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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-121
Date: November 2006

Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Data Analysis Support: National Pooled Fund Study Tpf-5(013)

Appendix E. Responses Received From Pooled Fund States

This appendix provides the information obtained from the PFS in response to the questionnaire in Appendix E. Some of the information provided by the PFS was excluded from this appendix because of publication limitations.

STATE OF ALASKA
Department of Transportation and Public Facilities

2301 Peger Road
Fairbanks, Alaska 99709

June 22, 2004

Newton Jackson, P.E.
Principal Engineer
Nichols Consulting Engineers, Chtd.
1885 S. Arlington, Suite 111
Reno, NV 89509

RE: Alaskan pavement section for "Effects of Multiple Freeze Cycles…" Pooled Fund Study

Dear Newton:

I am enclosing the Alaskan information you requested for the above project:

Standard Roadway Section:

Standard Specifications:
Enclosed are hard copies of the relevant pages from the "Alaska Standard Specifications for Highway Construction – 2004."

Test Procedures:
We mainly use AASHTO specifications; however, two tests are done according to the Alaska Test Methods (ATM); see enclosed.

Average Unit Bid Prices:
They are included in the table detailing the pavement section.

Typical Service Life for Standard Section:
The average service life is 10 to 12 years. Typically, rutting and ride quality dictate the rehabilitation. "Shave and Pave" is typically used, unless distress is due to deep failures, where reclamation and paving become necessary.

Adjacent State Treatments:
The Yukon Territory mainly uses high-float surface treatment.

If you have questions or need further clarifications, please call or e-mail me.

Sincerely,

Steve Sabaundjian, P.E.
Research Engineer
steve_saboundjian@dot.state.ak.us
Ph: (907) 451-5322

Typical flexible pavement for Alaska; Rural Primary (two lanes); 5M ESALs. See drawing.

Pavement CourseMainline and ShoulderItemPrice
Wearing Course 50 mm (2 inch) HMA, Type II, Class B* 401 (1) $27.56/metric ton ($25/ton)
Binder Course 75 mm (3 inch) HMA, Type II, Class B* 401 (1) $27.56/metric ton ($25/ton)
Aggregate Base Course 180 mm (7 inch), Grading D-1** 301 (1) $12.13/metric ton ($11/ton)
Subbase 305 mm (12 inch), Grading B 304 (1) $9.92/metric ton ($9/ton)
Borrow 915 mm (36 inch), Selected Material Type A 203 (6) $4.41/metric ton ($4/ton)
Total Depth: 1525 mm (60 inch)NANA

Notes:
* Asphalt, PG 58-28, $371.55/metric ton ($337/ton)
** MC-30 liquid asphalt prime coat, $385.89/metric ton ($350/ton)
See Section 703 for Aggregates Specs.

Figure 92. Diagram. Typical section for rural primary (2 lanes) in Alaska.

View Alternate Text
1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 ft = 0.3 m

STATE OF IDAHO
Transportation Department

P.O. Box 7129
Boise, ID 83707-1129

December 20, 2004

Figure 93. Diagram. Rigid pavement rural interstate typical section for Idaho.

View Alternate Text
1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 ft = 0.3 m

Figure 94. Diagram. Flexible pavement rural interstate typical section for Idaho

View Alternate Text
1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 ft = 0.3 m

Figure 95. Diagram. Rigid pavement rural primary typical section for Idaho.

View Alternate Text
1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 ft = 0.3 m

Figure 96. Flexible pavement rural primary typical section for Idaho.

View Alternate Text
1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 ft = 0.3 m

Figure 97. Diagram. Rigid pavement at LTPP site 163023 in Idaho.

View Alternate Text
1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 ft = 0.3 m

Figure 98. Diagram. Flexible pavement at LTPP site 169032 in Idaho.

View Alternate Text
1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 ft = 0.3 m

STATE OF ILLINOIS
Department of Transportation

126 East Ash Street
Springfield, IL 62704-4766

Standard Roadway Sections

Rural Interstate Rigid  
Pavement CourseMain LineShoulder
Jointed Plain Concrete: 4.6 m (15 ft) joints265 mm (10.5 inch)150 mm (6 inch)
Stabilized Subbase (CAM or BAM)100 mm (4 inch) 
Subbase Granular Material, Type C 215 mm (8.5 inch)
Pipe Underdrains: 100 mm (4 inch)
Aggregate Shoulder Wedge, Type B  
Lime Modified Subgrade305 mm (12 inch)305 mm (12 inch)
Total Depth675 mm (26.5 inch)675 mm (26.5 inch)
        Note: Tied Shoulder  
   
Rural Interstate Flexible  
Pavement CourseMain LineShoulder
SuperPave HMA Surface Course50 mm (2 inch)50 mm (2 inch)
SuperPave HMA Binder Course465 mm (18.25 inch)150 mm (6 inch)
Subbase Granular Material, Type C 310 mm (12.25 inch)
Pipe Underdrains: 100 mm (4 inch)
Aggregate Shoulder Wedge, Type B  
Lime Modified Subgrade305 mm (12 inch)305 mm(12 inch)
Total Depth820 mm (32.25 inch)820 mm (32.25 inch)
   
