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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-03-031
Date: JUNE 2003

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Distress Identification Manual for The LTPP (Fourth Revised Edition)

Chapter 3. Distresses for Pavements With Continuously Reinforced Concrete Surfaces

This section covers continuously reinforced concrete-surfaced pavements (CRCP), including continuously reinforced concrete overlays on PCC pavements. Each of the distresses has been grouped into one of the following categories:

  1. Cracking
  2. Surface Defects
  3. Miscellaneous Distresses

Table 3 summarizes the various types of distress and unit of measurement. Some distresses also have defined severity levels.

TABLE 3. Continuously Reinforced Concrete-Surfaced Pavement Distress Types

  DISTRESS TYPE UNIT OF MEASURE DEFINED SEVERITY LEVELS?
A. Cracking
 
1. Durability Cracking ("D" Cracking)
Number, Square Meters Yes
 
2. Longitudinal Cracking
Meters Yes
 
3. Transverse Cracking
Number, Meters Yes
B. Surface Defects
 
4a. Map Cracking
Number, Square Meters No
 
4b. Scaling
Number, Square Meters No
 
5. Polished Aggregate
Square Meters No
 
6. Popouts
Not Measured N/A
C. Miscellaneous Distress
 
7. Blowups
Number No
 
8. Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration
Number Yes
 
9. Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff
Millimeters No
 
10. Lane-to-Shoulder Separation
Millimeters No
 
11. Patch/Patch Deterioration
Number, Square Meters Yes
 
12. Punchouts
Number Yes
 
13. Spalling of Longitudinal Joints
Meters Yes
 
14. Water Bleeding and Pumping
Number, Meters No
 
15. Longitudinal Joint Seal Damage
Number, Meters No

A. Cracking

This section includes the following distresses:

  1. Durability Cracking ("D" Cracking)
  2. Longitudinal Cracking
  3. Transverse Cracking

1. DURABILITY CRACKING ("D" CRACKING)

Description

Closely spaced, crescent-shaped hairline cracking pattern.

Occurs adjacent to joints, cracks, or free edges. Initiates at the intersection, e.g., cracks and a free edge.

Dark coloring of the cracking pattern and surrounding area.

Severity Levels

LOW
"D" cracks are tight, with no loose or missing pieces, and no patching is in the affected area.

MODERATE
"D" cracks are well defined, and some small pieces are loose or have been displaced.

HIGH
"D" cracking has a well-developed pattern, with a significant amount of loose or missing material. Displaced pieces, up to 0.1 m2, may have been patched.

How to Measure
Record number of affected transverse cracks at each severity level and the square meters of area affected at each severity level. The transverse crack and affected area severity rating is based on the highest severity level present for at least 10 percent of the area affected.

 

FIGURE 90.  Distress Type CRCP 1 - Durability Cracking (D Cracking)
Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 1 - durability cracking (D Cracking).  The drawing shows a lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  There are five  transverse cracks that extend across the lane.  At both ends of the crack where they meet the center line joint and the edge joint, there are 3 to 6 closely-spaced, crescent-shaped hairline cracks on both sides of the transverse crack.

FIGURE 90


Distress Type CRCP 1—Durability Cracking ("D" Cracking)

 

FIGURE 91.  Distress Type CRCP 1 - Moderate Severity D Cracking at Transverse Crack
Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 1 - moderate severity D Cracking at transverse crack.  There are multiple closely-spaced, crescent-shaped hairline cracks surrounding all sides of the transverse crack where it meets the pavement joint.

FIGURE 91
Distress Type CRCP 1—Moderate Severity "D" Cracking at Transverse Crack

 

FIGURE 92.  Distress Type CRCP 1 - High Severity D Cracking at Longitudinal Joint
Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 1 - high severity D Cracking at longitudinal joint.  There are multiple closely-spaced, crescent-shaped hairline cracks surrounding the center pavement joint on both sides for the entire length of the lane visible in the photograph.

FIGURE 92
Distress Type CRCP 1—High Severity "D" Cracking at Longitudinal Joint

 

2. LONGITUDINAL CRACKING

Description

Cracks that are predominantly parallel to the pavement centerline.

