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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-10-066
Date: October 2011

 

Impact of Design Features on Pavement Response and Performance in Rehabilitated Flexible and Rigid Pavements

Appendix C. Practical Guide: Factors Affecting Performance of Rehabilitated Fexible Pavements

Introduction

This appendix summarizes the research results of the SPS-5 experiment to help engineers select the best rehabilitation alternatives for rigid pavements among those evaluated in the experiment and, from a performance perspective, as a function of specific site conditions and distresses in the existing pavement.

The selection is made based on the best alternative in each group. Despite the practicality of the information, tables in this section should be used with caution, particularly when the sources of distresses are associated with construction, new techniques, or other unusual circumstances not reflected in the SPS-6 experiment.

The design factors and site characteristics investigated in the SPS-5 experiment were as follows:

Selection Process

This section summarizes the rehabilitation alternatives that are most likely to provide best performances under a given set of conditions. Within each group, the impact of design features is characterized by ranking the rehabilitation strategies from the best to the worst. Each distress is evaluated independently. Only rankings with statistical significance are shown in the table. If there is no ranking associated with one particular distress, no statistical difference in performance was found, which indicates that none of the design features evaluated had differential impact on performance.

The tables presented in this appendix can be used as a guide to determine which design features may perform better among the options evaluated in this study. An example is described here and summarized in table 118. Table 119 through table 127 can be used to evaluate which design feature will provide better performance measured by the distresses listed in the tables. The selection is made based on the best alternative in each group.

Selection Process Example

An engineer will select a rehabilitation alternative for the following conditions:

The selection process involves gathering the information from each table containing the ranking of alternatives for each specific condition. Using the information in the example, the best alternatives for wet conditions are taken from table 120 and included in table 118. The same process is performed for each of the site conditions, and the information is included in table 118. As a result, the combination of design features presented in the table is likely to provide the best performance to the selected distresses.

Table 118. Selection of design features to improve performance of rehabilitated flexible pavements.

Site Condition

Roughness

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Mill

Thickness

Mix Type

Mill

Thickness

Mix Type

Mill

Thickness

Mix Type

Wet

Yes

Thin

Virgin

No

Thin

Virgin

Virgin

No

Thick

RAP

Yes

Thin

Yes

Thin

Virgin

Yes

Thick

Virgin

No-freeze

-

-

-

Yes

Thin

Virgin

No

Thick

Virgin

No

Thin

Virgin

Yes

Thin

RAP

Existing fair pavement

Yes

Thick

RAP

Yes

Thick

RAP

-

-

-

No

Thin

Virgin

No

Thick

RAP

High traffic

Yes

Thick

RAP

No

Thin

Virgin

No

Thick

Virgin

Yes

Thick

Virgin

Yes

Thick

RAP

Final selection

Yes

Thick

RAP

No

Thin

Virgin

Yes

Thick

Virgin

- Indicates that no preferred treatment was statistically found.

Table 119. Summary of performance for all SPS-5 sections.

Distress

Roughness

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Longitudinal Cracking

Transverse Cracking

Deflection

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

1

Mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thin, virgin

1

No mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

2

No mill, thick, RAP

1

Mill, thick, RAP

1

Mill, thick, RAP

2

Mill, thin, virgin

2

No mill, thick, virgin

2

Mill, thick, RAP

2

Mill, thin, virgin

1

No mill, thin, RAP

1

Mill, thick, virgin

2

No mill, thick,  virgin

3

Mill, thick, RAP

2

No mill, thick, RAP

2

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thin, virgin

4

Mill, thin, virgin

2

Mill, thin, RAP

3

Mill, thin, RAP

2

No mill, thick, virgin

 

Table 120. Summary of performance for SPS-5 sections in wet zones.

Distress

Roughness

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Longitudinal Cracking

Transverse Cracking

Deflection

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

1

Mill, thin, virgin

1

No mill, thin, virgin

1

No mill, thick, RAP

1

Mill, thin, virgin

1

No mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, RAP

2

Mill, thick, RAP

1

Mill, thin, virgin

1

Mill, thin, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

2

Mill, thick, virgin

3

No mill, thin, RAP

1

Mill, thick, virgin

3

No mill, thick, virgin

3

Mill, thin, RAP

1

No mill, thick, RAP


2

No mill, thick, RAP

3

No mill, thick, RAP

4

No mill, thick, virgin

3

Mill, thin, RAP

3

Mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thick, virgin

2

No mill, thick, virgin

3

Mill, thin, RAP

4

Mill, thick, RAP

3

No mill, thin, virgin

3

Mill, thin, virgin

5

Mill, thin, virgin

2

No mill, thin, RAP

3

Mill, thick, RAP

4

No mill, thin, virgin

3

Mill, thick, RAP

3

No mill, thick, RAP

5

Mill, thin, RAP

2

No mill, thin, virgin

3

Mill, thick, virgin

4

Mill, thin, RAP

3

No mill, thin, RAP

3

No mill, thin, virgin

5

No mill, thin, virgin

2

Mill, thin, RAP

3

No mill, thick, virgin

4

No mill, thin, RAP

3

No mill, thick, RAP

3

No mill, thin, RAP

8

None

 

Table 121. Summary of performance for SPS-5 sections in dry zones.

Distress

Roughness

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Longitudinal Cracking

Transverse Cracking

Deflection

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

1

Mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thick, virgin

       

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

2

No mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thin, virgin

       

2

No mill, thick, virgin

1

No mill, thick, virgin

3

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, RAP

       

2

Mill, thick, RAP

1

Mill, thick, RAP

3

No mill, thick, virgin

4

Mill, thin, RAP

       

2

Mill, thin, RAP

1

No mill, thick, RAP

3

Mill, thin, virgin

4

No mill, thick, RAP

       

2

No mill, thick, RAP

5

No mill, thin, virgin

Note: Blank cells indicate that no preferred treatment was found.

Table 122. Summary of performance for SPS-5 sections in freeze zones.

Distress

Roughness

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Longitudinal Cracking

Transverse Cracking

Deflection

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

1

Mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thin, virgin

           

1

No mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thick, RAP

1

Mill, thick, RAP

           

1

Mill, thick, RAP

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

No mill, thick, virgin

           

3

No mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thin, virgin

1

No mill, thin, RAP

           

3

Mill, thick, virgin

Note: Blank cells indicate that no preferred treatment was found.

Table 123. Summary of performance for SPS-5 sections in no-freeze zones.

Distress

Roughness

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Longitudinal Cracking

Transverse Cracking

Deflection

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

   

1

Mill, thin, virgin

1

No mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

   

1

No mill, thin, virgin

2

Mill, thin, virgin

2

Mill, thin, virgin

2

No mill, thick, virgin

2

No mill, thick, virgin

   

1

Mill, thin, RAP

2

Mill, thick, virgin

2

No mill, thick, virgin

3

Mill, thin, virgin

3

Mill, thick, RAP

Note: Blank cells indicate that no preferred treatment was found.

Table 124. Summary of performance for SPS-5 sections in fair surface condition prior to rehabilitation.

Distress

Roughness

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Longitudinal Cracking

Transverse Cracking

Deflection

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

1

Mill, thick, RAP

1

Mill, thick, RAP

   

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, RAP

2

No mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thin, virgin

   

1

Mill, thin, virgin

2

Mill, thick, RAP

2

No mill, thick, RAP

2

Mill, thin, virgin

1

No mill, thick, RAP

   

3

Mill, thick, RAP

3

Mill, thin, RAP

2

Mill, thick, virgin

2

Mill, thin, RAP

4

No mill, thick, virgin

   

3

No mill, thick, virgin

3

No mill, thick, virgin

2

No mill, thick, virgin

Note: Blank cells indicate that no preferred treatment was found.

Table 125. Summary of performance for SPS-5 sections in poor surface condition prior to rehabilitation.

Distress

Roughness

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Longitudinal Cracking

Transverse Cracking

Deflection

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

1

mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thin, virgin

           

1

No mill, thick, virgin

2

Mill, thin, virgin

1

Mill, thin, virgin

           

1

Mill, thick, virgin

2

Mill, thick, virgin

3

Mill, thin, RAP

           

3

No mill, thick, RAP

2

No mill, thick, RAP

3

No mill, thin, RAP

           

4

Mill, thick, RAP

2

No mill, thick, virgin

3

No mill, thick, virgin

           

5

Mill, thin, virgin

2

No mill, thin, Virgin

3

No mill, thick, RAP

           

6

No mill, thin, Virgin

2

No mill, thin, RAP

3

Mill, thick, RAP

           

6

Mill, thin, RAP

2

Mill, thin, RAP

3

Mill, thick, virgin

           

8

No mill, thin, RAP

Note: Blank cells indicate that no preferred treatment was found.

Table 126. Summary of performance for SPS-5 sections with low traffic levels.

Distress

Roughness

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Longitudinal Cracking

Transverse Cracking

Deflection

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

1

Mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thin, virgin

       

1

No mill, thick, virgin

1

No mill, thick, RAP

1

Mill, thin, virgin

1

Mill, thin, virgin

       

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

1

Mill, thick, virgin

3

No mill, thin, RAP

       

1

Mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thick, virgin

1

No mill, thick, RAP

3

No mill, thick, virgin

       

1

No mill, thick, RAP

4

Mill, thick, RAP

Note: Blank cells indicate that no preferred treatment was found.

Table 127. Summary of performance for SPS-5 sections with high traffic levels.

Distress

Roughness

Rutting

Fatigue Cracking

Longitudinal Cracking

Transverse Cracking

Deflection

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

Ranking

Strategy

1

Mill, thick, RAP

1

No mill, thin, virgin

1

No mill, thick, virgin

       

1

No mill, thick, virgin

2

No mill, thick, RAP

2

No mill, thick RAP

1

Mill, thick, virgin

       

1

Mill, thick, RAP

2

No mill, thick, virgin

2

No mill, thin, RAP

1

Mill, thick, RAP

       

1

No mill, thick, RAP

2

Mill, thick, virgin

2

No mill, thick, virgin

4

No mill, thick RAP

       

4

Mill, thick, virgin

2

Mill, thin, virgin

2

Mill, thick RAP

4

No mill, thin, virgin

       

5

Mill, thin, RAP

2

No mill, thin, virgin

2

Mill, thin, RAP

4

Mill, thin virgin

       

5

Mill, thin, virgin

Note: Blank cells indicate that no preferred treatment was found.

 


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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