Rural Primary Rigid  
Pavement CourseMain LineShoulder
Jointed Plain Concrete (15-ft Joints)250 mm (9.75 inch) 
Stabilized Subbase (CAM or BAM)100 mm (4 inch) 
SuperPave HMA Surface Course 50 mm (2 inch)
SuperPave HMA Binder Course 150 mm (6 inch)
Subbase Granular Material, Type C 145 mm (5.75 inch)
Aggregate Shoulder Wedge, Type B  
Lime Modified Subgrade305 mm (12 inch)305 mm (12 inch)
Total Depth655 mm (25.75 inch)655 mm (25.75 inch)
        Note: Untied Shoulder  
 Note: Untied Shoulder 
Rural Primary Flexible  
Pavement CourseMain LineShoulder
SuperPave HMA Surface Course50 mm (2 inch)50 mm (2 inch)
SuperPave HMA Binder Course305 mm (12 inch)150 mm (6 inch)
Subbase Granular Material, Type C 150 mm (6 inch)
Aggregate Shoulder Wedge, Type B  
Lime Modified Subgrade305 mm (12 inch)305 mm(12 inch)
Total Depth660 mm (26 inch)660 mm (26 inch)
   

Standard drawings of the typical pavement cross sections may be found on the IDOT Internet site by following these directions.

Go to www.dot.il.gov
    Under IDOT Links, click on Doing Business
    Under Construction Guides, click on Specifications/Special Provisions/Highway
    Standards
    Next, click on Highway Standards
    Next, click on Index of Highway Standards
    Next, click on Section 400
    The appropriate drawings are: 420101, 482001, 482006, and 483001

Also, you will find two design drawings at:

Go to www.dot.il.gov
    Under IDOT Links, click on Doing Business
    Under Manuals – Memorandums – Rules, click on Bureau of Design & Environment
    Manual
    Next, click on Chapter 54–Pavement Design
    Select page 43 of 114 (Figure 54-4(9))
    Select page 65 of 114 (Figure 54-5(13))

Standard Specifications
Standard specifications that apply to rigid and flexible pavement construction may be found on the IDOT internet site by following these directions.

Go to www.dot.il.gov
    Under IDOT Links, click on Doing Business
    Under Construction Guides, click on Specifications/Special Provisions/Highway
    Standards
    Next, click on Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction
    Next, click on Section 400
    The appropriate sections are:Section 406 (Starting on page 25 of 134)
Section 407 (Starting on page 47 of 134)
Section 420 (Starting on page 57 of 134)
Section 482 (Starting on page 129 of 134)
Section 483 (Starting on page 132 of 134)

Test Procedures
References to test procedures other than AASHTO or ASTM standard test procedures may be found in the IDOT Manual of Test Procedures for Materials. This manual is not available on the internet; however, the order form to receive a copy of the manual may be found on the IDOT internet site by following these directions. The cost of the manual is $50.00.

Go to www.dot.il.gov
    Under IDOT Links, click on Doing Business
    Under Manuals – Memorandums – Rules, click on Highways Manuals Order Form
    The item is number: ID 034 Manual of Test Procedures for Materials
     

Average Unit Bid Prices
The following are average bid prices for the bid items listed under the Standard Roadway Sections. These prices assume large quantities.

Table 66. Average unit prices for Illinois.
ItemUnitUnit Price
Lime Metric ton (ton)$55.13
($50.00)
Processing Lime Modified Soils: 305 mm (12 inch) Square meter(square yard)$1.67
($1.40)
Subbase Granular Material, Type C Metric ton (ton)$16.54
($15.00)
Stabilized Subbase: 100 mm (4 inch) Square meter (square yard)$10.77
($9.00)
Pipe Underdrains: 100 mm (4 inch) Meter (foot)$9.84
($3.00)
Dowel Bars: 40 mm (1.5-inch diameter) Square meter(square yard)$14.35
($12.00)
PCC Pavement (Jointed): 250 mm (9.75 inch) Square meter(square yard)$35.89
($30.00)
PCC Pavement (Jointed): 265 mm (10.5 inch) Square meter (square yard)$38.88
($32.50)
Bituminous Concrete Pavement (Full-Depth):15 mm (20.25 inch) Square meter (square yard)$47.85
($40.00)
Bituminous Concrete Pavement (Full-Depth):355 mm (14.0 inch) Square meter(square yard)$39.48
($33.00)
Bituminous Shoulders: 205 mm (8 inch) Square meter(square yard)$21.53
($18.00)
PCC Shoulders: 150 mm (6 inch) Square meter(square yard)$17.94
($15.00)
Aggregate Shoulders, Type B Metric ton (ton)$14.33
($13.00)

Typical Service Life for Standard Section
A description of the typical service life and the "planned" repair methods throughout the life of the pavement may be found on the IDOT internet site by following these directions.

Go to www.dot.il.gov
    Under IDOT Links, click on Doing Business
    Under Manuals—Memorandums—Rules, click on Bureau of Design & Environment
    Manual
    Next, click on Chapter 54—Pavement Design
    For jointed PCC pavement, select page 88 of 114 (Figure 54-7(A))
    For HMA pavement (TF = 5), select page 89 of 114 (Figure 54-7(B))
    For HMA pavement (TF = 30), select page 92 and 93 of 114 (Figure 54-7(D))

STATE OF MICHIGAN
Department of Transportation

8885 Ricks Road
P.O. Box 30049

Michigan’s Typical Designs
Response for pooled fund study "Effects of Multiple Freeze Cycles and Deep Frost Penetration on Pavement Performance and Cost"

Note: We use a design life of 20 years, and an MR of 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi) is much higher than anything we would typically encounter in Michigan.

Designs

Rural Interstate (four lanes) Rigid and Flexible
30-year design
30,000,000 ESALs
Frost susceptible fine grained soil MR 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi)

HMA Cross-Section
LayerMainlineShoulder
Wearing Course40 mm (1.5 inch) Gap Graded Superpave40 mm (1.5 inch) 4C
Leveling Course50 mm (2.0 inch) 4E5050 mm (2.0 inch) 3C
Base Course95 mm (3.75 inch) 3E50 95 mm (3.75 inch) 2C
Base150 mm (6.0 inch) 21AA150 mm (6.0 inch) 21AA
Subbase450 mm (18.0 inch) class IIA sand450 mm(18.0 inch) class IIA sand
Drainage 150 mm (6.0 inch) subbase underdrains
   
Concrete Cross-Section
LayerMainline Shoulder
Concrete290 mm (11.5 inch) JPCP230 mm (9.0 inch) JPCP
Base150 mm (6.0 inch) 4G modified215 mm (8.5 inch) 4G modified Geotextile Separator
Subbase255 mm (10 inch) class IIA sand255 mm (10.0 inch) class IIA sand
Drainage 150 mm (6.0 inch) base underdrains
 
 
Rural Primary (Two Lanes) Rigid and Flexible
30-year design
5,000,000 ESALs
Frost susceptible fine grained soil MR 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi)
 
 
HMA Cross-Section
LayerMainlineShoulder
Wearing Course40 mm (1.5 inch) 5E1040 mm (1.5 inch) 4C
Leveling Course50 mm (2.0 inch) 4E1050 mm (2.0 inch) 3C
Base Course75 mm (3.0 inch) 3E1075 mm (3.0 inch) 2C
Base150 mm (6.0 inch) 21AA150 mm (6.0 inch) 21AA
Subbase450 mm (18.0 inch) class II sand450 mm (18.0 inch) class II sand
Drainage 150 mm (6.0 inch) subbase underdrains
 
Concrete Cross-Section
LayerMainlineShoulder
Concrete215 mm (8.5 inch) JPCP100 mm (4.0 inch) HMA (4C,3C)
Base150 mm (6.0 inch) 4G modified150 mm (6.0 inch) 4G modified Geotextile Separator
Subbase255 mm (10.0 inch) class II sand255 mm (10.0 inch) class II sand
Drainage 150 mm (6.0 in) base underdrains

If this were a freeway, it would be 230 mm (9.0 in), which is our minimum concrete thickness for freeways.

For equivalent designs (same traffic makeup) the ESALs would be different for asphalt and concrete. So, a 30 million ESAL design for HMA is not equivalent (structurally) to a 30 million ESAL design for concrete.

Specifications
Gap Graded Superpave—see attached special provision

4E50, 3E50, 5E10, 4E10, 3E10—Superpave mainline mixes. Covered by Division 5 of Standard Specifications for Construction which can be found at:
      http://www.mdot.state.mi.us/specbook/

Materials for the mixes are covered in Division 9 of the Standard Specifications.

Also see the special provision for superpave mixes (03SP501F) and the HMA Mixture Selection Guidelines which are attached.

4C, 3C, 2C—Marshall mixes used for shoulders. Covered by Division 5 and Division 9 of the Standard Specifications. Also see the special provision for Marshall mixes (03SP501H) and HMA Mixture Selection Guidelines which are attached.

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement—Covered by Division 6

21AA—Base layer under HMA pavements. Covered by Sections 302 and 902 of the Standard Specifications.

4G modified—Base layer under concrete pavements. Covered by Sections 303 and 902 of the Standard Specifications. The special provision for open graded drainage course, modified (03SP303A) covers the modifications to the Standard Specifications.

Class II—Subbase layer. Covered by Sections 301 and 902 of the Standard Specifications.

Geotextile Separator—Used between open graded bases and sand subbases. Covered by Section 910 of the Standard Specifications.

Underdrains – Covered by Section 404 and 909 of the Standard Specifications.

State Specific Test Methods
Any test methods specific to Michigan will be listed as MTM-xxx where ‘xxx’ will be a number. The Manual for the Michigan Test Methods (MTM’s) can be found at:

http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdot_MTM_CombinedManual_83501_7.pdf

Also, years ago Michigan developed its own "One Point" tests for determining maximum density for granular and cohesive soils. ("One Point" refers to compacting the density mold at only one moisture content, instead of doing an optimum moisture content curve.) T-99 molds are used for cohesive soils and an inverted cone shaped mold is used for granular soils and unbound base courses. Detailed procedures are outlined in the Density Control Handbook, which can be accessed at:

http://www.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9622_11044_11367---,00.html

Average Unit Bid Prices
These are prices we use in life-cycle costing:

ItemAverage Price
Gap Graded Superpave$53.77/metric ton ($48.77/ton)
4E50$44.71/metric ton ($40.55/ton)
3E50$44.71/metric ton ($40.55/ton)
5E10$40.62/metric ton ($36.84/ton)*
4E10$39.25/metric ton ($35.60/ton)*
3E10$38.04/metric ton ($34.50/ton)*
4C$37.85/metric ton ($34.33/ton)
3C$41.07/metric ton ($37.25/ton)*
2C$38.26/metric ton ($34.70/ton)*
JPCP, 29.21 cm (11.5 inch)$23.99/square meter ($20.06/square yd)*
21AA$5.13/square meter ($4.29/square yd)*
4G, modified$4.70/square meter ($3.93/square yd)*
Geotextile Separator$0.93/square meter ($0.78/square yd)*
Class II sand$5.63/cubic meter ($4.31/cubic yd)*
15.24-cm (6-inch) base underdrains$10.73/meter ($3.27/ft)*
15.24-cm (6-inch) subbase underdrains$11.75/meter ($3.58/ft)*

We divide the State into three zones and obtain average unit prices for each of the zones. Prices with an * are chosen from one of the zones (zone 2); otherwise it is a statewide average price.

Typical Service Life
In Michigan, we use a 20-year design life. Our service life for design 1 above (rural interstate) would be 26 years for both HMA and JPCP. Both would typically receive two cycles of preventive maintenance during that time. For the HMA, it would be a crack seal that averages about year 10 and a Distress Index of 29 and a mill and resurface that averages about year 13 and a Distress Index of 18. For the JPCP, it would be a joint reseal that averages about year 9 and a Distress Index of 6 and a CPR (full-depth repairs, spall repair, etc.) that averages about year 15 and a Distress Index of 18.

The service life for design 2 (rural two-lane) would be 30 years. Again, two cycles of the same preventive maintenance fixes for both pavement types. For HMA, the first cycle would be at an average age of 11 and Distress Index of 27 and the second cycle would be at an average age of 15 and Distress Index of 20. For JPCP, the first cycle would average age 8 and Distress Index of 6 for cycle one and age 16 and Distress Index of 20 for cycle two.

The Distress Index is Michigan’s measure of the pavement condition. The pavement is visually surveyed and distresses are logged. Each distress has a point value assigned to it depending on its severity. The points are accumulated into 0.16 km (0.1 mile) segments that are called the Distress Index. When a pavement reaches a Distress Index of 50, it is considered to have 0 life left and needs to be rehabilitated/reconstructed. The amount and type of distresses can vary significantly for the same Distress Index. For that reason, typical distress values at which preventive maintenance fixes are applied, are not given here.

Michael Eacker
Pavement Design Engineer
eackerm@michigan.gov
517-322-3474
3-1-05

STATE OF NEW YORK
Department of Transportation

50 Wolf Road
Albany, NY 12232

MEMO via e-mail

Subject:Response to Pooled Fund Study
Date:June 15, 2004
From:RMORGAN@dot.state.ny.us
To:newt@nce.reno.nv.us
CC:WYANG@dot.state.ny.us

Newton,

In response to your questionnaire for the Pooled Fund Study, "Effect of Multiple Freeze Cycles & Deep Frost Penetration on Pavement, Phase 2," attached are NYSDOT standard pavement sections from our 2000 Comprehensive Design Manual.

For your information, NYS does not use rigid pavement for highways with less than 10,000,000 ESALs. Also MR (MPa in NYS) is used for HMA pavement only, and our typical allowed maximum is 62 MPa (9,000 psi). For rigid pavement, NYSDOT uses the Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (k-value).

You may obtain copies of NYSDOT’s 2002 Standard Specifications and our Weighted Average Bid Price Book on NYDOT’s website at: www.dot.state.ny.us/pubs/publist.html.

If you need additional information or have questions concerning this information, please feel free to contact me or Wes Yang.

Figure 99. Diagram. Typical portland cement concrete pavement section for New York.

View Alternate Text
1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 ft = 0.3 m

Figure 100. Diagram. Typical hot-mix asphalt pavement section for New York.

View Alternate Text
1 inch = 2.54 cm; 1 ft = 0.3 m
Table 67. PCC thickness table for New York.
80-kN ESALsPCC Slab Thickness
4.2 m driving lane
slab width
PCC Slab Thickness
3.6 m driving lane
slab width
millions mm mm
= 22 225 (9 inch)225 (9 inch)
> 22 = 36 225 (9 inch) 250 (10 inch)
> 36 = 65 225 (9 inch) 275 (11 inch)
> 65 – 100 250 (10 inch) 300 (12 inch)
> 100 – 165 275 (11 inch) 325 (12.75 inch)
> 165 – 250 300 (12 inch) 3251 (12.75 inch)
> 250 – 400 325 (12.75 inch) 3251 (12.75 inch)
1 For ESALs over 165 million, 3.6 million, 3.6 m untied slabs may not be used for the right hand driving lane. Use either 3.6 m tied slabs, 4.2 m untied slabs, or 4.2 m tied slabs.
Table 68. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=28 MPa).
Mr = 28 MPa
80 kN ESALs Over
Design Life
Total HMA
Thickness
Select Granular
Subgrade Thickness
millions mm mm
< 2155 (6 inches)0
2 – 4175 (7 inches)0
> 4 – 8200 (8 inches)0
> 8 – 13225 (9 inches)0
> 13 – 23250 (10 inches)0
> 23 – 45250 (10 inches)150 (6 inches)
> 45 – 80250 (10 inches)300 (12 inches)
> 80 – 140250 (10 inches)450 (18 inches)
> 140 – 300250 (10 inches600 (24 inches)
Table 69. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=34 MPa).
Mr = 34 MPa
80 kN ESALs Over
Design Life
Total HMA
Thickness
Select Granular Subgrade
Thickness
millions mm mm
< 4 155 (6 inches) 0
4 – 7 175 (7 inches) 0
> 7 – 13 200 (8 inches) 0
> 13 – 23 225 (9 inches) 0
> 23 – 40 250 (10 inches) 0
> 40 – 70 250 (10 inches) 150 (6 inches)
> 70 – 130 250 (10 inches) 300 (12 inches)
> 130 – 235 250 (10 inches) 450 (18 inches)
> 235 – 300 250 (10 inches) 600 (24 inches)
Table 70. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=41 MPa).
Mr = 41 MPa
80 kN ESALs Over
Design Life
Total HMA
Thickness
Select Granular Subgrade
Thickness
millions mm mm
< 6 155 (6 inches) 0
6 – 11 175 (7 inches) 0
> 11 – 20 200 (8 inches) 0
> 20 – 35 225 (9 inches) 0
> 35 – 60 250 (10 inches) 0
> 60 – 110 250 (10 inches) 150 (6 inches)
> 110 – 200 250 (10 inches) 300 (12 inches)
> 200 – 300 250 (10 inches) 450 (18 inches)
Table 71. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=48 MPa).
Mr = 48 MPa
80 kN ESALs Over
Design Life
Total HMA
Thickness
Select Granular Subgrade
Thickness
millions mm mm
< 8 155 (6 inches) 0
8 – 16 175 (7 inches) 0
> 16 – 30 200 (8 inches) 0
> 30 – 50 225 (9 inches) 0
> 50 – 85 250 (10 inches) 0
> 85 – 160 250 (10 inches) 150 (6 inches)
> 160 – 300 250 (10 inches) 300 (12 inches)
Table 72. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=55 MPa).
Mr = 55 MPa
80 kN ESALs Over
Design Life
Total HMA
Thickness
Select Granular Subgrade
Thickness
millions mm mm
< 12 155 (6 inches) 0
12 – 20 175 (7 inches) 0
> 20 – 40 200 (8 inches) 0
> 40 – 65 225 (9 inches) 0
> 65 – 115 250 (10 inches) 0
> 115 – 215 250 (10 inches) 150 (6 inches)
> 215 – 300 250 (10 inches) 300 (12 inches)
Table 73. HMA thickness table for New York (Mr=62 MPa).
Mr = 62 MPa
80 kN ESALs Over
Design Life
Total HMA
Thickness
Select Granular Subgrade
Thickness
millions mm mm
< 15 155 (6 inches) 0
15 – 30 175 (7 inches) 0
> 30 – 50 200 (8 inches) 0
> 50 – 90 225 (9 inches) 0
> 90 – 150 250 (10 inches) 0
> 150 – 300 250 (10 inches) 150 (6 inches)

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA
Department of Transportation

P.O. Box 25201
Raleigh, NC 27611

July 20, 2004

MEMO TO: Newton Jackson, P.E.
Principal Engineer
Nichols Consulting Engineers, Chtd.
1885 S. Arlington, Suite 111
Reno, NV 89509
 
FROM: Clark S. Morrison, P.E.
State Pavement Design Engineer
Pavement Management Unit, NCDOT
 
RE: Frost Penetration Pooled Fund Study Survey

Attached are the pavement designs you requested. Our Standard Specifications and Average Unit Bid Prices are available online at:

http://www.ncdot.gov/doh/preconstruct/ps/

Please let me know if you have any difficulty with this site. This part of NCDOT is reorganizing, and their website address and the content may be changing in the near future. If you need help, please call me at 919-250-4094.

