Skip to contentUnited States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration FHWA Home
Research Home   |   Pavements Home
REPORT
This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-12-023
Date: December 2012

 

Simplified Techniques for Evaluation and Interpretation of Pavement Deflections for Network-Level Analysis

APPENDIX E

Table 106. Information about the different States used in the analysis.

State

Section ID

AC Thickness (inches)

Mean Deflection (mils)

Standard Deviation

Length (mi)

Test Spacing (mi)

New Mexico

US70 EB

6

7.54

1.89

2.3

0.1

6.8

7.06

2.17

37.6

0.1

7

6.3

2.117

19.8

0.1

US70 WB

5.5

8.26

1.952

3.1

0.1

9.2

9.72

2.435

16.5

0.1

5

7.36

2.214

37.7

0.1

5.5

7.08

2.811

4.3

0.1

5.5

7.22

2.289

15.3

0.1

US550 NB

9.71

7.87

1.268

6.8

0.1

9.94

7.64

3.449

15.8

0.1

9.43

5.5

1.835

10.3

0.1

9.95

4.68

1.047

6.3

0.1

9.15

7.2

2.657

21.4

0.1

9.46

11.34

4.379

14

0.1

9.35

4.33

1.381

9.7

0.1

9.77

4.49

1.294

16.1

0.1

9.49

5.75

0.76

16.4

0.1

US550 SB

13.4

10.7

3.775

19.8

0.1

9.6

7.2

2.748

8.5

0.1

9.61

7

3.566

29.3

0.1

9.4

10.9

5.232

5.6

0.1

9.6

5.8

3.347

37.7

0.1

9.7

5.7

0.857

15.7

0.1

Oregon

I-5

 

7.151

2.421

0.9

0.1

OR38

 

10.442

3.728

8.65

0.1

US101

 

13.794

4.466

3.35

0.1

 

16.869

6.663

8.65

0.1

OR18

 

7.386

2.713

37

0.1

OR221

 

22.482

6.691

16.7

0.1

OR99E

 

6.948

2.272

2.2

0.1

 

7.192

2.553

2.2

0.1

 

9.402

4.075

9.85

0.1

US26

 

6.675

1.88

1.5

0.1

 

4.308

2.263

1.6

0.1

 

8.907

3.391

4.95

0.1

 

9.376

2.272

5.35

0.1

US97

 

8.9

2.945

4.25

0.1

Kansas

4

8

13.87

4.114

6.3

0.1

8

14.06

3.837

5.2

0.1

8.7

10.6

2.336

3.9

0.1

7.3

12.93

3.305

2.9

0.1

5.7

11.14

3.447

2.1

0.1

56

13

8.37

3.212

5.9

0.1

14.5

5.17

1.254

8.4

0.1

11.5

9.76

2.591

12.9

0.1

99

10.2

11.85

2.539

8.1

0.1

7.7

15.26

4.628

5.1

0.1

7.1

14.42

3.886

2.8

0.1

7

16.98

3.669

7.3

0.1

7.8

15.86

3.523

7.6

0.1

9.2

10.88

3.387

2.3

0.1

170

13.1

6.24

2.879

1.9

0.1

7.1

15.2

4.851

10.5

0.1

8.2

15.9

3.338

7.2

0.1

56

9

9.06

2.257

5.7

0.1

31

6.4

13.97

3.135

9.7

0.1

7.7

14.91

5.287

4.3

0.1

56

7.5

11.43

3.539

3.7

0.1

8.8

8.26

2.3

8.8

0.1

59

7.4

9.66

3.702

7.3

0.1

12

5.32

1.642

6.2

0.1

12.1

9.28

4.273

2.9

0.1

12.9

7

2.59

3.9

0.1

13.8

5.36

2.473

7.9

0.1

10.5

6.54

1.886

6.1

0.1

39

4.9

16.78

4.818

6.7

0.1

5

18.2

3.728

1.8

0.1

6.3

14.97

7.157

4.7

0.1

75

5

14.07

3.855

2.9

0.1

8.9

10.4

2.338

7.5

0.1

54

9.2

7.34

2.399

5.3

0.1

58

8

10.65

3.659

9.4

0.1

6.9

11.64

3.354

11.6

0.1

75

7.2

4.27

0.782

3.9

0.1

17.5

8.35

2.14

4.2

0.1

15.7

7.3

1.732

3.9

0.1

10.8

5.51

1.754

4.1

0.1

11.2

7.32

2.975

11.9

0.1

11.2

5.18

1.377

2.2

0.1

14.4

6.16

1.423

1.9

0.1

10.8

6.29

1.589

4.9

0.1

Note: Blank cells indicate that no thickness was available.
1 inch = 25.4 mm
1 µm = 0.039 mil
1 mile = 1.61 km

 

 

Table 107. Errors in percentage for 50, 70, and 80 percent reliability for section lengths up to 10 mi (16.1 km).

Probability

Length (mi)

Spacing (mi)

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

50 percent

1

8.98

11.77

14.27

16.57

18.72

20.75

22.69

24.55

26.34

2

6.39

8.34

10.06

11.64

13.12

14.51

15.84

17.11

18.33

3

5.24

6.81

8.20

9.47

10.66

11.77

12.84

13.85

14.83

4

4.55

5.90

7.09

8.18

9.20

10.15

11.06

11.92

12.76

5

4.08

5.28

6.34

7.30

8.20

9.05

9.85

10.61

11.35

6

3.73

4.82

5.78

6.66

7.47

8.23

8.96

9.65

10.32

7

3.46

4.46

5.35

6.15

6.90

7.60

8.27

8.91

9.52

8

3.24

4.17

5.00

5.75

6.44

7.10

7.72

8.31

8.88

9

3.05

3.93

4.71

5.41

6.07

6.68

7.26

7.81

8.35

10

2.90

3.73

4.46

5.13

5.75

6.33

6.87

7.40

7.90

70 percent

1

11.11

14.30

17.12

19.70

22.10

24.36

26.50

28.56

30.53

2

7.91

10.12

12.07

13.85

15.50

17.04

18.51

19.91

21.26

3

6.48

8.27

9.84

11.27

12.59

13.83

15.00

16.12

17.20

4

5.63

7.17

8.51

9.73

10.86

11.92

12.93

13.88

14.80

5

5.04

6.41

7.61

8.69

9.69

10.63

11.52

12.36

13.17

6

4.61

5.85

6.94

7.92

8.83

9.67

10.48

11.24

11.97

7

4.28

5.42

6.42

7.32

8.15

8.94

9.67

10.37

11.05

8

4.00

5.07

6.00

6.84

7.62

8.34

9.03

9.68

10.30

9

3.78

4.78

5.65

6.44

7.17

7.85

8.49

9.10

9.69

10

3.59

4.54

5.36

6.11

6.79

7.43

8.04

8.62

9.17

80 percent

1

12.39

15.83

18.85

21.59

24.14

26.54

28.81

30.99

33.07

2

8.82

11.21

13.29

15.18

16.93

18.57

20.13

21.61

23.03

3

7.23

9.16

10.83

12.35

13.76

15.07

16.32

17.50

18.63

4

6.28

7.93

9.37

10.67

11.87

13.00

14.06

15.07

16.03

5

5.63

7.10

8.37

9.53

10.59

11.58

12.52

13.42

14.27

6

5.15

6.48

7.64

8.68

9.65

10.55

11.40

12.20

12.97

7

4.77

6.00

7.07

8.03

8.91

9.74

10.52

11.26

11.97

8

4.47

5.61

6.61

7.50

8.32

9.09

9.82

10.51

11.16

9

4.22

5.29

6.22

7.06

7.84

8.56

9.24

9.88

10.50

10

4.00

5.02

5.90

6.70

7.42

8.10

8.75

9.36

9.94

1 mi = 1.61 km

 

 

Table 108. Errors in percentage for 90, 95, and 99.5 percent reliability for section lengths up to 10 mi (16.1 km).

Probability

Length (mi)

Spacing (mi)

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

90 percent

1

14.18

17.94

21.24

24.22

26.98

29.57

32.02

34.35

36.59

2

10.10

12.71

14.98

17.03

18.93

20.70

22.37

23.96

25.48

3

8.28

10.38

12.21

13.86

15.38

16.80

18.13

19.41

20.62

4

7.19

9.00

10.56

11.97

13.27

14.48

15.63

16.71

17.75

5

6.44

8.05

9.44

10.69

11.84

12.91

13.92

14.88

15.80

6

5.89

7.35

8.61

9.74

10.78

11.75

12.67

13.54

14.36

7

5.46

6.80

7.97

9.01

9.97

10.86

11.70

12.49

13.25

8

5.11

6.36

7.45

8.42

9.31

10.14

10.92

11.66

12.36

9

4.82

6.00

7.02

7.93

8.76

9.54

10.27

10.96

11.62

10

4.58

5.69

6.65

7.51

8.30

9.03

9.72

10.38

11.00

95 percent

1

15.65

19.69

23.21

26.39

29.32

32.07

34.66

37.13

39.50

2

11.15

13.95

16.37

18.56

20.57

22.45

24.22

25.90

27.51

3

9.14

11.40

13.35

15.10

16.72

18.22

19.64

20.98

22.27

4

7.93

9.87

11.55

13.05

14.43

15.71

16.92

18.07

19.16

5

7.11

8.83

10.32

11.65

12.87

14.01

15.08

16.09

17.06

6

6.50

8.07

9.41

10.62

11.72

12.75

13.72

14.64

15.51

7

6.03

7.47

8.71

9.82

10.83

11.78

12.67

13.51

14.31

8

5.64

6.99

8.14

9.17

10.12

11.00

11.82

12.60

13.35

9

5.33

6.59

7.67

8.64

9.53

10.35

11.12

11.86

12.55

10

5.06

6.25

7.27

8.19

9.03

9.80

10.53

11.22

11.88

99.5 percent

1

19.43

24.17

28.27

31.95

35.33

38.48

41.44

44.26

46.94

2

13.84

17.12

19.95

22.47

24.79

26.94

28.96

30.88

32.71

3

11.34

13.99

16.26

18.29

20.15

21.87

23.49

25.02

26.48

4

9.85

12.12

14.07

15.80

17.39

18.86

20.24

21.55

22.79

5

8.83

10.85

12.57

14.11

15.51

16.82

18.04

19.19

20.29

6

8.07

9.90

11.47

12.86

14.13

15.31

16.41

17.46

18.45

7

7.48

9.17

10.61

11.89

13.06

14.14

15.16

16.11

17.02

8

7.01

8.58

9.92

11.11

12.20

13.20

14.14

15.03

15.88

9

6.61

8.09

9.35

10.47

11.48

12.43

13.31

14.14

14.93

10

6.28

7.67

8.86

9.92

10.88

11.77

12.60

13.39

14.14

1 mi = 1.61 km

 

This graph shows a bar and line plot of the average error in deflection measurements in various roads in Kansas for a fixed spacing of  0.2 mi (0.322 km). The x-axis represents different section IDs, and the y-axis represents percentage of error from zero to 10 percent. The bars represent the percent error based on measured deflections, and the line represents the percent errors based on predicted deflections  for each section based on a 50 percent reliability level. Only 10 out of 44 percent error values from the measured deflections are higher than the corresponding values in the predicted deflections line.

Figure 106. Graph. Comparison between measured error and predicted error for all Kansas sections at 0.2-mi (0.322-km) spacing.

 

This graph shows a bar and line plot of the average error in deflection measurements in various roads in Kansas for a fixed spacing of 0.5 mi (0.805 km). The x-axis represents different section IDs, and the y-axis represents percentage of error from zero to 20 percent. The bars represent the percent error based on measured deflections, and the line represents the percent error based on predicted deflections for each section based on a 50 percent reliability level. Only 11 out of 44 percent error values from the measured deflections are higher than the corresponding values in the predicted deflections line.

Figure 107. Graph. Comparison between measured error and predicted error for all Kansas sections at 0.5-mi (0.805-km) spacing.

 

Graph shows a bar and line plot of the average error in deflection measurements in various roads in Kansas for a fixed spacing of 1 mi (1.61 km). The x-axis represents different section IDs, and the y-axis represents percentage of error from zero to 30 percent. The bars represent the percent error based on measured deflections, and the line represents the percent error based on predicted deflections for each section based on a 50 percent reliability level. Only 13 out of 44 percent error values from the measured deflections are higher than the corresponding values in the predicted deflections line.

Figure 108. Graph. Comparison between measured error and predicted error for all Kansas sections at 1-mi (1.61-km) spacing.

 

This graph shows is a bar and line plot of the average error in deflection measurements in various roads in Oregon for a fixed spacing of 0.2 mi (0.322 km). The x-axis represents 14 different section IDs, and the y-axis represents percentage of error from zero to 20 percent. The bars represent the percent error based on measured deflections, and the line represents the percent error based on predicted deflections for each section based on a 50 percent reliability level. Only 4 out of 14 percent error values from the measured deflections are higher than the corresponding values in the predicted deflections line.

Figure 109. Graph. Comparison between measured error and predicted error for all Oregon sections at 0.2-mi (0.322-km) spacing.

 

This graph shows is a bar and line plot of the average error in deflection measurements in various roads in Oregon for a fixed spacing of 0.5 mi (0.805 km). The x-axis represents 14 different section IDs, and the y-axis represents percentage of error from zero to 25 percent. The bars represent the percent error based on measured deflections, and the line represents the percent error based on predicted deflections for each section based on a 50 percent reliability level. Only 5 out of percent error14 values from the measured deflections are higher than the corresponding values in the predicted deflections line.

Figure 110. Graph. Comparison between measured error and predicted error for all Oregon sections at 0.5-mi (0.805-km) spacing.

 

This graph shows a bar and line plot of the average error in deflection measurements in various roads in Oregon for a fixed spacing of 1 mi (1.61 km). The x-axis represents 14 different section IDs, and the y-axis represents percentage of error from zero to 35 percent. The bars represent the percent error based on measured deflections, and the line represents the percent error based on predicted deflections for each section based on a 50 percent reliability level. Only 4 out of 14 percent error values from the measured deflections are higher than the corresponding values in the predicted deflections line.

Figure 111. Graph. Comparison between measured error and predicted error for all Oregon sections at 1-mi (1.61-km) spacing.

 


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
FHWA
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration