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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-12-035
Date: November 2012

 

Relating Ride Quality and Structural Adequacy for Pavement Rehabilitation/Design Decisions

APPENDIX A. DEFLECTION BELOW CENTER OF 9,000-LB LOAD AND SUBGRADE MODULUS PLOTS

A.1 GROUP 1 SECTIONS

A.1.1 Section 050119 (Arkansas)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050119 in Arkansas. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 15 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were March 15, 1994, and May 24, 2004 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the first date are higher than those on the final date at all test locations. The former range between 7 and 9 mil, and the latter range between 5 and 7 mil.

Figure 75. Graph. Deflection plot for section 050119 (Arkansas).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050119 in Arkansas. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were March 15, 1994, and May 24, 2004 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first and last dates are similar to each other at all test locations, ranging between 18 and 21 ksi.

Figure 76. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 050119 (Arkansas).

A.1.2 Section 480114 (Texas)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 480114 in Texas. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were November 17, 1997, and June 24, 2004 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the first and last dates are almost the same at all test locations, ranging between 5 and 7 mil.

Figure 77. Graph. Deflection plot for section 480114 (Texas).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance  Specific Pavement Study 1 section 480114 in Texas. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were November 17, 1997, and June 24, 2004 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are higher than those on the last date at all test locations, ranging between 39 and 50 ksi and between 35 and 42 ksi, respectively.

Figure 78. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 480114 (Texas).

A.1.3 Section 310113 (Nebraska)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 310113 in Nebraska. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were August 3, 1995, and October 14, 1999 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the first date are sometimes higher and sometimes lower than those on the final date. With a few exceptions, deflections range between 20 and 30 mil.

Figure 79. Graph. Deflection plot for section 310113 (Nebraska).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 310113 in Nebraska. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were August 3, 1995, and October 14, 1999 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first and last dates are similar to each other at all test locations, ranging between 12 and 18 ksi.

Figure 80. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 310113 (Nebraska).

A.1.4 Section 010102 (Alabama)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 010102 in Alabama. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were June 21, 1995, and April 29, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the final date are higher than those on the first date at all test locations, ranging between 20 and 40 mil and between 15 and 28 mil, respectively.

Figure 81. Graph. Deflection plot for section 010102 (Alabama).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 010102 in Alabama. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were June 21, 1995, and April 29, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are higher than those on the last date at all test locations, ranging between 27 and 40 ksi and between 17 and 30 ksi, respectively.

Figure 82. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 010102 (Alabama).

A.1.5 Section 390112 (Ohio)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 390112 in Ohio. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were November 6, 1996, and September 1, 2004 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the first and last date are almost the same at all test locations, ranging between 5 and 7 mil.

Figure 83. Graph. Deflection plot for section 390112 (Ohio).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 390112 in Ohio. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were November 6, 1996, and September 1, 2004 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are higher than those on the last date at all test locations, ranging between 22 and 30 ksi and between 15 and 19 ksi, respectively.

Figure 84. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 390112 (Ohio).

A.1.6 Section 040123 (Arizona)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 040123 in Arizona. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were February 16, 1994, and April 7, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the first and last date are almost the same at all test locations, ranging between 5 and 7 mil, especially for the last 300 ft of the section.

Figure 85. Graph. Deflection plot for section 040123 (Arizona).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 040123 in Arizona. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were February 16, 1994, and April 7, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are higher than those on the last date at all test locations, ranging between 37 and 57 ksi and between 22 and 40 ksi, respectively.

Figure 86. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 040123 (Arizona).

A.1.7 Section 190108 (Iowa)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190108 in Iowa. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were May 18, 1993, and June 27, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the final date are lower than those on the first date at all test locations, ranging between 8 and 10 mil and between 11 and 14 mil, respectively.

Figure 87. Graph. Deflection plot for section 190108 (Iowa).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190108 in Iowa. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were May 18, 1993, and June 27, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are slightly higher than those on the last date at all test locations, ranging between 18 and 
20 ksi and between 12 and 18 ksi, respectively.

Figure 88. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 190108 (Iowa).

A.2 GROUP 2 SECTIONS

A.2.1 Section 320101 (Nevada)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 320101 in Nevada. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were March 27, 1996, and August 28, 2006 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the first and last date are close to each other, ranging between 8 and 10 mil, but those for the final test date are slightly higher at more than half of the locations.

Figure 89. Graph. Deflection plot for section 320101 (Nevada).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 320101 in Nevada. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were March 27, 1996, and August 28, 2006 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are about the same or slightly lower than those on the last date at all test locations. Values for both test dates range between 25 and 20 mil.

Figure 90. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 320101 (Nevada).

A.2.2 Section 390106 (Nevada)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 390106 in Nevada. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were November 5, 1996, and July 15, 2008 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the final date are higher than those on the first date at all test locations, ranging between 5 and 6 mil and between 8 and 11 mil, respectively.

Figure 91. Graph. Deflection plot for section 390106 (Nevada).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 390106 in Nevada. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were November 5, 1996, and July 15, 2008 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are slightly higher than those on the last date at all test locations, ranging between 25 and 35 ksi and between 15 and 25 ksi, respectively.

Figure 92. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 390106 (Nevada).

A.3 GROUP 3 SECTIONS

A.3.1 Section 190101 (Iowa)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190101 in Iowa. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were August 3, 1995, and October 14, 1999 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the first and last date are almost the same at half the test locations, ranging between 13 and 16 mil. For the remainder of the section, the deflections on the final test date are sometimes higher and sometimes lower than the first date, with all values ranging between 11 and 20 mil.

Figure 93. Graph. Deflection plot for section 190101 (Iowa).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190101 in Iowa. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were May 19, 1993, and June 28, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are slightly higher than those on the last date at all test locations, ranging between 17 and 
20 ksi and between 14 and 16 ksi, respectively.

Figure 94. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 190101 (Iowa).

A.3.2 Section 190103 (Iowa)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190103 in Iowa. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were August 3, 1995, and October 13, 1999 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the final date are higher than those on the first date at all test locations, ranging between 8 and 12 mil and between 8 and 9 mil, respectively.

Figure 95. Graph. Deflection plot for section 190103 (Iowa).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 190103 in Iowa. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were May 19, 1993, and June 28, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are higher than those on the last date at all test locations, ranging between 19 and 24 ksi and between 10 and 18 ksi, respectively.

Figure 96. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 190103 (Iowa).

A.3.3 Section 050114 (Arkansas)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050114 in Arkansas. Deflection is on the y-axis 
ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were March 16, 1994, and May 12, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the final date are lower than those on the first date at all test locations, ranging between 7 and 9 mil and between 9 and 11 mil, respectively.

Figure 97. Graph. Deflection plot for section 050114 (Arkansas).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050114 in Arkansas. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were March 16, 1994, and May 12, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are slightly higher than those on the last date at all test locations, except the one at 350 ft. Deflections for the two test dates range between 20 and 30 mil.

Figure 98. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 050114 (Arkansas).

A.3.4 Section 050116 (Arkansas)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050116 in Arkansas. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 15 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were March 16, 1994, and May 11, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The deflections on the final date are higher than those on the first date at all test locations, ranging between 4 and 5 mil and between 2 and 4 mil, respectively.

Figure 99. Graph. Deflection plot for section 050116 (Arkansas).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for two test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 050116 in Arkansas. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were March 16, 1994, and May 11, 2005 (for a total of two plots). The subgrade moduli on the first date are slightly higher than those on the last date at all test locations. Deflections for the two test dates range between 20 and 30 mil.

Figure 100. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 050116 (Arkansas).

A.4 GROUP 4 SECTIONS

A.4.1 Section 040502 (Arizona)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for three test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 5 section 040502 in Arizona. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were January 18, 1990, before placement of overlay; October 3, 1991, immediately after placement of overlay; and September 15, 2008, final test date after the overlay (for a total of three plots). The deflections before placement of overlay are always higher than those on the other two test dates, ranging between 10 and 22 mil. The deflections on the final test date after the overlay are always higher than those immediately after placement of the overlay, ranging between 7 and 10 mil. The deflections immediately after placement of the overlay range between 5 and 7 mil.

Figure 101. Graph. Deflection plot for section 040502 (Arizona).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for three test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 040502 in Arizona. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were January 18, 1990, before placement of overlay; October 3, 1991,immediately after placement of overlay; and September 15, 2008, final test date after the overlay (for a total of three plots). The subgrade moduli on all three test dates are variable throughout the section with values ranging between 40 and 80 ksi. No test date shows consistently higher or lower values.

Figure 102. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 040502 (Arizona).

A.4.2 Section 240505 (Maryland)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for three test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 5 section 240505 in Maryland. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were February 20, 1992, before placement of overlay; August 25, 1992, immediately after placement of overlay; and April 7, 2009, final test date after the overlay (for a total of three plots). The deflections for all three test dates are similar in magnitude, ranging between 8 and 22 mil. The only exception is three test points before placement of the overlay that have higher deflections than those for the other two test dates, ranging between 20 and 30 mil.

Figure 103. Graph. Deflection plot for section 240505 (Maryland).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for three test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 240505 in Maryland. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were February 20, 1992, before placement of overlay; August 25, 1992, immediately after placement of overlay; and April 7, 2009, final test date after the overlay (for a total of three plots). The subgrade moduli on all three test dates are similar at all test locations, with values ranging between 6 and 19 ksi.

Figure 104. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 240505 (Maryland).

A.4.3 Section 270509 (Minnesota)

This graph shows deflections under the load center plots for three test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 5 section 270509 in Minnesota. Deflection is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 50 mil, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were July 22, 1990, before placement of overlay; November 6, 1990, immediately after placement of overlay; and June 7, 2005, final test date after the overlay (for a total of three plots). The deflections before placement of overlay are always higher than those on the other two test dates, ranging between 18 and 28 mil. The deflections on the final test date after the overlay are always higher than those immediately after placement of the overlay, ranging between 12 and 22 mil. The deflections immediately after placement of the overlay range between 9 and 13 mil.

Figure 105. Graph. Deflection plot for section 270509 (Minnesota).

This graph shows backcalculated subgrade moduli for three test dates for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Specific Pavement Study 1 section 270509 in Minnesota. Subgrade modulus is on the y-axis ranging from 0 to 100 ksi, and distance is on the x-axis ranging from 0 to 500 ft. The deflection test dates were July 22, 1990, before placement of overlay; November 6, 1990, immediately after placement of overlay; and June 7, 2005, final test date after the overlay (for a total of three plots). The subgrade moduli on all three test dates are similar at all test locations, with values ranging between 20 and 30 ksi.

Figure 106. Graph. Subgrade modulus plot for section 270509 (Minnesota).

 


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