Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home   |   Pavements Home
Report
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-121
Date: November 2006

Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Data Analysis Support: National Pooled Fund Study TPF-5(013)

PDF version (5.18 MB)


FOREWORD

Understanding deterioration of pavements exposed to climates with multiple freeze-thaw cycles as compared to climates with sustained deep-frost penetration is important to State Highway Agencies (SHAs) across the country. Consideration must also be given to differential performances between pavements in these freezing climates and those in nonfreezing areas. This report documents a study conducted to evaluate pavement deterioration in various environmental settings. In addition, it documents local adaptations currently in use to mitigate frost-related damage along with the cost differences associated with constructing and maintaining pavements in the various climates. Performance models developed from the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) database were used to predict and compare performance in various environments. As demonstrated in the report, the prediction models are also an important tool in the calibration process outlined in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Guide for Mechanistic-Empirical Design of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures as well as in pavement management applications for SHAs with limited quantities of regional performance data.

Gary L. Henderson
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development

NOTICE

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade and manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the object of the document.

QUALITY ASSURANCE STATEMENT

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-06-121

2. Government Accession No.

3. Recipient’s Catalog No.

4. Title and Subtitle

Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Data Analysis Support:
National Pooled Fund Study TPF-5(013)
Effects of Multiple Freeze Cycles and Deep Frost Penetration on
Pavement Performance and Cost

5. Report Date

November 2006

6. Performing Organization Code

7.     Author(s)

N. Jackson and J. Puccinelli

8. Performing Organization Report No.
123210-8

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Nichols Consulting Engineers
1885 South Arlington Avenue
Suite 111
Reno, NV 89509-3370

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61-02-D-00139

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Infrastructure R&D
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final Report
March 2003 to May 2006

14. Sponsoring Agency’s Code

15. Supplementary Notes

Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative (COTR): Larry Wiser, Long-Term Pavement Performance Team, HRDI-13

16. Abstract

The objectives of this study are to: (1) quantify the effects of frost penetration on pavement performance in climates with deep sustained frost as compared to environments with multiple freeze-thaw cycles, (2) investigate the effect that local adaptations have on mitigating frost penetration damage, and (3) estimate the associated cost of constructing and maintaining pavements in freezing climates. The approach consisted of modeling various pavement performance measures using both climatic and nonclimatic input variables and performance data collected as part of the Long-Term Pavement Performance program. Five climatic scenarios are defined in terms of climatic input variables for the models. Predicted performance measures are presented for each of the climatic scenarios and compared at a 95 percent confidence interval to determine statistically significant performance differences. Participating pooled fund States (PFS) were queried as to standard specifications, standard designs, average life expectancies, and construction costs specific to each State Highway Agency (SHA). This data along with information acquired through literature review of SHA standard practices is summarized with consideration given to the mitigation of frost-related damage. Life cycle cost analysis for each climatic scenario using predicted performance to determine average life and average agency construction costs for standard pavement sections is also discussed and compared. The use of the performance models for local calibration as required in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program Guide for Mechanistic-Empirical Design of New and Rehabilitated Pavemen Structures is explored along with the possible application of the performance models in pavement management systems.

17. Key Words

Frost, freeze-thaw, LTPP, life cycle cost analysis,
performance modeling, climate, M-E pavement design
guide, pavement management system, AC, PCC

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to
the public through the National Technical
Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classif. (of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

262

22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized

SI (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BACKGROUND

3. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYSIS DATASET
     3.1 DATABASE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT
          3.1.1 1Pavement Types
          3.1.2 Climatic Data and Frost Depth
          3.1.3 Performance Data
          3.1.4 Soils and Material Properties
          3.1.5 Traffic Data
     3.2 TEST SECTION SELECTION

4. MODEL FITTING STATISTICAL APPROACH

5. PERFORMANCE MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION
     5.1 PAVEMENT ROUGHNESS PREDICTION MODELS
     5.2 RUTTING PREDICTION MODELS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
     5.3 SURFACE DISTRESS PREDICTION MODELS FOR BOTH FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENTS
     5.4 TRANSVERSE JOINT FAULTING PREDICTION MODELS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS

6. ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS
     6.1 PAVEMENT ROUGHNESS COMPARISONS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
     6.2 PAVEMENT ROUGHNESS COMPARISONS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS
     6.3 RUT DEPTH COMPARISONS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
     6.4 FATIGUE AND WHEELPATH CRACKING SURFACE DISTRESS COMPARISONS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
     6.5 TRANSVERSE CRACKING SURFACE DISTRESS COMPARISONS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
     6.6 LONGITUDINAL CRACKING SURFACE DISTRESS COMPARISONS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS
     6.7 TRANSVERSE CRACKING SURFACE DISTRESS COMPARISONS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS
     6.8 TRANSVERSE JOINT FAULTING COMPARISONS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS

7. INDEPTH AGENCY COMPARISONS

8. LOCAL ADAPTATIONS OF EMPIRICAL PAVEMENT DESIGN PRACTICES AND MATERIALS STANDARDS
     8.1 LOCAL ADAPTATIONS OF PAVEMENT DESIGN PRACTICES
     8.2 LOCAL ADAPTATIONS OF MATERIAL STANDARDS

9. COST CONSIDERATION

10. APPLICATION TO MECHANISTIC DESIGN

11. APPLICATION TO PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT

12. KEY FINDINGS

13. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

APPENDIX A. LITERATURE REVIEW
     A.1 THE EFFECTS OF FREEZE-THAW PERIODS ON A TEST PAVEMENT IN THE DANISH ROAD TESTING MACHINE
     A.2 A DETERIORATION MODEL FOR PAVEMENTS IN FROST CONDITIONS
     A.3 ANALYSIS OF SEASONAL PAVEMENT DETERIORATION
     A.4 DEVELOPMENT OF PERFORMANCE PREDICTION MODELS FOR DRY NO FREEZE AND DRY FREEZE ZONES USING LTPP DATA
     A.5 DETERMINATION OF THE CRITICAL THAW-WEAKENED PERIOD IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT STRUCTURES
     A.6 CALCULATED MAXIMUM FROST DEPTHS AT MN/ROAD WINTERS 1993–1994, 1994–1995, AND 1995–1996
     A.7 PARKS HIGHWAY LOAD RESTRICTION FIELD DATA ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY
     A.8 COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD AND POORLY PERFORMING PCC PAVEMENTS
     A.9 DETERMINATION OF FROST PENETRATION IN LTPP SECTIONS,FINAL REPORT
     A.10 DEVELOPMENT OF A PAVEMENT RUTTING MODEL FROM EXPERIMENTAL DATA
     A.11 ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL PAVEMENT FAILURE DATA USING DURATION MODELS
     A.12 PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE DURING THAW WEAKENING
     A.13 EFFECTS OF FROST HEAVE ON THE LONGITUDINAL PROFILE OFASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS IN COLD REGIONS
     A.14 THERMAL ASPECT OF FROST-THAW PAVEMENT DIMENSIONING:IN SITU MEASUREMENT AND NUMERICAL MODELING
     A.15 PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF HIGHWAY PAVEMENT LIFE FOR ILLINOIS
     A.16 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE-THE INITIAL EVALUATION OF THE LTPP SPS-8 EXPERIMENT
     A.17 LTPP DATA ANALYSIS: INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FEATURES ON THE RESPONSE AND PERFORMANCE OF NEW FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENTS

APPENDIX B. PERFORMANCE PREDICTION MODELS
     B.1 ABSOLUTE IRI PREDICTION MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
          B.1.1 Example of Absolute IRI Prediction Model for Flexible Pavements
     B.2 ABSOLUTE IRI PREDICTION MODEL FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS
          B.2.1 Example of Absolute IRI Predictions Model for Rigid Pavements
     B.3 FWPC PREDICTION MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS (DEDUCT VALUE)
     B.4 FWPC PREDICTION MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS (PERCENTAGE WHEELPATH AREA)
          B.4.1 Example for FWPC Prediction Model for Flexible Pavements
     B.5 TC PREDICTION MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
          B.5.1 Example for TC Prediction Model for Flexible Pavements
     B.6 LC PREDICTION MODEL FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS
          B.6.1 Example for LC Prediction Model for Rigid Pavements
     B.7 TC PREDICTION MODEL FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS
          B.7.1 Example for TC Prediction Model for Rigid Pavements
     B.8 RUT DEPTH PREDICTION MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
          B.8.1 Example for Rut Depth Prediction Model for Flexible Pavements
     B.9 TRANSVERSE JOINT FAULTING PREDICTION MODEL FOR RIGID PAVEMENTSEFFECTS OF FROST HEAVE ON THE LONGITUDINAL PROFILE OF ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS IN COLD REGIONS
     B.10 THERMAL ASPECT OF FROST-THAW PAVEMENT DIMENSIONING: IN SITU MEASUREMENT AND NUMERICAL MODELING
     B.11 PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS OF HIGHWAY PAVEMENT LIFE FOR ILLINOIS
     B.12 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE-THE INITIAL EVALUATION OF THE LTPP SPS-8 EXPERIMENT
     B.13 LTPP DATA ANALYSIS: INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FEATURES ON THE RESPONSE AND PERFORMANCE OF NEW FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENTS
     B.14 ABSOLUTE IRI PREDICTION MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
     B.15 ABSOLUTE IRI PREDICTION MODEL FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS
     B.16 FWPC PREDICTION MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS (DEDUCT VALUE)
     B.17 FWPC PREDICTION MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS (PERCENTAGE WHEELPATH AREA)
     B.18 TC PREDICTION MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
     B.19 LC PREDICTION MODEL FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS
     B.20 TC PREDICTION MODEL FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS
     B.21 RUT DEPTH PREDICTION MODEL FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
          B.21.1 Transverse Joint Faulting Prediction Model for Rigid Pavements
          B.21.2 Example for Fault Prediction Model for Rigid Pavements

APPENDIX C. B.21.3 AGENCY CLIMATIC INFORMATION

APPENDIX D. QUESTIONNAIRE SENT TO POOLED FUND STATES
     D.1 POOLED FUND STATES QUESTIONNAIRE

APPENDIX E. RESPONSES RECEIVED FROM POOLED FUND STATES

APPENDIX F. SPECIFICATION AND PAVEMENT DESIGN SUMMARIES

APPENDIX G: NCHRP 1-37A CALIBRATION FLOWCHART SAMPLE

REFERENCES


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Graph. Plot of measured maximum frost depth to FI

Figure 2. Graph. Individual distress deduct curves

Figure 3. Graph. Sample box plot

Figure 4. Scatter Plot. Sample augmented partial residual plot

Figure 5. Graphs. Assumption validity check for absolute IRI model (before transformation)

Figure 6. Graphs. Assumption validity check for absolute IRI model. (after natural logarithm transformation of the performance measure)

Figure 7. Scatter plot. Outlier-influential observation detection plot

Figure 8. Scatter plot. Observed versus predicted values of absolute IRI (shifted) using the robust method

Figure 9. Scatter plot. Observed versus predicted values of absolute IRI (shifted) using the GLM method

Figure 10. Graph. Example of predicted (without shifting) and observed values for test section 307066

Figure 11. Graph. Example of predicted (shifted) and observed values for test section 307066

Figure 12. Scatter plot. Flexible IRI model without shifting

Figure 13. Scatter plot. Flexible IRI model (shifted)

Figure 14. Scatter plot. Rigid IRI model without shifting

Figure 15. Scatter plot. Rigid IRI model (shifted)

Figure 16. Scatter plot. Flexible IRI model with linear IRI-age relationship

Figure 17. Scatter plot. Flexible IRI model with IRI-exponential age relationship

Figure 18. Scatter plot. Actual and predicted IRI values for test section 011001 using IRI-exponential age relationship model

Figure 19. Scatter Plot. Rigid IRI model with linear IRI-age relationship

Figure 20. Scatter plot. Rut depth model with linear rut–age relationship

Figure 21. Scatter plot. Rut depth model with rut–natural logarithm age relationship

Figure 22. Scatter plot. Measured FWPC deduct values

Figure 23. Graph plot. Measured FWPC values (using a subset of test sections)

Figure 24. Graph plot. Example of logistical analysis to predict distress initiation

Figure 25. Graph plot. Observed FWPC deduct values for test section 100102

Figure 26. Graph plot. Observed FWPC deduct values for test section 050121 (with regression line)

Figure 27. Scatter plot. FWPC model for flexible pavements with linear FWPC-age relationship

Figure 28. Scatter plot. FWPC model for flexible pavements with FWPC-natural logarithm age relationship

Figure 29. Scatter plot. TC model for flexible pavements with linear TC-age relationship

Figure 30. Scatter plot. TC model for flexible pavements with TC-natural logarithm age relationship

Figure 31. Scatter plot. CB model for rigid pavements with linear CB-age relationship

Figure 32. Scatter plot. CB model for rigid pavements with CB-natural logarithm age relationship

Figure 33. Scatter plot. LC model for rigid pavements with linear LC-age relationship

Figure 34. Scatter plot. LC model for rigid pavements with LC-natural logarithmage relationship

Figure 35. Scatter plot. TC model for rigid pavements with linear TC-age relationship

Figure 36. Scatter plot. TC model for rigid pavements with TC-natural logarithm age relationship

Figure 37. Scatter plot. PUMP model for rigid pavements with linear PUMP-age relationship

Figure 38. Scatter plot. PUMP model for rigid pavements with PUMP-natural logarithm age relations

Figure 39. Scatter plot. FLT model for rigid pavements with linear FLT-age relationship

Figure 40. Scatter plot. FLT model for rigid pavements with FLT-natural logarithm age relationship

Figure 41. Scatter plot. Regional FI and FTCs values

Figure 42. Map. Geographic locations of climatic regions

Figure 43. Scatter plot. Relationship between FI and FTCs

Figure 44. Scatter chart. Mean predicted flexible pavement IRI values for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 45. Bar chart. Predicted flexible pavement IRI values at 20 years for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 46. Scatter graph. Mean predicted rigid pavement IRI values for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 47. Bar chart. Predicted rigid pavement IRI values at 20 years for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 48. Scatter graph. Mean predicted flexible pavement RUT values for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 49. Bar chart. Predicted flexible pavement RUT values at 20 years for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 50. Chart. Mean predicted flexible pavement FWPC values for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 51. Bar chart. Predicted flexible pavement FWPC values at 20 years for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 52. Scatter chart. Mean-predicted flexible pavement TC values for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 53. Bar chart. Predicted flexible pavement TC values at 20 years for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 54. Scatter graph. Mean predicted rigid pavement LC values for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 55. Bar chart. Predicted rigid pavement LC values at 25 years for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 56. Scatter Graph. Mean predicted rigid pavement TC values for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 57. Bar chart. Predicted rigid pavement TC values at 25 years for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 58. Scatter chart. Mean predicted rigid pavement FLT values for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 59. Bar chart. Predicted rigid pavement FLT values at 20 years for each climatic region (BASE=DGAB/SG=FINE)

Figure 60. Scatter chart. Flexible pavement IRI for selected sites in each agency

Figure 61. Scatter chart. Flexible pavement RUT for selected sites in each agency

Figure 62. Scatter chart. Flexible pavement TC for selected sites in each agency

Figure 63. Scatter graph. Flexible pavement FWPC for selected sites in each agency

Figure 64. Scatter graph. FWPC predictions for sites 1001 and 6027 in Idaho

Figure 65. Scatter graph. Flexible TC predictions for the environments at sites 0200 and 1004 in Michigan

Figure 66. Photo. Road construction in Sweden with deep base section

Figure 67. Photo. Installation of longitudinal drainage to reduce frost heaving

Figure 68. Diagram. Standard pavement section from a Midwestern State

Figure 69. Diagram. Primary highway cross section

Figure 70. Diagram. Interstate highway, left section

Figure 71. Diagram. Interstate highway, right section

Figure 72. Distribution chart. Annualized costs for standard primary pavement sections

Figure 73. Distribution chart. Annualized costs for standard interstate pavement sections

Figure 74. Distribution chart. Annualized costs for mitigated primary pavement sections

Figure 75. Distribution chart. Annualized costs for mitigated interstate pavement sections

Figure 76. Graph. Comparison of fatigue cracking trends before and after local calibration

Figure 77. Graph. Comparison of rutting trends before and after local calibration

Figure 78. Graph. Comparison of ride trends before and after local calibration

Figure 79. Graph. Individual distress deduct curves

Figure 80. Graph. Example of fatigue cracking trends for different environments

Figure 81. Chart. Fatigue cracking index trend for environmental case wet nofreeze

Figure 82. Chart. Example of shifting trend line to fit index for a given location

Figure 83. Map. Alaska geographic location of analysis test sections

Figure 84. Map. Idaho geographic location of analysis test sections

Figure 85. Map. Illinois geographic location of analysis test sections

Figure 86. Map. Indiana geographic location of analysis test sections

Figure 87. Map. Michigan geographic location of analysis test sections

Figure 88. Map. New York geographic location of analysis test sections

Figure 89. Map. North Carolina geographic location of analysis test sections

Figure 90. Map. Ohio geographic locations of analysis test sections

Figure 91. Map. Pennsylvania geographic locations of analysis test sections

Figure 92. Diagram. Typical section for rural primary (2 lanes) in Alaska

Figure 93. Diagram. Rigid pavement rural interstate typical section for Idaho

Figure 94. Diagram. Flexible pavement rural interstate typical section for Idaho

Figure 95. Diagram. Rigid pavement rural primary typical section for Idaho

Figure 96. Flexible pavement rural primary typical section for Idaho

Figure 97. Diagram. Rigid pavement at LTPP site 163023 in Idaho

Figure 98. Diagram. Flexible pavement at LTPP site 169032 in Idaho

Figure 99. Diagram. Typical portland cement concrete pavement section for New York

Figure 100. Diagram. Typical hot-mix asphalt pavement section for New York

Figure 101. Flowchart. Example of NCHRP 1-37A calibration methodology flowchart

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. List of models and basic logistic and regression statistics

Table 2. Wet freeze SMP sites

Table 3. Wet no-freeze SMP sites

Table 4. Dry freeze SMP sites

Table 5. Number of pavement types in SMP sites

Table 6. SMP sites with measured frost depths

Table 7. LTPP experiments included in the analysis dataset

Table 8. Sources of construction and rehabilitation dates

Table 9. Fatigue and longitudinal wheelpath cracking for LTPP section 080501

Table 10. Fatigue and longitudinal wheelpath cracking for LTPP section 068153

Table 11. Material code classifications for each BASE type category

Table 12. BASE types assigned to structures with multiple base layers

Table 13. TST_LO5B data for test section 481094

Table 14. Summary of explanatory variables

Table 15. Sample of statistical parameters

Table 16. Sample of correlation matrix

Table 17. Regression coefficients with P-value statistics

Table 18. Criteria to warrant additional investigation of unrecorded pavement improvements

Table 19. Example of probability level effect on logistic prediction

Table 20. Overview of climatic scenarios for flexible pavements

Table 21. Overview of climatic scenarios for rigid pavements

Table 22. Details on selection of environmental variables

Table 23. Measured environmental data for LTPP sites

Table 24. Primary highway flexible pavement design summary

Table 25. Primary highway rigid pavement design summary

Table 26. Interstate highway flexible pavement design summary

Table 27. Interstate highway rigid pavement design summary

Table 28. Hot-mix asphalt concrete binder grading and mix designs used by the PFS for surfacing courses

Table 29. Action timing for individual distress categories

Table 30. Overlay timing for the five environmental zones

Table 31. Distribution of performance life for probabilistic analysis

Table 32. Unit cost information

Table 33. Deterministic LCCA results for standard sections

Table 34. Deterministic LCCA results for mitigated sections

Table 35. Summary of statistical comparisons

Table 36. Overview of developed performance models

Table 37. Coefficients for flexible IRI model

Table 38. Example pavement section information

Table 39. Coefficients for rigid IRI model

Table 40. Example pavement section information

Table 41. Coefficients for flexible FWPC (deduct value) logistic model

Table 42. Coefficients for flexible FWPC (deduct value) regression model

Table 43. Coefficients for flexible FWPC (percentage of wheelpath) logistic model

Table 44. Coefficients for flexible FWPC (percentage of wheelpath) regression model

Table 45. Example pavement section information

Table 46. Coefficients for flexible TC logistic model

Table 47. Coefficients for flexible TC regression model

Table 48. Example pavement section information

Table 49. Coefficients for rigid LC regression model

Table 50. Example pavement section information

Table 51. Coefficients for rigid TC regression model

Table 52. Example pavement section information

Table 53. Coefficients for flexible RUT model

Table 54. Example pavement section information

Table 55. Coefficients for rigid FLT model

Table 56. Example pavement section information

Table 57. Alaska environmental and pavement structure information for test sections

Table 58. Idaho Environment and pavement structure information for test sections

Table 59. Illinois environment and pavement structure information for test sections

Table 60. Indiana environment and pavement structure information for test sections

Table 61. Michigan environment and pavement structure information for test sections

Table 62. New York environment and pavement structure information for test sections

Table 63. North Carolina environment and pavement information for analysis test sections

Table 64. Ohio environment and pavement structure information for analysis test sections

Table 65. Pennsylvania environment and pavement structure information for analysis tests sections

Table 66. Average unit prices for Illinois

Table 67. PCC thickness table for New York

Table 68. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=28 MPa)

Table 69. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=34 MPa)

Table 70. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=41 MPa)

Table 71. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=48 MPa)

Table 72. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=55 MPa)

Table 73. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=62 MPa)

Table 74. Pavement structure information for rural interstate in Pennsylvania

Table 75. Pavement structure information for rural primary in Pennsylvania

Table 76. Average unit prices for Pennsylvania

Table 77. AC wearing course specification summary

Table 78. AC wearing course specification summary (continued)

Table 79. AC base course specification summary.

Table 80. AC base course specification summary (continued)

Table 81. Asphalt-treated permeable base course specification summary

Table 82. Unbound base course specification summary

Table 83. Subbase course specification summary

Table 84. Select subgrade specification summary

Table 85. Overview of rural interstate flexible pavement design

Table 86. Overview of rural interstate rigid pavement design

Table 87. Overview of principal flexible pavement design

Table 88. Overview of principal rigid pavement design

List of Acronyms

AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials
AC Asphalt concrete
ACTHICK Asphalt layer thickness
AIRI Absolute international roughness index
ATB Asphalt-treated base
BASE Base material type
BC Block cracking
CB Corner breaking
CI Annual cooling index
COTR Contracting officer’s technical representative
CRCP Continuously reinforced concrete pavement
CSM Chemically stabilized material
D Slab thickness
DGAB Dense graded-aggregate base
DIRI Change in international roughness index
EALF Equivalent axle load factor
ESAL Equivalent single axle load
FC Fatigue cracking
FHWA Federal Highway Administration
FI Annual freezing index
FLT Accumulation of faulting
FTC Freeze-thaw cycle
FWPC Combined LWP and FC
GLM General linear model
GPS General Pavement Study
HMA Hot-mix asphalt
HMAC Hot-mix asphalt concrete
IMS Information management system
IRI International roughness index
JPCP Jointed plain concrete pavement
JRCP Jointed reinforced concrete pavement
LC Longitudinal cracking
L.A. wear values Los Angeles wear values
LCCA Life cycle cost analysis
LEDT Logarithm of ESAL divided by depth
LESN Logarithm of ESAL divided by structural number
LTPP Long-Term Pavement Performance (program)
LWP Longitudinal wheelpath cracking
MBE Modified Berggren equation
M-E Mechanistic-empirical
MIRI Initial recorded international roughness index values
Mn/ROAD Minnesota Road Research Project
Mr Resilient modulus
NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program
NONBIT Nonbituminous-treated base
NYSDOT New York State Department of Transportation
PATB Permeable asphalt-treated base
PCC Portland cement concrete
PCCP Portland cement concrete pavement
PCI Pavement condition index
PFS Pooled fund States
PG Performance grade
PMS Pavement management systems
PRECIP Annual precipitation data
PUMP Pumping/water bleeding
RMSE Root mean squared error
RTM Road testing machine
RUT Rut depth index value
SAS® SAS software
SG Subgrade material type
SHA State Highway Agency
SHRP Strategic Highway Research Program
SMP Seasonal monitoring program
SN Structural number
SPS Specific Pavement Studies
TDR Time domain reflectometry
TC Transverse cracking
TSR Tensile strength ratio
WSDOT Washington State Department of Transportation
PDF files can be viewed with the Acrobat® Reader®

Contents | Next


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration