doweled-concrete repairs. Faulted joints and midslab cracks were undersealed. The concrete surface was diamond ground to remove faults. Transverse, longitudinal, and midslab cracks were routed and sealed using an elastic, hot-poured sealant. A pipe underdrain system was installed, and the bituminous shoulder was milled and replaced.

Sections 170607 and 170608: 102-mm (4-inch) and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated PCC

These sections were rehabilitated by cracking and seating the JRCP slab and placing an AC overlay. Section 170607 received a 102-mm (4-inch) AC overlay and section 170608 received a 203-mm (8-inch) AC overlay. The objectives of the cracking operation were to crack the concrete through its full depth into large pieces and to either rupture the reinforcing steel or separate it from the concrete. A guillotine-type hammer with a mass of at least 5443 kilograms (kg) (70 pounds) was specified for this project. Rolling to seat the pieces securely on the subgrade followed breaking. A 32,000-kg (70,548-pound) pneumatic-tire roller was used to seat the broken pavement. Pipe underdrains were installed prior to seating. A 76-mm (3-inch) AC shoulder was milled and replaced.

Sections 170659 and 170662: Illinois Rehabilitation: AC Overlay

These two sections received the Illinois policy rehabilitation: full-depth repair of deteriorated joints and transverse cracks and an 83-mm (3.3-inch) asphalt overlay. This was the standard treatment applied to the remainder of a section (not included in the SHRP test sections) that comprised approximately 2.8 km of pavement in the northbound lanes and the entire 6.5-km length of pavement in the southbound direction. Section 170659 also received undersealing and restoration of the shoulder. Section 170662 also received partial-depth patching, and joint and crack sealing. Undersealing was also provided with a geotextile as a preventive measure against reflection cracking.

Section 170660: PCC Milling

One section of pavement was prepared by milling with no subsequent overlay. Full- and partial-depth repairs were performed prior to milling. Partial-depth repairs were used in areas of spalling and high steel. After milling, the joints and cracks were routed and sealed. The bituminous shoulders were removed and replaced. A 102-mm (4-inch) drainage pipe was installed.

Section 170661: Diamond Grinding of Original PCC

Diamond grinding was performed on this section to remove faulting. Any necessary partial- or full-depth repairs or subsealing of the pavement were performed prior to the grinding operation. Cracks and joints were routed and sealed after grinding. The bituminous shoulders were removed and replaced. A 102-mm (4-inch) drainage pipe was installed.

Sections 170663 and 170664: 152-mm (6-inch) and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlays of Rubblized PCC

The last two sections of the test pavement were rubblized with a high-frequency breaking unit that was capable of delivering low-amplitude impacts of 277 m/kg at a rate of 44 blows per second. The breaking unit was to be operated in such a manner as to rubblize the concrete into particles ranging from the size of sand to pieces no larger than 152 mm (6 inches). After the concrete was rubblized, it was compacted using steel-wheel vibratory rollers. The inspector's daily reports and contract documents indicated that a pipe underdrain system was in place prior to rubblizing.

INDIANA

Section 180601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

At the time of implementation of the project in 1990, this section of JPCP did not receive any rehabilitation, and the existing distresses, joints, and patches were left intact. Subsequently, the original pavement was covered with an AC overlay; therefore, it was removed from the study on July 27, 1993.

Section 180602: Minimum Preparation of Original JPCP

The slabs received 25 doweled-concrete full-depth repairs (total area of 549 square meters (m2)) of severely distressed areas. Virtually every joint was replaced with a full-depth repair. The dowel bars were epoxy-coated and were 29 mm (1.1 inches) in diameter.

Sections 180603 and 180606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum and Maximum Preparation

In these sections, the pavement received a 102-mm (4-inch) dense-graded asphalt overlay and the shoulders received a 76-mm (3-inch) AC overlay. Edge drains were installed and a tack coat was used in both sections prior to placement of the AC overlay. Section 180603 received minimum preparation prior to overlay, consisting of repairing only the severely deteriorated areas with partial-depth AC patches. There were 25 AC patches with an average depth of 51 mm (2 inches) and a total area of 274 m2 (1550 inches2).The AC mixture was modified using 3.75 kg/metric ton (7.5 pounds per ton(lb/ton)) of fibers. Section 180606 received maximum pavement preparation prior to overlay. The slabs received 25 concrete full-depth PCC repairs (total area of 167 m2 (258,850.5 inches2)) of severely distressed areas and some partial-depth patching. The dowel bars were epoxy-coated and were 29 mm (1 inch) in diameter. A geocomposite edge drain was installed.

Section 180604: 102-mm AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received full-depth repairs and partial-depth patching followed by a 102-mm (4-inch) dense-graded asphalt overlay that was sawed directly above the transverse joints in the original concrete pavement. The sawing operation was performed within 6 to 20 days after placement of the asphalt overlay and then immediately cleaned and sealed. The average depth and width of the saw cuts in the asphalt overlay were 41 and 6 mm (1.6 and 0.2 inches), respectively. The saw and seal operation is designed to anticipate the location of future reflection cracking and provide a clean, straight joint in the asphalt surface that can be maintained properly.

Section 180605: Maximum Preparation of Original JPCP

All joints received full-depth, doweled-concrete repairs (total area of 167 m2 (258,850.5 inches2)). The dowel bars were epoxy-coated and were 29 mm (1 inch) in diameter. A pipe underdrain system was installed and the shoulder was overlaid with a 76-mm (3-inch) AC layer.

Sections 180607 and 180608: With AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated JPCP

The objective of the cracking operation is to crack the concrete through its full depth into large pieces (approximately 0.6 m (2 feet) on a side). A guillotine-type hammer capable of delivering dynamic blows sufficient to produce hairline cracks through the full depth of the pavement was required. Rolling to seat the pieces securely on the subgrade followed cracking. A 36-metric ton (39.5 ton) seating roller was used to seat the broken pavement and then an asphalt tack coat was applied. A geocomposite edge drain was installed.

Table 88 summarizes the SHRP and State supplemental sections that were rehabilitated by cracking and seating the JPCP slab and placing an AC overlay. The State supplemental sections consisted of varying quantities and placement of fibers in the AC overlay mixture. Each section consisted of three AC lifts: surface, binder, and base courses.

Sections 180659, 180660, 180661, and 180672: 140-mm, 140-mm, 102-mm, and 140-mm (5.5-inch, 5.5-inch. 4-inch, and 5.5-inch) AC Overlays With Minimum Preparation (With and Without Fibers)

These sections were selected by the State as additional rehabilitation sections. No underdrain system was installed. The shoulder was overlaid with a 76-mm (3-inch) AC layer. Blended throughout the entire AC overlay in sections 180660 and 180672 were fibers amounting to 3.75 and 2.5 kg/metric ton (7.5 and 5 lb/ton), respectively.

Table 88. Summary of SPS-6 cracked and seated sections in Indiana.
Section Program AC overlay Thickness, mm Fiber,Kg/ton1 Fiber in surface course Fiber in binder course Fiber in base course
180607 SHRP 102 None No No No
180608 SHRP 203 None No No No
180662 State 254 None No No No
180663 State 140 3.75 Yes Yes Yes
180664 State 140 3.75 No Yes Yes
180665 State 140 3.75 No No Yes
180666 State 140 2.50 No No Yes
180667 State 140 2.50 No Yes Yes
180668 State 140 2.50 Yes Yes Yes
180669 State 102 3.75 Yes Yes Yes
180670 State 102 3.75 No Yes Yes
180671 State 102 3.75 No No Yes

1 metric ton
1 mm= .039 inch
1 metric ton= 2000 pounds (1 ton)

IOWA

Section 190601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JRCP did not receive any rehabilitation. Existing distresses, joints, and repairs were left intact.

Section 190602: Minimum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received some partial-depth AC repairs of severely distressed areas, sawing and sealing of the joints, longitudinal joint repair, and some isolated diamond grinding. No full-depth repairs were performed and no subdrains were installed.

Sections 190603 and 190606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum and Maximum Preparation

These sections were rehabilitated using an asphalt overlay with an average thickness of 107 mm (4.2 inches). Section 190603 received no preparation prior to overlay and section 190606 received maximum pavement preparation. The preparation included partial-depth patching, full-depth repairs (slab replacement), and load-transfer restoration. A 102-mm (4-inch) drainage pipe was installed.

Section 190604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

These sections received no preparation prior to overlay and were rehabilitated using an asphalt overlay with an average thickness of 107 mm (4.2 inches). In this section, the asphalt surface was sawed directly above the location of the joints and midslab cracks in the original concrete pavement. The saw and seal operation is designed to anticipate the location of future reflection cracking and provide a clean, straight joint in the asphalt surface that can be maintained properly.

Section 190605: Maximum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received PCC partial-depth patching, full-depth repairs of failed joints and midpanel cracks, joint and crack sealing, load-transfer restoration, edge drains, and diamond grinding.

Sections 190607 and 190608: 102-mm (4-inch) and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlays of Cracked/Broken and Seated PCC

These sections of pavement were rehabilitated by cracking/breaking and seating the JRCP slab and placing an AC overlay. Sections 190607 and 190608 received AC overlays with average thicknesses of 107 and 203 mm (4.2 and 8 inches), respectively. A 102-mm (4-inch) drainage pipe was installed on both sections.

The objectives of the cracking/breaking operation are to crack the concrete and break the reinforcing steel through its full depth into large pieces (approximately 0.5 m (1.5 feet) on a side). A guillotine-type hammer capable of delivering dynamic blows sufficient to produce hairline cracks through the full depth of the pavement was required. Rolling to seat the pieces securely on the subgrade followed cracking/breaking. A 45,000-kg (99,208-pound) roller towed by a front-end loader was used to seat the cracked pavement.

Section 190659: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay Over Standard Iowa Preparation

This section was selected by the State as an additional rehabilitation section. The JRCP was prepared according to the State standards, with edge drains installed and a 102-mm (4-inch) AC overlay placed.

MICHIGAN

Section 260601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JRCP did not receive any rehabilitation.

Section 260602: Minimum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received some partial- and full-depth AC repairs of severely distressed areas and crack sealing. The concrete surface was not diamond ground or milled to remove faulting.

Sections 260603 and 260606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum and Maximum Preparation

These sections were rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) AC overlay. Section 260603 received minimum preparation prior to overlay, consisting of partial- and full-depth AC repairs of only the severely deteriorated areas. Section 260606 received maximum preparation prior to overlay, meaning that all deteriorated joints and cracks were repaired. All partial-depth repairs were made with AC; however, full-depth repairs were made with PCC for the maximum preparation. In addition, subdrains were installed in section 260606.

within sections 260603 and 260606, there were 305-mm (12-inch) culverts located at stations 3+75 and 4+40, respectively.

Section 260604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received minimum preparation, consisting of partial- and full-depth repairs with AC, followed by a 102-mm (4-inch) AC overlay. In this section, the AC surface was sawed directly above the joints and midslab cracks in the original concrete pavement. Joints were sawed to a depth of one-third the thickness of the AC overlay and then immediately cleaned and sealed using a hot-poured bituminous sealant. The saw and seal operation is designed to anticipate the location of future reflection cracking and provide a clean, straight joint in the AC surface that can be maintained properly.

Section 260605: Maximum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received AC partial-depth repairs, PCC full-depth repairs of failed joints and midpanel cracks, joint sealing, and crack sealing. Underdrains were installed. The concrete surface was not diamond ground to remove faults.

Sections 260607 and 260608: 102-mm (4-inch) and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlays of Broken and Seated PCC

These two sections were rehabilitated by breaking and seating the JRCP slab and placing an AC overlay. Sections 260607 and 260608 received AC overlays of 102 and 203 mm (4 and 8 inches), respectively. The device used to break the PCC slabs into individual pieces was not specified other than the fact that it had to produce full-depth hairline cracks in the reinforcing steel and the PCC. However, it was specified that a 27- to 45-metric ton (30- to 50-ton) pneumatic-tire roller be used for the seating operation.

Section 260659: 178-mm (7-inch) AC Overlay of Rubblized PCC

This section was selected by the State as an additional rehabilitation section. The JRCP was rubblized before the 178-mm (7-inch) AC overlay was placed.

MISSOURI

Section 290601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JRCP did not receive any rehabilitation. The existing distresses, joints, and patches were left intact.

Sections 290602 and 290666: Minimum Preparation of Original PCC

Section 290602 received 10 full-depth repairs (total area of 75 m2) of the slab and 4 full-depth repairs (total area of 38 m2) of the slab and base. A slab in section 290666 received one full-depth repair (total area of 7 m2). In both sections, joints and cracks were sealed. Diamond grinding was performed in section 290602 to improve the surface profile. After patching section 290666, a cement-pozzolan slurry was used for undersealing.

Sections 290603, 290606, and 290665: 102-mm and 127-mm (4-inch and 5-inch) AC Overlays With Minimum, Maximum, and Typical Preparation

Cores taken from sections 290603 and 290606 showed that the average AC overlay thicknesses were 96.5 and 91.4 mm (3.8 and 3.6 inches), respectively. The average AC overlay thickness for section 290665 was 116.8 mm (4.6 inches). All of these sections received an asphalt tack coat prior to placement of the overlay, and the rehabilitation of section 290606 also included placing edge drains and subsealing. Section 290665 received some undersealing. Table 89 presents the amount of pre-overlay repair in each section. The repairs consisted of doweled concrete with epoxy-coated No. 12 bars.

Table 89. Amount of full-depth repair in sections 290603, 290606, and 290666.
Section Total area, m2 (number of repairs)
Slab only Slab and Base
290603 33 (5) 36 (3)
290606 33 (6) 51 (2)
290665 42 (5) 0

Section 290604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal and Minimum Preparation of PCC

This section received an AC overlay with an average thickness of 96.5 mm (3.8 inches). Prior to overlay, the section received seven full-depth patches (total area of 49 m2 (75,950 inches2)) and a tack coat. The full-depth repairs consisted of doweled concrete with epoxy-coated No. 12 bars. The AC overlay was sawed directly above the transverse joints in the original concrete pavement and then immediately cleaned and sealed. The average depth and width of the saw cuts in the asphalt overlay were 51 and 16 mm (2 and 0.6 inches), respectively. The saw and seal operation is designed to anticipate the location of future reflection cracking and provide a clean, straight joint in the asphalt surface that can be maintained properly.

Section 290605: Maximum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received two full-depth repairs (total area of 63 m2) of the slab and one full-depth repair (total area of 61 m2) of the slab and base. The slab repairs consisted of doweled concrete with epoxy-coated No. 12 bars. After the repairs were made, the joints and cracks were sealed, edge drains were installed, and diamond grinding was performed. This section also received undersealing.

Sections 290607, 290608, 290659, and 290660: AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated PCC

Table 90 summarizes the LTPP and State supplemental sections that were rehabilitated by cracking/breaking and seating the JRCP slab and placing an AC overlay. The objective of the cracking operation is to crack the concrete through its full depth into large pieces (approximately 0.6 m (2-feet) on a side). A guillotine-type hammer capable of delivering dynamic blows sufficient to produce hairline cracks through the full depth of the pavement was used. Rolling to seat the pieces securely on the subgrade followed cracking. A 45.3-metric ton (50-ton) seating roller was used to seat the broken pavement. In November 1993, a 25-mm (1 inch) AC leveling course was placed on sections 290607, 290608, and 290659 to improve the safety and rideability of the pavement surface.

Table 90. summary of sps-6 cracked and seated sections in Missouri.
Section Surface preparation AC overlay thickness, mm
290607 Geocomposite edge drains and asphalt tack coat 109.2(1)
290608 Geocomposite edge drains, shoulder widening, and asphalt tack coat 200.7(1)
290659 Asphalt tack coat 109.2(1)
290660 Shoulder widening and asphalt tack coat 200.7

Sections 290661, 290662, 290663, and 290664: AC Overlays of Rubblized PCC

Table 91 summarizes the Missouri sections that were rehabilitated by rubblizing the JRCP slab and placing an AC overlay. The average overlay thickness was determined from cores.

Table 91. Summary of SPS-6 rubblized sections in Missouri.
Section Surface Preparation AC overlay thickness, mm
290661 Geocomposite edge drains 289.6
290662 Geocomposite edge drainstack coat 185.4
290663 None 292.1
290664 None 175.3

Section 29A601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JPCP received some joint and crack sealing. The other existing distresses, joints, and patches were left intact.

Section 29A602: Minimum Preparation of Original PCC

Section 29A602 received full-depth repairs (total area of 124 m2) of the slab. The other preparations included joint and crack sealing and diamond grinding.

Sections 29A603 and 29A606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum and Maximum Preparation

Both sections received full-depth repairs. Cores taken from sections 29A603 and 29A606 showed that the average AC overlay thicknesses were 109 and 111.8 mm (4.3 and 4.4 inches), respectively. Both sections received an asphalt tack coat prior to placement of the overlay. Rehabilitation of section 29A606 also included undersealing and the placement of edge drains. Shoulders were restored with a 102-mm (104-inch) aggregate layer on both sections.

Section 29A604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal and Minimum Preparation of JPCP

This section received an AC overlay with an average thickness of 104.1 mm (4.1 inches). Prior to overlay, the section received seven full-depth patches (total area of 41 m2 (63,550 inches2)) and a tack coat. The AC overlay was sawed directly above the transverse joints in the original concrete pavement and then immediately cleaned and sealed. The average depth and width of the saw cuts in the asphalt overlay were 102 and 6 mm (4 and 0.2 inches), respectively. The saw and seal operation is designed to anticipate the location of future reflection cracking and provide a clean, straight joint in the asphalt surface that can be maintained properly. The outside shoulder was also restored with a 102-mm (4-inch) aggregate layer.

Section 29A605: Maximum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received 11 full-depth repairs (total area of 67 m2 (103,850 inches2)) of the slab. The other preparation also included joint and crack sealing, slab undersealing, and diamond grinding. A geocomposite edge drain was installed.

Sections 29A607 and 29A608: AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated PCC

These sections were rehabilitated by cracking/breaking and seating the JPCP slabs and placing an AC overlay. The objective of the cracking operation is to crack the concrete through its full depth into large pieces. A guillotine-type hammer capable of delivering dynamic blows sufficient to produce hairline cracks through the full depth of the pavement was used. Rolling to seat the pieces securely on the subgrade followed cracking. A 45.3-metric ton (50-ton) seating roller was used to seat the broken pavement. Section 29A607 received an overlay with an average thickness of 107 mm (4.2 inches) and section 29A608 received an overlay with an average thickness of 202 mm (7.9 inches). A geocomposite edge drain was installed on section 29A608. The shoulders of both sections received a 102-mm (4-inch) aggregate layer.

OKLAHOMA

Section 400601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JRCP received joint sealing and some full-depth repairs in areas of severe deterioration of the existing pavement.

Section 400602: Minimum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received some full-depth repairs, sealing of transverse and longitudinal joints, and full-surface diamond grinding.

Sections 400603 and 400606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum and Maximum Preparation

Section 400603 received some full-depth repairs prior to overlay. Section 400606 received full-depth pavement repairs prior to overlay and subdrainage retrofitting. Both sections were rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. The in-place overlay thickness in section 400603 was 99 mm (3.9 inches) and the overlay thickness in section 400606 was 104 mm (4 inches).

Section 400604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received minimum preparation followed by an actual 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. The preparation consisted of some full-depth repairs. In this section, the asphalt surface was sawed directly above the joints and midslab cracks in the original concrete pavement. The joints were sawed to an average depth of 38 mm (1.5 inch) and then immediately cleaned and sealed. The saw and seal operation is designed to anticipate the location of future reflection cracking and provide a clean, straight joint in the asphalt surface that can be properly maintained.

Section 400605: Maximum Preparation of Original PCC

This section received full-depth concrete repairs. The concrete surface was diamond ground to remove faults. The other preparation included joint sealing. The subdrainage was retrofitted using a 51-mm by 457-mm (2-inch by 18-inch) rectangular plastic perforated channel, which was encapsulated by a filter fabric.

Sections 400607 and 400608: 102-mm (4-inch) and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated PCC

These sections were rubblized with a resonant frequency breaker, resulting in smaller pieces than normally experienced during cracking and seating. Pieces at the surface were, on average, 51 mm by 76 mm (2 by 3 inches) in size. From trenching and additional exploration, it was determined that the pieces on the bottom of the slab were generally larger (127 mm by 203 mm (5 inches by 8 inches)). A 35.4-metric ton (39-ton) pneumatic roller was used to seat the broken concrete. Two passes were made over the section.

Subdrainage systems were retrofitted using a 51-mm by 457-mm (2-inch by 18-inch) rectangular plastic perforated channel, which was encapsulated by a filter fabric. Section 400607 received an overlay with an average thickness of 114 mm (4.5 inches) and section 400608 received an AC overlay with an average thickness of 201 mm (8 inches).

PENNSYLVANIA

Section 420601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JRCP did not receive any rehabilitation. Existing distresses, joints, and repairs were left intact.

Section 420602: Minimum Preparation of Original JRCP

This section of JRCP did not receive any rehabilitation. Existing distresses, joints, and repairs were left intact.

Section 420603: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum Preparation

This section was rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay after minor pre-overlay repairs. The pre-overlay repairs included full-depth repairs of three slabs (total area of 40 m2), partial-depth patching, and subdrainage retrofitting using 102-mm (4-inch) pipe.

Section 420604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received surface preparation prior to overlay. The preparation consisted of full- depth repairs of three slabs (total area of 40 m2), partial-depth patching, and subdrainage retrofitting using 102-mm (4-inch) pipe. Additionally, the AC surface was sawed after placement of the overlay directly above the joints and midslab cracks in the original concrete pavement. The saw and seal treatment is designed to alleviate the problem of deterioration of reflected cracks by providing a clean, straight joint in the AC surface that can be maintained at locations where reflection cracks are anticipated.

Section 420605: Maximum Preparation of Original JRCP

This section received full-depth repairs, partial-depth patching, joint sealing, and load-transfer restoration. Faulted joints and midslab cracks were subsealed. After all of the repairs were made, the concrete surface was diamond ground to remove faulting. A 102-mm (4-inch) drainage pipe was also installed.

Section 420606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Maximum Preparation

This section was rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay after extensive pre-overlay repairs. The repairs included partial-depth patching, full-depth repairs, load-transfer restoration, and undersealing. A 102-mm (4-inch) drainage pipe was also installed.

Sections 420607 and 420608: AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated JRCP

These sections were rehabilitated by cracking and seating the JRCP slab and placing an AC overlay. Sections 420607 and 420608 received AC overlays of 102 and 203 mm (4 and 8 inches), respectively. A 102-mm (4-inch) drainage pipe was also installed. A guillotine-type hammer was used to break the existing JRCP into pieces approximately 0.5 m by 0.5 m (1.5 feet by 1.5 feet). Rolling to seat the pieces securely on the subgrade followed cracking. A 45-metric ton (49.6 ton) roller was used to seat the broken pavement.

Sections 420660 and 420661: AC Overlays of Rubblized JRCP

These sections were added by Pennsylvania DOT as supplemental sections. Both sections were rubblized before the AC overlay. Sections 420660 and 420661 received AC overlays of 241 and 330 mm (9.5 and 13 inches), respectively. A 102-mm (4-inch) drainage pipe was also installed in both sections.

Section 420662: AC Overlay of Cracked and Seated JRCP With 1/3-Point Saw Cut

This section was added by Pennsylvania DOT as a supplemental section. The section was cracked and seated before overlay. A guillotine-type hammer was used to break the existing JRCP into pieces approximately 0.5 m by 0.5 m (19 inches by 19 inches). Rolling to seat the pieces securely on the subgrade followed cracking. A 45-metric ton (49.6 ton) roller was used to seat the broken pavement. Section 420662 received an AC overlay of 203 mm (8 inches). A 102-mm (4 inch) drainage pipe was also installed in the section.

SOUTH DAKOTA

Section 460601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JPCP did not receive any rehabilitation. Existing distresses, joints, and repairs were left intact.

Section 460602: Minimum Preparation of Original JPCP

This section received full-depth, doweled-concrete repairs of severely distressed areas, diamond grinding, and sealing of transverse and longitudinal joints and cracks.

Section 460603: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum Preparation

This section was rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay after minor pre-overlay repairs. The pre-overlay repairs included full-depth patches and AC shoulder overlay.

Section 460604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received full-depth repairs prior to overlay. Additionally, the AC surface was sawed 4 days after placement of the overlay, directly above the joints and midslab cracks in the original concrete pavement. The saw and seal treatment is designed to alleviate the problem of deterioration of reflected cracks by providing a clean, straight joint in the AC surface that can be maintained at locations where reflection cracks are anticipated.

Section 460605: Maximum Preparation of Original JPCP

This section received full-depth repairs, joint and crack sealing, and load-transfer restoration. Faulted joints and midslab cracks were subsealed. After all of the repairs were made, the concrete surface was diamond ground to remove faulting. Transverse, longitudinal, and midslab cracks were routed and sealed using an elastic, hot-poured sealant. A drainage mat was also installed and the bituminous shoulder was overlaid with asphalt concrete.

Section 460606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Maximum Preparation

This section was rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay after extensive pre-overlay repairs. The repairs included full-depth repairs, load-transfer restoration, and undersealing. A drainage mat was also installed and the bituminous shoulder was overlaid with asphalt concrete.

Sections 460607, 460608, and 460660: AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated JPCP

These sections were rehabilitated by cracking and seating the JPCP slab and placing an AC overlay. Sections 460607, 460608, and 460660 received AC overlays of 102, 203, and 152 mm (4 inches, 8 inches, and 6 inches, respectively. Section 460660 (152-mm (6-inch) AC overlay) represented an additional rehabilitation alternative selected by the State. A guillotine-type hammer was used to break the existing JPCP into pieces approximately 4.6 m (15 feet) wide by 0.8 m (2.5 feet) long. Rolling to seat the pieces securely on the subgrade followed cracking. A 32-metric ton (35-ton) roller was used to seat the broken pavement. Drainage mats were also installed in these sections prior to seating. After seating the cracked PCC, a power sweeper was used to remove any debris from the pavement surface before the tack coat and AC overlays were placed.

Sections 460661 and 460662: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With a Reinforcing Grid

These sections were added by South Dakota DOT as additional rehabilitation sections. The reinforcing was added in these sections as a measure to prevent reflection cracking. Section 460661 was overlaid after making full-depth repairs of severely deteriorated cracks and joints. Section 460662 was cracked and seated. The reinforcing grid was placed directly on top of the PCC immediately before the 102-mm (4 inch) AC overlay was placed. A drainage mat was also installed in section 460662. Both sections had shoulders restored with an AC overlay.

TENNESSEE

Section 470601: Control Section (Do Nothing)

This section of JPCP received joint sealing and two slab replacements.

Section 470602: Minimum Preparation of Original JPCP

This section received some full-depth, doweled-concrete repairs of deteriorated patch areas, sealing of transverse and longitudinal joints, and full-surface diamond grinding.

Sections 470603 and 470606: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Minimum and Maximum Preparation

Section 470603 received diamond grinding prior to overlay and was also retrofitted with a 102 mm (4-inch) drainage pipe. Section 470606 received maximum pavement preparation prior to overlay. The maximum pavement preparation in this section consisted of full-depth pavement repair on all deteriorated cracks and patches, diamond grinding, and subdrainage retrofitting. Both sections were rehabilitated using a 102-mm (4-inch) asphalt overlay. Both sections received overlays with an average thickness of 114 mm (4.6 inches).

Section 470604: 102-mm (4-inch) AC Overlay With Saw and Seal

This section received minimum preparation followed by a 114-mm (4.6-inch) asphalt overlay. The preparation consisted of diamond grinding and full-depth repair. In this section, the asphalt surface was sawed directly above joints and midslab cracks in the original concrete pavement. Joints were sawed to an average depth of 38 mm (1.5 inches) and then were immediately cleaned and sealed. The saw and seal operation is designed to anticipate the location of future reflection cracking and provide a clean, straight joint in the asphalt surface that can be properly maintained.

Section 470605: Maximum Preparation of Original JPCP

This section received full-depth concrete repairs of failed joints and patches. The concrete surface was diamond ground to remove faults. The transverse longitudinal joints were routed and sealed using a hard limestone composite. A 102-mm (4-inch) pipe underdrain system was installed.

Sections 470607 and 470608: 102-mm (4-inch) and 203-mm (8-inch) AC Overlays of Cracked and Seated JPCP

Both sections received some full-depth repairs and were rehabilitated by cracking and seating the JPCP slab. Two passes of a 40.8-metric ton (45-ton) roller were used to seat the cracked slabs before overlay. Subdrainage systems were retrofitted using a 102-mm (4-inch) pipe underdrain system. Section 470607 received a 114-mm (4.5-inch) AC overlay and section 470608 received a 132-mm (5.2-inch) AC overlay.

Sections 470661 and 470662: Tennessee Supplemental Test Sections, Subdrainage Retrofitting and AC Overlay

Both sections received subdrainage retrofitting and an AC overlay as the Tennessee supplemental test sections. A 102-mm (4-inch) corrugated plastic pipe was installed in both sections. Both sections received a 208-mm (8.2-inch) overlay. Section 460661 received a polymer-modified AC overlay and section 470662 received a latex-modified AC overlay.

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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