RURAL INTERSTATE (four lanes)
30-year design
30,000,000 ESALs
Frost-susceptible fine grained soil, MR 69,000 kPa (10,000 PSI)
Use S = 3.0, R = 1.5 (Typical values used in North Carolina Western Divisions)

Recommended flexible pavements:

  <1A> <1B> Shoulder
Surface Course 100 mm (4 inches)
S12.5 C
100 mm (4 inches)
S12.5 C
100 mm (4 inches)
S12.5 C
Intermediate Course 75 mm (3 inches) I19.0 C 75 mm (3 inches)
I19.0 C
NA
Base Course 230 mm (9 inches) B25.0
C
140 mm (5.5 inches)
B25.0 C
NA
Granular Base 250 mm (10 inches) 250 mm (10 inches) Variable Depth
Course ABC ABC 
Stabilized Subgrade NA 200 mm (8 inches)
Lime or 175 mm (7
inches) Cement
NA
Total Depth 660 mm (26 inches) 570 mm (22.5 inches) Variable

Recommended rigid pavement:

          Shoulders
        280 mm (11 inches) Jointed Concrete280 mm (11 inches)
adjacent to mainline
       75 mm (3 inches) B25.0 B115 mm (4.5 inches) ABC
       40 mm (1.5 inches) S9.5 BNA
       Lime/Cement StabilizationNA
  Total Depth395 mm (15.5 inches)Variable

RURAL PRIMARY (two lanes)
30-year design
5,000,000 ESALs
Frost-susceptible fine grained soil, MR 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi)
Use S = 3.0, R = 1.5 (Typical values used in North Carolina Western Divisions)

  <1A> <1B> Shoulder
Surface Course 75 mm (3 inches)
S9.5 C
75 mm (3 inches) S9.5
C
75 mm (3 inches) S9.5
C
Intermediate Course 75 mm (3 inches)
I19.0 C
100 mm (4 inches)
I19.0 C
NA
Base Course 105 mm (4.5 inches)
B25.0 C
NANA
Granular Base Course 255 mm (10 inches)255 mm (10 inches) Variable Depth
  ABCABC 
Stabilized Subgrade NA 200 mm (8 inches)
Lime or 180 mm (7
inches) Cement
NA
Total Depth NA430 mm (17 inches) Variable

Recommended rigid pavement:

 205 mm (8 inches) Jointed Concrete        
 75 mm (3 inches) B25.0 B 
 40 mm (1.5 inches) S9.5 B 
 Lime/Cement Stabilization 
Total Depth320 mm (12.5 inches) 

STATE OF OHIO
Department of Transportation

P.O. Box 899
Columbus, OH 43216-0899

ODOT on line is found at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/default.htm

In general all ODOT standards, specifications and design policies are found at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/drrc/

ODOT specifications can be found at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/construction/OCA/Specs/2002CMS/Specbook2002/Specbook2002.htm

Supplemental Specifications and approved plan notes can be found at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/construction/OCA/Specs/SSandPN2002/default.htm

Warranty Policy can be found at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/construction/OCA/Warranty/WarrantyDocs/warpolicy.htm

Warranty Guidelines can be found at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/construction/OCA/Warranty/WarrantyDocs/Warranty%20App%20Guidelines%20Rev3.pdf

http://wwwcf.fhwa.dot.gov/exit.cfm?link=http://www.dot.state.oh.us/construction/OCA/Warranty/WarrantyDocs/Warranty%20App%20Guidelines%20Rev3.pdf

Under drain policy can be found at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/se/hy/LD2/Sec1000/sec1000bookmarked.pdf

ODOT Pavement Design & Rehabilitation Manual can be found at:
http://www.pavementpreservation.org/publications/odotpavedesign_page.php

Regarding a pavement buildup, our design standards do not reference a standard pavement section. ODOT does not have a catalogue type design approach. Instead we put together a unique design buildup for every project. In general, all rigid pavements use tied concrete shoulders, and all pavement types require pipe underdrains.

Rural Interstate—Flexible (93 AASHTO)
30,000,000 flexible ESAL
Mr = 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi)
R= 90%; Overall Deviation = 0.49; Initial Serviceability = 4.50;
Terminal Serviceability = 2.5
SN=5.12

Final Design—Rural Interstate—Flexible:
     290 mm (11.5 inches) Item 880 Asphalt Concrete with Warranty
     150 mm (6 inches) Item 304 Aggregate Base
  Item 605 Underdrains

Rural Interstate—Rigid (93 AASHTO)
30,000,000 rigid ESAL
Mr = 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi)
R=90%; Overall Deviation = 0.39; Modulus of rupture = 4800 kPa (700 psi); Modulus of Elasticity = 34,500 MPa (5,000,000 psi); J=2.8; k = 38.5 N/cubic cm (142 pci) { Mr (subgrade) = 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi), Mr (subbase) = 207,000 kPa (30,000 psi), subbase = 150 mm (6 in) LOS=1}; Cd=1.0; Initial Serviceability = 4.2; Terminal Serviceability = 2.5

PCC thickness = 287 mm (11.3 inches) round to 290 mm (11.5 inches)

Final Design—Rural Interstate—Rigid:
     290 mm (11.5 inches)Item 884Concrete Pavement With Warranty
     150 mm (6 inches)Item 304Aggregate Base
  Item 605 Underdrains

Rural Primary—Flexible (93 AASHTO)
5,000,000 flexible Esal
Mr = 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi)
R= 85%; Overall Deviation = 0.49; Initial Serviceability = 4.50; Terminal Serviceability = 2.5
SN= 3.8

Final Design—Rural Interstate—Flexible:
     205 mm (8 inches)Item 880Asphalt Concrete with Warranty
     150 mm (6 inches)Item 304Aggregate Base
  Item 605 Underdrains

Rural Primary—Rigid (93 AASHTO)
5,000,000 rigid Esal
Mr = 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi)
R=85%; Overall Deviation = 0.39; Modulus of rupture = 4800 kPa (700 psi); Modulus of Elasticity = 34,500 MPa (5,000,000 psi); J=2.8; k = 38.5 N/cubic cm (142 pci) { Mr (subgrade) = 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi), Mr (subbase) = 207,000 kPa (30,000 psi), subbase = 150 mm (6 in) LOS=1}; Cd=1.0; Initial Serviceability = 4.2; Terminal Serviceability =2.5

PCC thickness = 208 mm (8.2 in) round to 205 mm (8 in)
Final Design—Rural Interstate—Rigid:

Final Design—Rural Interstate—Flexible:
     205 mm (8 inches)Item 884Concrete Pavement with Warranty
     150 mm (6 inches)Item 304Aggregate Base
  Item 605Underdrains

The research objective mentions frost penetration. In Ohio, all A-4b (silts>50% of number 200 sieve) must be removed by specification. Soils work is done to make recommendations concerning both lime and cement stabilization, but current design policy does not figure this strength into the pavement design. This is going to change within the next few years. Furthermore, typical subgrade strengths used in design for ODOT projects are closer to 49,600 kPa (7,200 psi).

If you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact myself or Aric Morse @ 614-995-5994.

STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA
Department of Transportation

400 North Street, 6th Floor
Harrisburg, Pa. 17120

Standard Roadway Section-Designed Section
Base drains are required on all interstate projects. For non-interstates, base drains should be installed on all projects where subsurface water is a problem.

Rural Interstate (four lanes) Rigid and Flexible
30-year design
30,000,000 ESALs
Frost susceptible fine grained soil MR 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi)

Table 74. Pavement structure information for rural interstate in Pennsylvania.
PAVEMENT COURSEMAIN
LINE
mm
(inches)
SHLDRS
mm
(inches)
Flexible (minimum section): NA NA
Superpave Asphalt Mixture Design, HMA Wearing Course, RPS, pg 76-22, >/= 30 Million ESALs, 9.5 mm mix, 40-mm (1.5-inch) depth, SRL-E 40 (1.5) 20(0.75)
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA binder course, RPS, pg 76-22, >/= 30 million ESALs, 19.0 mm mix, 50-mm (2-inch) depth 50 (2) NA
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA base course, pg 64-22, 10 to < 30 million ESALs, 25.0 mm mix 330 (13)100(4)
Subbase 255-mm (10-inch) depth (number 2a) 255 (10)NA
Total Depth: 675(26.5)120(4.75)
Rigid (minimum section): NANA
Plain Cement Concrete Pavement, 330-mm (13-inch) depth 330 (13)Same as mainline
Asphalt Treated Permeable Base Course, 100-mm (4-inch) depth (CTPBC allowed, but rarely chosen by contractors) 100 (4)Same as mainline
Subbase 100-mm (4-inch) depth (number 2a) 100 (4)Same as mainline
Total Depth: 530
(21)
530
(21)

Rural Primary (two lanes) Rigid and Flexible
30-year design
5,000,000 ESALs
Frost susceptible fine grained soil MR 69,000 kPa (10,000 psi)

Table 75. Pavement structure information for rural primary in Pennsylvania.
PAVEMENT COURSEMAIN
LINE
mm
(inches)
SHLDRS
mm
(inches)
Flexible (minimum section): NA NA
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA wearing course, pg 64-22, 3
to < 10 million ESALs, 9.5 mm mix, 40-mm (1.5-inch) depth, SRL-H
40 (1.5) 20(0.75)
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA wearing course, pg 64-22, 3
to < 10 million ESALs, 9.5 mm mix, 40-mm (1.5-inch) depth, SRL-G
50 (2) NA
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA binder course, pg 64-22, 3 to
< 10 million ESALs, 19.0 mm mix
130 (5) 100(4)
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA base course, pg 64-22, 0.3 to
< 3 million ESALs, 25.0 mm mix, 130-mm (5-inch) depth
230 (9) NA
Total Depth: 445 (17.5) NA
Rigid (minimum section): NANA
Plain Cement Concrete Pavement, 205-mm (8-inch) depth 205 (8) Same as mainline
Subbase 100-mm (4-inch) depth (no OGS) 100 (4)Same as mainline
Subbase 100-mm (4-inch) depth (number 2a) 100 (4)Same as mainline
Total Depth: 405 (16) 535 (21)

Standard Specifications
http://www.dot2.state.pa.us/
Follow links for: References, Highway Related Pubs, Publication 408 (on page 4 of the
list).

GPS and SPS test sites (hat represent the performance data included in the LTPP database) were built using ID-2 and ID-3 mixes.

Test Procedures
AASHTO test procedures

Average Unit Bid Prices

In addition to the specifications we will also need the average unit bid prices or the prices you would prefer we use in this study, for each of the bid items noted in your standard or design roadway section.

Table 76. Average unit prices for Pennsylvania.
Item Average Bid Price
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA wearing course, RPS, pg 76-22, >/= 30 million ESALs, 9.5 mm mix, 40-mm (1.5-inch) depth, SRL-E $5.04/square meter ($4.21/square yard)
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA binder course, RPS, pg 76-22, >/= 30 million ESALs, 19.0 mm mix, 50-mm (2-inch) depth $5.56/square meter ($4.65/square yard)
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA base course, pg 64-22, 10 to < 30 million ESALs, 25.0 mm mix $46.00/metric ton ($41.73/ton)
Subbase 255-mm (10-inch) depth (number 2a) $14.39/square meter ($12.03/square yard)
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA wearing course, pg 64-22, 3 to < 10 million ESALs, 9.5 mm mix, 40-mm (1.5-inch) depth, SRL-H $5.63/square meter ($4.71/square yard)
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA wearing course, pg 64-22, 3 to < 10 million ESALs, 9.5 mm mix, 40-mm (1.5-inch) depth, SRL-G $5.98/square meter ($5.00/square yard)
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA binder course, pg 64-22, 3 to < 10 million ESALs, 19.0 mm mix $5.55/square meter ($4.64/square yard)
Superpave asphalt mixture design, HMA base course, pg 64-22, 0.3 to < 3 million ESALs, 25.0 mm mix, 130-mm (5-inch) depth $15.16/square meter ($12.67/square yard)
Subbase 230-mm (9-inch) depth (number 2a) $20.28/square meter ($16.95/square yard)
Plain Cement Concrete Pavement, 330-mm (13-inch) depth $82.06/square meter ($68.60/square yard)
Asphalt Treated Permeable Base Course, 100-mm (4-inch) depth $9.44/square meter ($7.89/square yard)
Plain Cement Concrete Pavement, 255-mm (8-inch) depth $61.05/square meter ($51.04/square yard)
Subbase 100 mm (4-inch) depth (No OGS) $6.38/square meter ($5.33/square yard)
Subbase 100-mm (4-inch) depth (number 2a) $6.09/square meter ($5.09/square yard)

Typical Service Life for Standard Section
The amount of fatigue cracking, ride value, etc. when treatment is applied varies by district depending upon variables such as funding availability. Applicable sections of typical pavement maintenance timeline from the Publication 242, Pavement Policy Manual are as follows:

New Bituminous, Bituminous Reconstruction and Bituminous Overlay

5 year Seal coat shoulders if Type 1, 1S, 3, 4, 6 or 6S shoulders
Do nothing if Type 1F, 1I, 6F, 6I, or 7 shoulders
10 years40 or 50 mm (1.5 or 2.0 inch) cold milling (recycling)
Full depth patch, 2% of pavement area
40 or 50 mm (1.5 or 2.0 inch) bituminous inlay
Saw and seal joints, as necessary
Seal coat shoulders
Maintenance and protection of traffic
User delay
15 yearsSeal coat shoulders
20 yearsFull depth patch, 2% of pavement area
60-psy leveling course
40 or 50 mm (1.5 or 2.0 inch) bituminous overlay
Saw and seal joints, as necessary
Type 7 paved shoulders
Adjust guide rail and drainage structures, if necessary
Maintenance and protection of traffic
User delay
30 yearsSame as 10 years
35 yearsSeal coat shoulders

New Concrete, Concrete Reconstruction and Unbonded Concrete Overlay

10 years   Clean and seal 25% of longitudinal joints
Clean and seal 5% of transverse joints, 0% if neoprene seals are used
Seal coat shoulders, if Type 1 paved shoulders
20 yearsConcrete patch 2% of pavement area
Diamond grind 50% of pavement area
Clean and seal all longitudinal joints, including shoulders
Clean and seal all transverse joints, 7% if neoprene seals are used
Maintenance and protection of traffic User delay
30 yearsConcrete patch 5% of pavement area
Clean and seal all joints
600-psy leveling course
90 or 100 mm (3.5 or 4.0 inch) bituminous overlay
Saw and seal joints in overlay
Type 7 paved shoulders
Adjust all guide rail and drainage structures
Maintenance and protection of traffic
User delay
35 yearsSeal coat shoulders

Adjacent State Treatments
PennDOT is not aware of any treatments utilized by adjacent States. PA overdesigns for frost heave. Publication 242, PennDOT’s Pavement Policy Manual is available on line at ftp://ftp.dot.state.pa.us/public/pdf/pricelist.pdf. The link is towards the bottom of the third page. See the following section from Publication 242, Pavement Policy Manual for PennDOT design guidelines.

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration