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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-10-035
Date: September 2011

 

LTPP Computed Parameter: Dynamic Modulus

APPENDIX E: ANNACAP SOFTWARE MANUAL

E.1 INTRODUCTION

The Artificial Neural Networks for Asphalt Concrete Dynamic Modulus Prediction (ANNACAP) program has been developed under Contract No. DTFH61–02–00139 Task Order #10 LTPP Computed Parameter Dynamic Modulus to aid in populating the LTPP database with dynamic modulus data. Technical details concerning the analysis used in this program can be found in the final report for the referenced project. The purpose of this document is to provide a manual of operation for the ANNACAP program.

The dynamic modulus, |E*|, is a fundamental property that defines the stiffness characteristic of hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures as a function of loading rate and temperature. The significance of this material property is threefold. First, it is one of the primary material property inputs in the Mechanistic–Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and software developed by NCHRP Project 1-37A. The MEPDG uses mastercurves and time–temperature shift factors in its internal computations. The mastercurve is constructed using a hierarchical structure of inputs ranging from laboratory tests on HMA mixtures and binders to estimates based on properties of the HMA mixtures. Second, the |E*| is one of the primary HMA properties measured in the Superpave™ simple performance test protocol that complements the volumetric mix design. Third, |E*| is one of the fundamental linear viscoelastic (LVE) material properties that can be used in advanced HMA and pavement models that are based on viscoelasticity.

In spite of the demonstrated significance of |E*|, it is not included in the current LTPP materials tables because the database structure was established long before |E*| was identified as the main HMA property in the MEPDG. It is not practical to perform MEPDG level 1 laboratory |E*| tests on material samples from LTPP test sections at this time due to a lack of materials, budget limitations, and the absence of a suitable test method applicable to field samples obtained from relatively thin pavement structures. However, the LTPP database does contain other data that can be used to estimate the |E*| mastercurve and associated shift factors, estimate the |E*| at specific load durations and temperatures, or develop inputs to the models contained in MEPDG.

E.2 DISCLAIMER

This software is provided “as is,” and any express or implied warranties, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are disclaimed. In no event shall the authors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and in any way theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of this software, even if advised of the possibility of such damage.

E.3 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS

  1. Insert ANNACAP Installation CD into the CD ROM or download zipped installer file from Web site. Note: If downloading the file, remember the location where you have unzipped the files.
  2. If the CD does not autorun, press the Windows Start button.
  3. Click on Run.
  4. Change the directory to the location of the installer file (either the CD ROM drive or the unzipped file locations.
  5. Select the Setup program.
  6. Press OK.
  7. Follow the onscreen instructions.
  8. ANNACAP and all necessary support files will be installed.
  9. A shortcut will be placed in the start menu under the ProgramsANNACAP path. To place a shortcut onto the desktop, users must manually perform the operation.

E.4 USING ANNACAP

E.4.1 Program Main Screen

The main ANNACAP screen is shown in figure 205. This screen appears when ANNACAP is launched. All analysis is menu–driven, and the menu schematic is shown in figure 206. To perform modulus predictions, users must provide the necessary inputs by following the FileInput path (described in detail below). Users must also provide a directory for output to be written by following the FileOutput Directory path. Once both have been properly input, users may perform data analysis by following the FileRun Analysis path. Users may access this document by following the HelpManual path or find basic program information by choosing the HelpAbout path.

Figure 205. Screenshot. ANNACAP main screen. This figure shows the main screen of the Artificial Neural Networks for Asphalt Concrete Dynamic Modulus Prediction (ANNACAP) software. It is a typical user interface on a windows platform and has a standard menu that consists of a “File” and “Help” toolbar. The body of the window is divided into two regions. The top region states “Artificial Neural Networks for Asphalt Concrete Dynamic Modulus Prediction, Version 1.0”. Underneath, the screen reads “Provide inputs and set output directory.” In the low region of the page, the logos for Nichols Consulting Engineers, North Carolina State University (NCSU), and Long–Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) are shown. The middle region is called the “Canvas Panel,” and the right region is called the “Visualization Toolkit (VTK) Control Panel.”
Figure 205. Screenshot. ANNACAP main screen.

Figure 206. Illustration. ANNACAP menu diagram. This figure shows the menu schematic that is invoked when the “File” and “Help” toolbar are clicked from the main screen of the Artificial Neural Networks for Asphalt Concrete Dynamic Modulus Prediction (ANNACAP) software. To perform modulus predictions, users must provide the necessary inputs by following the “File” then “Input Data” path. Users must also provide a directory for output to be written by following the “File” then “Output Directory” path. Once both have been properly input, users may perform data analysis by following the “File” then “Run Analysis” path. Users may access this document by following the “Help” then “Manual” path or find basic program information by choosing the “Help” then “About” path.
Figure 206. Illustration. ANNACAP menu diagram.

E.4.2 Input Data

Selecting the FileInput path will automatically launch the input utility. The initial screen shot is shown in figure 207. Users have four modes to choose from: (1) MR-based ANN, (2) |G*|–based ANN, (3) viscosity–based ANN, and (4) batch mode. The screen is divided into two regions referred to as the left side and right side and separated by bordered regions. On the left side are areas for inputting basic information for the nonbatch mode runs, choosing the mode to use, and choosing the input parameter complexity to use. On the right side are inputs specific to the chosen analysis mode. Necessary inputs will appear on both the left and right sides of the screen as users make selections. After selecting all of the appropriate factors and entering all necessary inputs, pressing “Done” on the menu bar will return users to the main ANNACAP screen. Note that all modes will produce |E*| predictions at 14, 40, 70, 100, and 130 °F (-10, 4.4, 21.1, 37.8, 54.4 °C) and 25, 10, 5, 1, 0.5, and 0.1 Hz.

Figure 207. Screenshot. ANNACAP input screen. This figure shows a sample data entry window that is invoked when “File” and then “Input Data” are clicked on the main screen of the Artificial Neural networks for Asphalt Concrete Dynamic Modulus Prediction (ANNACAP) software. The screen is divided into two regions: the left side and right side, which are separated by bordered regions. The left side has areas for inputting basic information for the nonbatch mode runs, choosing the mode to use, and choosing the input parameter complexity to use. The first section is “Layer ID,” and the user can enter the following items: State code, project ID, project layer, construction date, and aging level. Below in the model section, the user can enter the model to use. The right side has inputs specific to the chosen analysis mode. Necessary inputs appear on both the left and right sides of the screen as users make selections. After selecting all of the appropriate factors and entering all necessary inputs, pressing “Done” on the menu bar will return users to the main ANNACAP screen.
Figure 207. Screenshot. ANNACAP input screen.

E.4.3 Layer ID

Under the Layer ID section, users should enter the following items:

The naming convention for these items is the same as that followed in the LTPP database. Users may choose to enter the dates directly into the appropriate boxes and, if they do so, the format should be Day–Abbreviated Month–Year (i.e., 20–Mar–1985). Users wishing to use the calendar utility should press the Choose button beside the date box and navigate to the appropriate date. When the appropriate date is chosen, users must press the OK button.

E.4.4 MR-Based ANN

Selecting MR-based ANN from the model drop–down menu will allow users to develop |E*| predictions based on MR inputs. On the right side of the screen, users must enter MR values in gigapascals at three specific temperatures (41, 77, and 104 °F (5, 25, and 40 °C)) into the provided table. The appropriate input ranges for these values are as follows:

Inputting values outside this range will cause ANNACAP to display a warning indicating that input values exceed the calibration range, but predictions will still be made. Users should also select the aging condition for the measured MR values.

E.4.5 |G*|-Based ANN

Selecting |G*|-based ANN from the model drop–down menu will allow users to develop |E*| predictions based on |G*| inputs. There are three different levels of input complexity: level 1, level 2, and level 3. For each level, users should input the percentage of voids in mineral aggregate (VMA) and percentage of voids filled with asphalt (VFA) in addition to |G*| values. The appropriate ranges for these input variables are shown beside the input controls. For all input levels, ANNACAP will use the CAM model to generate a mastercurve of the data. Users may choose to force the CAM model to fit the data with a certain glassy modulus value by choosing Input from the Find Gg by drop–down menu. If Input is chosen, the default value is 145,037.74 psi (1 GPa), but users may change it to any desired value. If users choose Fitting from the Find Gg by drop–down menu, then the glassy modulus is treated as any other optimization parameter. If no data are available at extremely low temperatures (below 32 °F (0 °C)), users are recommended to choose Input and select a value between 145,037.74 and 1,450,377.38 psi (1 and 10 GPa). If for some reason a fitting error occurs with the provided input, the program will display a fitting error dialog and not allow users to predict |E*|. If the calculated |G*| is greater than 675,875.86 psi (4.66 x 109 Pa) or less than 0.029 psi (202 Pa), a warning dialog will appear, but |E*| predictions will be performed.

E.4.5.1 Level 1

For level 1, users have access to complete |G*| values at multiple temperatures and frequencies. These values should be entered directly into the table that appears on the right side of the screen. Users may choose to create this data file in another application and load it into the table by using the Load button. The file should be a tab delimited text file with the same column format as the input table. The file should have column labels.

E.4.5.2 Level 2

For level 2, users have access to |G*| values and possibly BBR stiffness values at multiple temperatures (at least two above 114.8 °F (46 °C) and two below 114.8 °F (46°C)) but at the fixed frequency of 10 rad/s and load time of 60 s. All of the measured moduli values should be at a consistent aging level. The |G*| values are entered in units of kilopascals, whereas the S(t) values are entered in units of megapascals following convention. The temperature is always entered in degrees Celsius. Users should enter the values into the tables on the right side of the screen.

E.4.5.3 Level 3

For level 3, users have access to |G*| values and possibly BBR stiffness values at multiple temperatures (at least two above 114.8 °F (46 °C) and two below 114.8 °F (46 °C)) at a fixed frequency of 10 rad/s and load time of 60 s. The aging conditions are a mixture of RTFO and PAV. The units are the same as those used in level 2 input. In addition to entering these values, users should choose the high temperature Superpave™ PG for the binder from the High Temp PG drop–down menu. If this information is not known or cannot be determined, users may select Unknown from the drop–down menu. In Level 3 analysis, only the RTFO-aging conditions may be predicted.

E.4.6 Viscosity-Based ANN

Selecting Viscosity–based ANN from the model drop–down menu will allow users to develop |E*| predictions based on viscosity inputs. There are three different levels of input complexity: level 1, level 2, and level 3. For each level, users should input the VMA and VFA. The appropriate ranges for these input variables are shown beside the input controls. If the calculated viscosity is less than 199,000 cP (199 Pas), a warning dialog will appear, but |E*| predictions will be performed.

E.4.6.1 Level 1

In level 1, users enter A and VTS values directly into the right side of the screen.

E.4.6.2 Level 2

In level 2, users choose the types of viscosity measures available by selecting or deselecting the radio buttons on the left side of the screen. The available measures include: R&BT temperature, penetration, absolute viscosity, and kinematic viscosity. Selecting or deselecting these measures will make appropriate input tables or controls appear on the right side of the screen. Following standard convention, the R&BT temperature is given in degrees Fahrenheit, the penetration is given by the PEN number, the absolute viscosity is input in poise, and the kinematic viscosity is input in centistokes. If users select kinematic viscosity, then they must also enter the binder–specific gravity in the Gbcontrol. By default, ANNACAP inputs 1.03 for Gb. Users must input at least two measures of viscosity so that A and VTS can be computed.

E.4.6.3 Level 3

In level 3, users choose the binder grade. Typical values compiled during the NCHRP 1–37A project are available, and the binder grades can be either Superpave™ –based, viscosity–based (AC system only), or penetration–based. The binder grade–to–viscosity relationship is summarized in table 78.

Table 78. Relationship between binder purchase specification grade and A and VTS parameters.

Asphalt Binder Grade A VTS Asphalt Binder Grade A VTS
PG 46–34 11.5040 −3.9010 PG 70–28 9.7150 −3.2170
PG 46–40 10.1010 −3.3930 PG 70–34 8.9650 −2.9480
PG 46–46 8.7550 −2.9050 PG 70–40 8.1290 −2.6480
PG 52–10 13.3860 −4.5700 PG 76–10 10.0590 −3.3310
PG 52–16 13.3050 −4.5410 PG 76–16 10.0150 −3.3150
PG 52–22 12.7550 −4.3420 PG 76–22 9.7150 −3.2080
PG 52–28 11.8400 −4.0120 PG 76–28 9.2000 −3.0240
PG 52–34 10.7070 −3.6020 PG 76–34 8.5320 −2.7850
PG 52–40 9.4960 −3.1640 PG 82–10 9.5140 −3.1280
PG 52–46 8.3100 −2.7360 PG 82–16 9.4750 −3.1140
PG 58–10 12.3160 −4.1720 PG 82–22 9.2090 −3.0190
PG 58–16 12.2480 −4.1470 PG 82–28 8.7500 −2.8560
PG 58–22 11.7870 −3.9810 PG 82–34 8.1510 −2.6420
PG 58–28 11.0100 −3.7010 AC–2.5 11.5167 −3.8900
PG 58–34 10.0350 −3.3500 AC–5 11.2614 −3.7914
PG 58–40 8.9760 −2.9680 AC–10 11.0134 −3.6954
PG 64–10 11.4320 −3.8420 AC–20 10.7709 −3.6017
PG 64–16 11.3750 −3.8220 AC–3 10.6316 −3.5480
PG 64–22 10.9800 −3.6800 AC–40 10.5338 −3.5104
PG 64–28 10.3120 −3.4400 PEN 40–50 10.5254 −3.5047
PG 64–34 9.4610 −3.1340 PEN 60–70 10.6508 −3.5537
PG 64–40 8.5240 −2.7980 PEN 85–100 11.8232 −3.6210
PG 70–10 10.6900 −3.5660 PEN 120–150 11.0897 −3.7252
PG 70–16 10.6410 −3.5480 PEN 200–300 11.8107 −4.0068
PG 70–22 10.2990 −3.4260

— Indicates that no additional relationships exist.

E.5 BATCH MODE

In batch mode, users enter four different files for the four different aging levels: (1) unaged or original binder data file, (2) RTFO–aged binder file, (3) PAV–aged binder file, and (4) field–aged binder file. Each file must be a tab delimited text file in order for ANNACAP to read the file. The file should have a header. Even if no data are available for some aging conditions, a file name must be entered into the directory path on the right side. The formatting for the original–, RTFO–, and PAV–aged conditions, collectively referred to as the lab–aged files, is different than the formatting for the field–aged binder file. The formats for the two files are presented in table 79 and table 80. Users may also view the format by selecting either the Format for Lab-Aged File or Format for Field-Aged File buttons.

Table 79. File format for lab–aged files.
Item Description
STATE_CODE Code representing State or province
PROJECT_ID Project ID code
PROJECT_LAYER Project layer code as established in TST_LO5B
CONSTRUCTION_DATE Date layer was constructed
SAMPLE_TYPE 1–original binder, 2–RTFO/TFO binder, 3–PAV binder
SAMPLE_DATE Date of sampling
TEST_DATE Date of testing
GSTAR_1 Binder |G*| at temperature 1 (kPa)
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_1 Phase angle at temperature 1 (degree)
GSTAR_TEMP_1 |G*| temperature 1 (°C)
GSTAR_2 Binder |G*| at temperature 2 (kPa)
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_2 Phase angle at temperature 2 (degree)
GSTAR_TEMP_2 |G*| temperature 2 (°C)
GSTAR_3 Binder |G*| at temperature 3 (kPa)
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_3 Phase angle at temperature 3 (degree)
GSTAR_TEMP_3 |G*| temperature 3 (°C).
GSTAR_4 Binder |G*| at temperature 4 (kPa)
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_4 Phase angle at temperature 4 (degree)
GSTAR_TEMP_4 |G*| temperature 4 (°C)
GSTAR_5 Binder |G*| at temperature 5 (kPa)
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_5 Phase angle at temperature 5 (degree)
GSTAR_TEMP_5 |G*| temperature 5 (°C)
GSTAR_6 Binder |G*| at temperature 6 (kPa)
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_6 Phase angle at temperature 6 (degree)
GSTAR_TEMP_6 |G*| temperature 6 (°C)
GSTAR_SOURCE LTPP module from which |G*| was extracted (i.e., TST)
RING_BALL Ring/ball temperature in Fahrenheit
RING_BALL_SOURCE LTPP module from which TR&B was extracted (i.e., TST)
PENETRATION_39.2F Penetration at 39.2 °F (PEN)
PENETRATION_39.2F_SOURCE LTPP module from which PEN at 39.2 °F was extracted (i.e., TST)
PENETRATION_77F Penetration at 77 °F (PEN)
PENETRATION_77F_SOURCE LTPP module from which PEN at 77 °F was extracted (i.e., TST)
PENETRATION_115F Penetration at 115 °F (PEN)
PENETRATION_115F_SOURCE LTPP module from which PEN at 115 °F was extracted (i.e., TST)
ABSOLUTE_VISCOSITY Absolute viscosity at 140 °F (poise)
ABSOLUTE_VISCOSITY_SOURCE LTPP module from which absolute viscosity was extracted (i.e., TST)
KINEMATIC_VISCOSITY Kinematic viscosity at 275 °F (centistokes)
KINEMATIC_VISCOSITY_SOURCE LTPP module from which kinematic viscosity was extracted (i.e., TST)
VMA Voids in mineral aggregate as percent total volume
VMA_SOURCE LTPP module from which VMA was extracted (i.e., TST)
VFA Voids filled with asphalt as percent VMA
VFA_SOURCE LTPP module from which VFA was extracted (i.e., TST)
AIR_VOIDS Air voids as percent total volume
AIR_VOIDS_SOURCE LTPP module from which air voids was extracted (i.e., TST)
GMB Bulk–specific gravity of the mix.
GMB_SOURCE LTPP module from which Gmb was extracted (i.e., TST)
GMM Maximum specific gravity of the mix
GMM_SOURCE LTPP module from which Gmm was extracted (i.e., TST)
EFFECTIVE_AC Effective asphalt content as percentage of total mix volume
EFFECTIVE_AC_SOURCE LTPP module from which the effective volume of the binder (Vbe) was extracted (i.e., TST)
MR_5 Resilient modulus at 5 °C (GPa)
MR_25 Resilient modulus at 25 °C (GPa)
MR_40 Resilient modulus at 40 °C (GPa)
MR_SOURCE LTPP module from which MR was extracted (i.e., TST)
BINDER_GRADE Purchase specification grade of binder (RTFO aging only)

°C = (°F−32)/1.8
1 P = 10 Pas
1 psi = 6.86 kPa

 

Table 80. File format for field-aged files.
Item Description
STATE_CODE Code representing State or province.
PROJECT_ID Project ID code.
PROJECT_LAYER Project layer code as established in TST_LO5B.
CONSTRUCTION_DATE Date layer was constructed.
SAMPLE_TYPE Four–field–aged binder.
GSTAR_SAMPLE_DATE Date of sampling for |G*|.
GSTAR_1 Binder |G*| at temperature 1 (kPa).
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_1 Phase angle at temperature 1 (degree).
GSTAR_TEMP_1 |G*| temperature 1 (°C).
GSTAR_2 Binder |G*| at temperature 2 (kPa).
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_2 Phase angle at temperature 2 (degree).
GSTAR_TEMP_2 |G*| temperature 2 (°C).
GSTAR_3 Binder |G*| at temperature 3 (kPa).
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_3 Phase angle at temperature 3 (degree).
GSTAR_TEMP_3 |G*| temperature 3 (°C).
GSTAR_4 Binder |G*| at temperature 4 (kPa).
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_4 Phase angle at temperature 4 (degree).
GSTAR_TEMP_4 |G*| temperature 4 (°C).
GSTAR_5 Binder |G*| at temperature 5 (kPa).
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_5 Phase angle at temperature 5 (degree).
GSTAR_TEMP_5 |G*| temperature 5 (°C).
GSTAR_6 Binder |G*| at temperature 6 (kPa).
GSTAR_PHASE_ANGLE_6 Phase angle at temperature 6 (degree).
GSTAR_TEMP_6 |G*| temperature 6 (°C).
GSTAR_SOURCE LTPP module from which |G*| was extracted (i.e., TST).
BINDER_SAMPLE_DATE Date of sampling for viscosity.
RING_BALL Ring/ball temperature in Fahrenheit.
RING_BALL_SOURCE LTPP module from which TR&B was extracted (i.e., TST).
PENETRATION_39.2F Penetration at 39.2 °F (PEN).
PENETRATION_39.2F_SOURCE LTPP module from which PEN at 39.2 °F was extracted (i.e., TST).
PENETRATION_77F Penetration at 77 °F (PEN).
PENETRATION_77F_SOURCE LTPP module from which PEN at 77 °F was extracted (i.e., TST).
PENETRATION_115F Penetration at 115 °F (PEN).
PENETRATION_115F_SOURCE LTPP module from which PEN at 115 °F was extracted (i.e., TST).
ABSOLUTE_VISCOSITY Absolute viscosity at 140 °F (poises).
ABSOLUTE_VISCOSITY_SOURCE LTPP module from which absolute viscosity was extracted (i.e., TST).
KINEMATIC_VISCOSITY Kinematic viscosity at 275 °F (centistokes).
KINEMATIC_VISCOSITY_SOURCE LTPP module from which kinematic viscosity was extracted (i.e., TST).
VMA Voids in mineral aggregate as percent total volume.
VMA_SOURCE LTPP module from which VMA was extracted
(i.e., TST).
VFA Voids filled with asphalt as percent VMA.
VFA_SOURCE LTPP module from which VFA was extracted
(i.e., TST).
AIR_VOID_SAMPLE_DATE Date of sampling for air voids.
AIR_VOIDS Air voids as percent total volume.
AIR_VOIDS_SOURCE LTPP module from which air voids was extracted (i.e., TST).
GMB Bulk specific gravity of the mix.
GMB_SOURCE LTPP module from which Gmb was extracted (i.e., TST).
GMM Maximum specific gravity of the mix.
GMM_SOURCE LTPP module from which Gmm was extracted (i.e., TST).
EFFECTIVE_AC Effective asphalt content as percent of total mix volume.
EFFECTIVE_AC_SOURCE LTPP module from which Vbe was extracted (i.e., TST).
MR_SAMPLE_DATE Date of sampling for MR.
MR_5 Resilient modulus at 5 °C (GPa).
MR_25 Resilient modulus at 25 °C (GPa).
MR_40 Resilient modulus at 40 °C (GPa).
MR_SOURCE LTPP module from which MR was extracted (i.e., TST).

°F−32)/1.8
1 psi = 6.86 kPa

E.6 OUTPUT DIRECTORY

Following the File Output Directory path will launch the output directory dialog, as seen in figure 208. If no output directory is chosen or if users would like to change the current output directory, they should press the browse folder button to the right of the directory path (circled in black in figure 208). When this button is pressed, the folder selection dialog will appear (see figure 209). Users should then navigate to the desired output folder and select the Current Folder button (circled in black in figure 209). When selected, users return to the output directory dialog screen. To keep the chosen directory, users should press OK to return to the main screen. If users do not choose to keep the directory, press Cancel.

Figure 208. Screenshot. Output directory dialog. This figure shows the screenshot of the output directory dialog, which is launched by following the “File” then “Output Directory” path. If no output directory is chosen or if users would like to change the current output directory, users should press the browse folder icon to the right of the directory path (circled in black in the figure).
Figure 208. Screenshot. Output directory dialog.

Figure 209. Screenshot. Choosing output directory. This figure shows the screenshot to choose the output directory. When the browse button is pressed, the folder selection dialog will appear, as seen in the figure. Users should then navigate to the desired output folder and select the “Current Folder” button on the bottom right of the screen (circled in black in the figure). When selected, users return to the output directory dialog screen. To keep the chosen directory, users should press “OK” to return to the main screen. If users do not choose to keep the directory, they should press “Cancel.”
Figure 209. Screenshot. Choosing output directory.

E.7 RUN ANALYSIS

To perform the dynamic modulus calculation, users should choose the FileRun Analysis path. The run analysis feature will become active only after ANNACAP has received valid input values. If an output directory has not been selected, an error message will appear, and the analysis will not be performed. Users must select a valid output directory and follow the FileRun Analysis path.

If users have chosen to follow either the MR–based ANN, |G*|–based ANN, or viscosity–based ANN, a single output file with the quantities shown in table 81 will be generated and located in the output directory. The file name for this file will be Project_ID–Project_Layer–Aging Code–Model Type–Predicted Modulus.out. If users have chosen to follow the batch mode analysis technique, two different files will be generated: (1) a summary file with one row per layer and (2) a detailed output data file including 30 rows per layer (one row for each temperature and frequency combination). The summary analysis file for the batch mode will be formatted as shown in table 82. The file name for this file will be Models_Summary_Batch_Mode.out. The format for the main output file will be similar to that of the individual layer analysis and is shown in table 83. This file will be titled Predicted_Modulus_Batch_Mode.out. Both the summary and detailed output files will be located in the user–selected output directory. When running batch mode, users must rename the previous runs that are in the output directory because ANNACAP will overwrite existing file names without any warning to the user.

Table 81. Output data format for single ANNACAP use.
Item Description
STATE_CODE Code representing State or province as input by user
PROJECT_ID Project ID code as input by user
PROJECT_LAYER Project layer code as input by user
CONSTRUCTION_DATE Date layer was constructed as input by user
SAMPLE_TYPE 1–original binder, 2–RTFO/TFO binder, 3–PAV binder, and 4–field binder
PREDICTIVE_MODEL MR ANN, VV– ANN, GV-|G*| ANN
TEMPERATURE Temperature of modulus prediction (°F)
FREQUENCY Frequency of modulus prediction (Hz)
|E*|_PREDICTION Predicted dynamic modulus (psi)
VMA Voids in mineral aggregate as percent total volume
VFA Voids filled with asphalt as percent VMA
VISCOSITY Viscosity input (109 P) only for viscosity ANN model
A Viscosity model intercept A (only for viscosity ANN model)
VTS Viscosity model slope (only for viscosity ANN model)
MR_5C Resilient modulus at 5 °C (only for MR model) (MPa)
MR_25C Resilient modulus at 25 °C (only for MR model) (MPa)
MR_40C Resilient modulus at 40 °C (only for MR model) (MPa)
|G*| Binder shear modulus (psi) only for |G*| ANN model
WLF_COEFFICIENT_1 WLF shifting function coefficient C1 (only for level 1 input |G*| ANN model)
WLF_COEFFICIENT_2 WLF shifting function coefficient C2 (only for level 1 input |G*| ANN model)
CAM_COEFFICIENT_1 CAM fitting coefficient Gg (only for |G*| ANN model) (Pa)
CAM_COEFFICIENT_2 CAM fitting coefficient ωc (only for |G*| ANN model) (Pa)
CAM_COEFFICIENT_3 CAM fitting coefficient k (only for |G*| ANN model) (Pa)
CAM_COEFFICIENT_4 CAM fitting coefficient “me” (only for |G*| ANN model) (Pa)
SIGMOIDAL_COEFFICIENT_1 Sigmoidal fitting function coefficient δ (psi)
SIGMOIDAL_COEFFICIENT_2 Sigmoidal fitting function coefficient α
SIGMOIDAL_COEFFICIENT_3 Sigmoidal fitting function coefficient β
SIGMOIDAL_COEFFICIENT_4 Sigmoidal fitting function coefficient γ
SHIFT_FACTOR_COEFFICIENT 1 Shift factor fitting function coefficient α1 (°C)
SHIFT_FACTOR_COEFFICIENT 2 Shift factor fitting function coefficient α2 (°C)
SHIFT_FACTOR_COEFFICIENT 3 Shift factor fitting function coefficient α3 (°C)
SAMPLE_DATE Date that binder was sampled (only for field-aged binder)
SAMPLE_AGE Age of test sample relative to construction (days) (only for field-aged binder)

°C = (°F−32)/1.8
1 psi = 6.86 kPa

 

Table 82. Summary file format from batch mode in ANNACAP.
Item Description
STATE_CODE Code representing State or province as input by user
PROJECT_ID Project ID code as input by user
PROJECT_LAYER Project layer code as input by user
CONSTRUCTION_DATE Date layer was constructed as input by user
SAMPLE_TYPE 1–original binder, 2–RTFO/TFO binder, 3–PAV binder, and 4–field binder
AVAILABLE_MODELS Listing of models that can be used in modulus prediction with the available input data
VIOLATED_MODELS Listing of available models for which the input data violates the calibration range
CHOSEN_MODEL MR–resilient modulus ANN, VV–viscosity ANN, GV–|G*| ANN, GV–PAR–|G*| ANN with inconsistent aging conditions, VV–grade, viscosity ANN with viscosity coming from binder grade, *–V, *ANN model with inputs violating the input range
Table 83. Output data format for batch mode ANNACAP use.
Item Description
SECTION_ID Unique ID combing State code, project ID and layer, sample type, and model name
STATE_CODE Code representing State or province as input by user
PROJECT_ID Project ID code as input by user
PROJECT_LAYER Project layer code as input by user
CONSTRUCTION_DATE Date layer was constructed as input by user
SAMPLE_TYPE 1–original binder, 2–RTFO/TFO binder, 3–PAV binder, and 4–field binder
PREDICTIVE_MODEL MR–resilient modulus ANN, VV–viscosity ANN, GV–|G*| ANN, GV–PAR–|G*| ANN with inconsistent aging conditions, VV–grade, viscosity ANN with viscosity coming from binder grade, *–V, *ANN model with inputs violating the input range
TEMPERATURE Temperature of modulus prediction (°F)
FREQUENCY Frequency of modulus prediction (Hz)
|E*|_PREDICTION Predicted dynamic modulus (psi).
VMA Voids in mineral aggregate as percent total volume (blank for MR ANN)
VFA Voids filled with asphalt as percent VMA (only for viscosity and |G*| ANN)
VISCOSITY Viscosity input (109 P) (only for viscosity ANN model)
A Viscosity model intercept A (only for viscosity ANN model)
VTS Viscosity model slope (only for viscosity ANN model)
MR_5C Resilient modulus at 5 °C (only for MR model) (MPa)
MR_25C Resilient modulus at 25 °C (only for MR model) (MPa)
MR_40C Resilient modulus at 40 °C (only for MR model) (MPa)
|G*| Binder shear modulus (psi) only for |G*| ANN model
WLF_COEFFICIENT_1 WLF shifting function coefficient C1 (not used in batch mode)
WLF_COEFFICIENT_2 WLF shifting function Coefficient C2 (Not used in batch mode)
CAM_COEFFICIENT_1 CAM fitting coefficient Gg (only for |G*| ANN model) (Pa)
CAM_COEFFICIENT_2 CAM fitting coefficient ωc (only for |G*| ANN model) (Pa)
CAM_COEFFICIENT_3 CAM fitting coefficient k (only for |G*| ANN model) (Pa)
CAM_COEFFICIENT_4 CAM fitting coefficient me (only for |G*| ANN model) (Pa)
SIGMOIDAL_COEFFICIENT_1 Sigmoidal fitting function coefficient δ (psi)
SIGMOIDAL_COEFFICIENT_2 Sigmoidal fitting function coefficient α
SIGMOIDAL_COEFFICIENT_3 Sigmoidal fitting function coefficient β
SIGMOIDAL_COEFFICIENT_4 Sigmoidal fitting function coefficient γ
SHIFT_FACTOR_COEFFICIENT 1 Shift factor fitting function coefficient α1 (°C)
SHIFT_FACTOR_COEFFICIENT 2 Shift factor fitting function coefficient α2 (°C)
SHIFT_FACTOR_COEFFICIENT 3 Shift factor fitting function coefficient α3 (°C)
QUALITY_CONTROL_#1 A—the output data passed QC #1; F—the input data did not pass QC #1
QUALITY_CONTROL_#2 A—the output data passed QC check 2; F—the input data did not pass QC #2
QUALITY_CONTROL_#3 A—the output data passed QC check 3 or QC #3 did not apply; F—the input data did not pass QC #3
QUALITY_CONTROL_#4 A—the output data passed QC #4 or QC #4 did not apply; F—the input data did not pass QC #4
QUALITY_CONTROL_#5 A—the output data passed QC #5; F—the input data did not pass QC #5
QUALITY_CONTROL_#6 A—the output data passed QC #6 or QC #6 did not apply; F—the input data did not pass QC #6
QUALITY_CONTROL_#7 A—the output data passed QC #7 or QC #7 did not apply; F—the input data did not pass QC #7
AVAILABLE_MODELS Listing of models that can be used in modulus prediction with the available input data
VIOLATED_MODELS Listing of available models for which the input data violates the calibration range
CHOSEN_MODEL Listing of model chosen for predicting the modulus
SAMPLE_DATE Date that binder was sampled (only for field–aged binder)
SAMPLE_AGE Age of test sample relative to construction (days) (only for field–aged binder, blank means either SAMPLE_DATE or CONSTRUCTION_DATE were not given)
INDIVIDUAL_DATA_GRADE NCSU grade for modulus prediction; “A”—the predicted modulus is acceptable; “C”—the predicted modulus is questionable; and “F”—the predicted modulus may have severe problems
MASTERCURVE_GRADE NCSU grade for mastercurve prediction; “A”—the predicted curve is acceptable; “C”—the predicted curve is questionable; and “F”—the predicted curve may have severe problems

°C = (°F−32)/1.8
1 psi = 6.86 kPa

E.8 FORM OF SUPPLEMENTARY FUNCTIONS

E.8.1 CAM Model Function

Equation 120. Christensen Anderson Marasteanu model for prediction of dynamic shear modulus of asphalt binder. Vertical line G superscript star vertical line equals the quotient of G subscript g divided by parenthesis 1 plus parenthesis omega subscript c divided by omega subscript R end parenthesis, raised to the power of k, end parenthesis, raised to the power of m subscript e divided by k. (120)

Where:

ωR = Reduced angular frequency.
Gg, ωc, k, and me = Fitting coefficients.
Equation 121. Calculation of reduced angular frequency. Omega subscript R equals omega times a subscript T. (121)

Where:

ω = Physical angular frequency of load.
aT = Time-temperature shift factor.

E.9 TIME-TEMPERATURE SHIFT FACTOR FUNCTION FOR |G*|

E.9.1 Level 1 (WLF Function)

Equation 122. WLF model for prediction of time temperature shift factor for level 1. The logarithmic base 10 of a subscript T equals the product of C subscript 1 times parenthesis T minus T subscript R end parenthesis divided by the sum of C subscript 2 plus the difference between T minus T subscript R. (122)

Where:

T = Test temperature of interest.
TR = Reference temperature (chosen as 59 °F (15 °C) for ANNACAP).
C1 and C2 = WLF fitting coefficients.

E.9.2 Levels 2 and 3

For the GV ANN models not using level 1 input, the shift factor is given by the following:

Equation 123. WLF model for prediction of time temperature shift factor for level 2 and 3. The logarithmic base 10 of a subscript T equals the coefficient E subscript a divided by the product of 2.303 times R, multiplied by parenthesis 1 divided by the sum of 273 plus T, minus 1 divided by 273 end parenthesis plus the difference C subscript 1 minus T subscript R divided by the difference C subscript 2 minus T subscript R for T less than or equal to zero. The logarithmic base 10 of a subscript T equals the product C subscript 1 times parenthesis T minus T subscript R end parenthesis divided by the sum of C subscript 2 plus the difference T minus T subscript R for T greater than zero. (123)

Where:

R = 8.314 × 10−3  kJ⋅K−1⋅mol−1.
Ea = 189.879 kJ/mol.
C1 = −13.227.
C2 = 90.349.

E.10 SIGMOIDAL FUNCTION

Equation 124. Sigmoidal function for prediction of dynamic modulus. The logarithm base 10 of vertical line E superscript star vertical line equals delta plus alpha divided by the sum of 1 plus the exponential of the sum of superscript beta plus gamma times the logarithmic base 10 of the inverse of parenthesis t subscript R end parenthesis. (124)

Where:

tR = The inverse of reduced frequency of loading, which is defined in the same way as reduced angular frequency in equation 121 but with frequency in hertz instead of radians per second.
δ, α, β, and γ = Fitting coefficients.

E.11 TIME-TEMPERATURE SHIFT FACTOR FUNCTION FOR |E*|

Equation 125. Calculation of time temperature shift factor. The logarithmic base 10 of a subscript T equals alpha subscript 1 times T squared plus alpha subscript 2 times T plus alpha subscript 3. (125)

Where:

aT = Mixture time-temperature shift factor.
T = Temperature of interest.
α1, α2, and α3 = Fitting coefficients.

 

 


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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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