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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-067
Date: August 2004

 

Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Structures: Part 2 – Retaining Structures, Slopes, Tunnels, Culverts and Roadways

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FOREWORD

This manual, which is comprised of two parts, represents the most current state-of-practice in assessing the vulnerability of highway structures to the effects of earthquakes, and implementing retrofit measures to improve performance. Part 1 of this manual focuses on highway bridges, and is a replacement for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publication Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Bridges which was published in 1995 as report FHWA-RD-94-052. Part 2 of this manual provides guidance on the assessment and retrofitting of other typical highway structures, including retaining walls, engineered slopes and embankments, tunnels, culverts, and pavement.

This manual is a product of the FHWA's comprehensive seismic research program for bridges and highways that was initiated in 1992 as a result of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, and continued via the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century of 1997. As the state-of-practice and knowledge regarding bridge and highway structure evaluation and retrofitting is now relatively mature, it is likely that this will be the final FHWA manual addressing retrofitting of typical highway bridges; however, there is still much to learn and demonstrate regarding assessment, evaluation and retrofitting of unique or special highway bridges such as trusses and cable-supported bridges (e.g. suspension and cable-stay bridges), structure types addressed in Part 2, and unique earthquake mitigation technologies such as bridge isolation bearings and hysteric dampers. We therefore anticipate that future FHWA publications will address updates to Part 2 and will provide new manuals for these specialty structures and earthquake mitigation approaches.

Garry L. Henderson, Director

Office of Infrastructure R&D

 

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the object of the document.

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

 

 


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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