Severity Levels

LOW
Crack widths < 3 mm, no spalling, and there is no measurable faulting; or well sealed and with a width that cannot be determined.

MODERATE
Crack widths ³ 3 mm and < 13 mm; or with spalling < 75 mm; or faulting up to 13 mm.

HIGH
Crack widths ³ 13 mm; or with spalling ³ 75 mm; or faulting ³ 13 mm.

How to Measure

Record length in meters of longitudinal cracking at each severity level. Also record length in meters of longitudinal cracking with sealant in good condition at each severity level.

 

FIGURE 93.  Distress Type CRCP 2 - Longitudinal Cracking, Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 2 - longitudinal cracking.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth along the width of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  There are three transverse cracks across the width of the lane from the center line to the edge stripe.  There is one longitudinal crack in the inner wheel path that extends through approximately half the length of the lane and is intersected at its midpoint by one of the transverse cracks.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing shows two spalled areas from the longitudinal crack.  Vertical lines and arrows at the widest point of the spalls indicate the area that should be measured to determine spall width.  The lane in the lower part of the drawing shows the location of the two spalled areas in the longitudinal crack, each one on the opposite side of and approximately equidistant to the center transverse crack.

FIGURE 93
Distress Type CRCP 2—Longitudinal Cracking

 

FIGURE 94.  Distress Type CRCP 2 - Low Severity Longitudinal Cracking
Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 2 - low severity longitudinal cracking.  The center of the lane has a longitudinal crack that extends for the entire length of the lane visible in the photograph.  The crack is approximately 3 mm wide and 3 m long, as indicated by the 500-mm scale in the center of the photograph.  There is no evident spalling or faulting associated with the crack.

Figure 94
Distress Type CRCP 2—Low Severity Longitudinal Cracking

 

FIGURE 95.  Distress Type CRCP 2 - High Severity Longitudinal Cracking
Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 2 - high severity longitudinal cracking.  The lane has two longitudinal cracks that extend for the entire length of the lane visible in the photograph: one along the center line that is approximately 15-25 mm wide, and the second in the outer wheel path that is approximately 30-75 mm wide with associated spalling, faulting, and pothole formation.

FIGURE 95
Distress Type CRCP 2—High Severity Longitudinal Cracking

 

3. TRANSVERSE CRACKING

Description

Cracks that are predominantly perpendicular to the pavement centerline. This cracking is expected in a properly functioning CRCP. All transverse cracks that intersect an imaginary longitudinal line at midlane, and propagate from the pavement edges, shall be counted as individual cracks, as illustrated below.

Cracks that do not cross midlane are not counted.

Severity Levels

LOW
Cracks that are not spalled or with spalling along £ 10 percent of the crack length.

MODERATE
Cracks with spalling along > 10 percent and £ 50 percent of the crack length.

HIGH
Cracks with spalling along > 50 percent of the crack length.

 

FIGURE 96.  Distress Type CRCP 3 - Transverse Cracking, Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 3 - transverse cracking.  The drawing shows a lane as it would be viewed from above with a dashed line (indicating an imaginary line) through the middle of the lane.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  Five areas of transverse cracking, predominantly perpendicular to the center line, are depicted that show the method for determining the number of cracks to be recorded (which are only those that cross the imaginary line down the middle of the lane.  The first area has 3 interconnecting cracks but only 2 that intersect the imaginary line, so 2 is the number of cracks recorded.  The second area has 3 interconnecting cracks with all 3 intersecting the imaginary line, so 3 is the number of cracks recorded.  The third area has 1 crack that intersects the imaginary line, so 1 is the number of cracks recorded.  The fourth area has 2 interconnecting cracks but only 1 that intersect the imaginary line, so 1 is the number of cracks recorded.  The fifth area has 2 interconnecting cracks  that both intersect the imaginary line, so 2 is the number of cracks recorded.

FIGURE 96
Distress Type CRCP 3—Transverse Cracking

 

FIGURE 97.  Distress Type CRCP 3 - Transverse Cracking Pattern,Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 3 - transverse cracking pattern. A lane of pavement is depicted that has nine transverse cracks that extend from the center line to the lane edge.  No significant spalling is evident.

FIGURE 97
Distress Type CRCP 3—Transverse Cracking Pattern

How to Measure

Record separately the number and length in meters of transverse cracking at each severity level. The sum of all the individual crack lengths shall be recorded. Then record the total number of transverse cracks within the survey section.

Note: Cracks that do not cross midlane, although not counted, should be drawn on the map sheets.

 

FIGURE 98.  Distress Type CRCP 3 - Low Severity Transverse Cracking, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 3 - low severity transverse cracking.  Two lanes of pavement are depicted, and the lane in the foreground has a transverse crack  from the inner wheel path to the lane edge.  The crack is approximately 12 mm wide, as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph, with no evident spalling.

FIGURE 98
Distress Type CRCP 3—Low Severity Transverse Cracking

 

FIGURE 99.  Distress Type CRCP 3 - Moderate Severity Transverse Cracking, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 3 - moderate severity transverse cracking. Three lanes of pavement are depicted, and there is a continuous transverse crack that extends across the width of the two lanes in the foreground.  The crack is approximately 25 mm wide, as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph, with spalling along approximately 25% of the crack length.

FIGURE 99
Distress Type CRCP 3—Moderate Severity Transverse Cracking

 

FIGURE 100.  Distress Type CRCP 3 - High Severity Transverse Cracking, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 3 - high severity transverse cracking.  One lane of pavement is depicted, and there are 3 continuous transverse cracks that extend across the width of the lane.  Two of the cracks are approximately 25 mm wide, with spalling along approximately 40% of the crack length.  The third crack is the high severity transverse crack; it is approximately 75 mm wide, with spalled areas across approximately 95% of the crack length up to approximately 300 mm wide.

FIGURE 100
Distress Type CRCP 3—High Severity Transverse Cracking

 

B. Surface Defects

This section includes the following:

4a. Map Cracking
4b. Scaling
5. Polished Aggregate
6. Popouts

 

4. MAP CRACKING AND SCALING

4a. MAP CRACKING

Description

A series of cracks that extend only into the upper surface of the slab. Larger cracks frequently are oriented in the longitudinal direction of the pavement and are interconnected by finer transverse or random cracks.

Severity Levels

Not applicable.

How to Measure

Record the number of occurrences and the square meters of affected area. When an entire section is affected with map cracking, it should be considered one occurrence.

4b. SCALING

Description

Scaling is the deterioration of the upper concrete slab surface, normally 3 mm to 13 mm, and may occur anywhere over the pavement.

Severity Levels

Not applicable.

How to Measure

Record the number of occurrences and the square meters of affected area.

 

FIGURE 101.  Distress Type CRCP 4a - Map Cracking Attributable to Alkali-Silica Reactivity (ASR), Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 4a - map cracking attributable to alkali-silica reactivity (ASR).  The focus of the picture is on one lane of a two-lane road, where a series of cracks in the upper surface of the slab are visible.  The cracks are generally longitudinal with finer interconnecting transverse and random cracks.  The cracking is attributable to alkali-silica reactive aggregate in the pavement.

FIGURE 101
Distress Type CRCP 4a—Map Cracking Attributable to Alkali-Silica Reactivity

 

FIGURE 102.  Distress Type CRCP 4b - Scaling, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 4b - scaling.  Deterioration is evident throughout the surface of the pavement, with the smooth surface worn away in varying degrees to expose the rougher aggregate layer.

FIGURE 102
Distress Type CRCP 4b—Scaling

5. POLISHED AGGREGATE

Description

Surface mortar and texturing worn away to expose coarse aggregate.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. However, the degree of polishing may be reflected in a reduction of surface friction.

How to Measure

Record square meters of affected surface area.

NOTE: Diamond grinding also removes the surface mortar and texturing. However, this condition should not be recorded as polished aggregate but instead should be noted by a comment.

FIGURE 103.  Distress Type CRCP 5 - Polished Aggregate, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 5 - polished aggregate.  The photo shows a pavement surface in which the binder has worn away to expose coarse aggregate.

FIGURE 103
Distress Type CRCP 5—Polished Aggregate

6. POPOUTS

Description

Small pieces of pavement broken loose from the surface, normally ranging in diameter from 25 mm to 100 mm and depth from 13 mm to 50 mm.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. However, severity levels can be defined in relation to the intensity of popouts as measured below.

How to Measure

Not recorded in LTPP surveys.

 

FIGURE 104.  Distress Type CRCP 6 - Popouts, Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 6 - popouts.    The drawing shows a lane of a pavement surface, as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  Twenty-six popouts are located at irregular intervals throughout the lane.  There are also two close-up diagrams of popout areas 1 and 2 in the lane.  Area 1 displays the method for measuring the size of popouts, and contains 2 measurable popouts that are greater than 25 mm in size and 1 non-measurable popout that is less than 25 mm in size.  Vertical lines and arrows at the widest point of the popout indicate the area that should be measured.  Area 2 displays the method for determining the count that is representative of the section by showing a 1 m square area with 2 popouts, indicating that there are 2 popouts per square meter.

FIGURE 104
Distress Type CRCP 6—Popouts

 

FIGURE 105.  Distress Type CRCP 6 - Popouts,  Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 6 - popouts.  The area of the pavement pictured is approximately 500 mm long, as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph.  There are several popouts visible in the photograph that are approximately 25-50 mm in diameter, and 15-25 mm in depth.

FIGURE 105
Distress Type CRCP 6—Popouts

C. Miscellaneous Distresses

This section includes the following distresses:

7. Blowups
8. Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration
9. Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff
10. Lane-to-Shoulder Separation
11. Patch/Patch Deterioration
12. Punchouts
13. Spalling of Longitudinal Joints
14. Water Bleeding and Pumping
15. Longitudinal Joint Seal Damage

 

7. BLOWUPS

Description

Localized upward movement of the pavement surface at transverse joints or cracks, often accompanied by shattering of the concrete in that area.

Severity Levels

Not applicable.

However, severity levels can be defined by the relative effect of a blowup on ride quality and safety.

How to Measure

Record number of blowups.

 

FIGURE 106.  Distress Type CRCP 7 - Blowups, Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 7 - blowups.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth along the length of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing shows that the pavement structure has been completed broken apart in 3 places to form 2 sections of pavement that are no longer level with the rest of the pavement structure.  The edges of the broken sections have localized upward movement at the joint.  The lane in the lower part of the drawing shows that the same two blowups extend across the entire lane from the edge joint to the center line joint.  There are also 4 transverse cracks from the edge joint to the center line joint.

FIGURE 106
Distress Type CRCP 7—Blowups

 

FIGURE 107.  Distress Type CRCP 7 - A Blowup, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 7 - a blowup. A blowup with significant shattering of the concrete across two lanes is pictured.  There is upward movement of the pavement, especially at the line between the two lanes, and a large amount of loose pieces of concrete scattered across the pavement surface.

FIGURE 107
Distress Type CRCP 7—A Blowup

 

FIGURE 108.  Distress Type CRCP 7 - Close-UpView of a Blowup, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 7 - close-up view of a blowup.  A close-up view of a blowup with significant shattering of the concrete is pictured.  There is upward movement of the pavement, and loose pieces of concrete on the pavement surface.

FIGURE 108
Distress Type CRCP 7—Close-up View of a Blowup

 

FIGURE 109.  Distress Type CRCP 7 - Exposed Steel in a Blowup, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 7 - exposed steel in a blowup.  A close-up view of a blowup with significant shattering of the concrete and exposure of the steel mesh reinforcement is pictured.  There is upward movement of the pavement, and loose pieces of concrete on the pavement surface.

FIGURE 109
Distress Type CRCP 7—Exposed Steel in a Blowup

 

8. TRANSVERSE CONSTRUCTION JOINT DETERIORATION

Description

Series of closely spaced transverse cracks or a large number of interconnecting cracks occurring near the construction joint.

Severity Levels

LOW
No spalling or faulting within 0.6 m of construction joint.

MODERATE
Spalling < 75 mm exists within 0.6 m of construction joint.

HIGH
Spalling ³ 75 mm and breakup exists within 0.6 m of construction joint.

How to Measure

Record number of construction joints at each severity level.

 

FIGURE 110.  Distress Type CRCP 8 - Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration, Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 8 - transverse construction joint deterioration.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth along the length of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom, and with a construction joint across the width of the lane.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The upper lane diagram shows the method for determining the area around the construction joint where any spalling or faulting should be recorded; vertical lines and arrows indicate the points that should be measured to determine this area that is within 0.6 m of the construction joint.  The lower lane diagram shows the construction joint across the entire lane, with spalling throughout approximately 65% of its length.  There are also 4 transverse cracks from the edge joint to the center line joint.

FIGURE 110
Distress Type CRCP 8—Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration

 

FIGURE 111.  Distress Type CRCP 8 - Low Severity Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 8 - low severity transverse construction joint deterioration.  A construction joint across one lane from the edge joint to the center line joint is pictured; there is no spalling or faulting within 0.6 m of the joint.  There is also a transverse crack across the entire lane, but it is approximately 0.8 m from the joint, as indicated by the 500-mm scale in the center of the photograph, and is not recorded as joint deterioration.

FIGURE 111
Distress Type CRCP 8—Low Severity Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration

FIGURE 112.  Distress Type CRCP 8 - Moderate Severity Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 8 - moderate severity transverse construction joint deterioration.  A construction joint across one lane from the edge joint to the center line joint is pictured; there are areas where spalling of approximately 50 mm is located within 0.6 m of the joint.

FIGURE 112
Distress Type CRCP 8—Moderate Severity Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration

 

FIGURE 113.  Distress Type CRCP 8 - Low Severity Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 8 - low  severity transverse construction joint deterioration.  A construction joint across one lane from the edge joint to the center line joint is pictured; there is no spalling or faulting within 0.6 m of the joint.  There is also a transverse crack across the entire lane, but it is approximately 1.0 m from the joint, as indicated by the 500-mm scale at the bottom of the photograph, and is not recorded as joint deterioration.

FIGURE 113
Distress Type CRCP 8— Low Severity Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration

 

9. LANE-TO-SHOULDER DROPOFF

Description

Difference in elevation between the edge of slab and outside shoulder;typically occurs when the outside shoulder settles.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. Severity levels could be defined by categorizing the measurements taken. A complete record of the measurements taken is much more desirable, however, because it is more accurate and repeatable than are severity levels.

How to Measure

Measure at the longitudinal construction joint between the lane edge and the shoulder.

Record in millimeters to the nearest millimeter at 15.25-m intervals along the lane-to-shoulder joint.

If the traveled surface is lower than the shoulder, record as a negative (-) value.

 

FIGURE 114.  Distress Type CRCP 9 - Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff, Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 9 - lane-to-shoulder dropoff.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth across the width of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing outlines how to measure dropoff, the difference in elevation between the edge of the slab and the outside shoulder.  Horizontal lines and arrows at the longitudinal construction joint between the lane edge and the shoulder indicate the area that should be measured.  The lower part of the drawing shows the area of the lane being measured.

FIGURE 114
Distress Type CRCP 9—Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff

 

FIGURE 115.  Distress Type CRCP 9 - Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 9 - lane-to-shoulder dropoff.  A dropoff from the lane edge to the shoulder is indicated by a space of approximately 25 mm visible underneath a six-ft. straightedge measure laid across the road edge.

FIGURE 115
Distress Type CRCP 9—Lane-to- Shoulder Dropoff

 

10. LANE-TO-SHOULDER SEPARATION

Description

Widening of the joint between the edge of the slab and the shoulder.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. Severity levels could be defined by categorizing the measurements taken. A complete record of the measurements taken is much more desirable, however, because it is more accurate and repeatable than are severity levels.

How to Measure

Record in millimeters to the nearest millimeter at intervals of 15.25 m along the lane-to-shoulder joint and indicate whether the joint is well-sealed (yes or no) at each location. Note: A null value ("N") should be recorded and entered into the database when the surveyor is unable to take a measurement due to an anomaly such as sealant or patch material.

 

FIGURE 116.  Distress Type CRCP 10 - Lane-to-Shoulder Separation, Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 10 - lane-to-shoulder separation.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth across the width of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing outlines how to measure separation, the space between the lane and the  shoulder pavement.  Vertical lines and arrows at the lane-to-shoulder joint indicate the area that should be measured.  The lower part of the drawing shows the area of the lane being measured.

FIGURE 116
Distress Type CRCP 10—Lane-to-Shoulder Separation

 

FIGURE 117.  Distress Type CRCP 10 - Close-Up View of a Lane-to-Shoulder Separation,

FIGURE 117
Distress Type CRCP 10—Close-up View of a Lane-to-Shoulder Separation

11. PATCH/PATCH DETERIORATION

Description

A portion, greater than 0.1 m2, or all of the original concrete slab that has been removed and replaced, or additional material applied to the pavement after original construction.

Severity Levels

LOW
Patch has, at most, low severity distress of any type; and no measurable faulting or settlement; pumping is not evident.

MODERATE
Patch has moderate severity distress of any type; or faulting or settlement up to 6 mm; pumping is not evident.

HIGH
Patch has a high severity distress of any type; or faulting or settlement ³ 6 mm; pumping may be evident.

 

FIGURE 118.  Distress Type CRCP 11 - Patch/Patch Deterioration, Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 11 - patch/patch deterioration.  The drawing shows a lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  Two rectangular patches are depicted: the first is an asphalt concrete patch that extends across approximately 65% of the lane width; the second is a portland cement concrete patch that extends across the width of the lane and has been reinforced with new transverse construction joints at both ends (The second patch is also known as a panel replacement because it extends from the edge joint to the center line joint).  There is also a small round asphalt concrete patch in the middle of the lane, but because it occupies less than 0.1 square m, it is not considered a patch.

FIGURE 118
Distress Type CRCP 11—Patch/Patch Deterioration

 

FIGURE 119.  Distress Type CRCP 11 - Small, Low Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 11 - small, low severity asphalt concrete patch.  The oblong-shaped patch is approximately 450 mm wide and 600 mm long, as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph.  No faulting, settlement, or pumping is evident.

FIGURE 119
Distress Type CRCP 11—Small, Low Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch

How to Measure

Record number of patches and square meters of affected surface area at each severity level, recorded separately by material type—rigid versus flexible.

Note: Panel replacement shall be rated as a patch. Any sawn joints shall be considered construction joints and rated separately. All patches are rated regardless of location.

 

FIGURE 120.  Distress Type CRCP 11 - Low Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 11 - low severity asphalt concrete patch.  The rectangular patch extends from the center line joint through the inner wheel path.  No faulting, settlement, or pumping is evident.

FIGURE 120
Distress Type CRCP 11—Low Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch

 

FIGURE 121.  Distress Type CRCP 11 - Moderate Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 11 - moderate severity asphalt concrete patch.  The rounded patch, located at the center line joint, is approximately 500 mm in diameter as indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph.  Faulting and settlement up to approximately 6 mm is visible, but no pumping is evident.

FIGURE 121
Distress Type CRCP 11—Moderate Severity Asphalt Concrete Patch

 

FIGURE 122.  Distress Type CRCP 11 - Low Severity Portland Cement Concrete Patch, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 11 - low severity portland cement concrete patch.  Two rectangular patches extend across the lane width from the center line joint to the edge joint.  There are also 2 smaller rectangular patched areas on the opposite side of the pavement joint, directly on the center line stripe.  No measurable faulting or other deterioration is evident.

FIGURE 122
Distress Type CRCP 11—Low Severity Portland Cement Concrete Patch

12. PUNCHOUTS

Description

The area enclosed by two closely spaced (usually < 0.6 m) transverse cracks, a short longitudinal crack, and the edge of the pavement or a longitudinal joint. Also includes "Y" cracks that exhibit spalling, breakup, or faulting.

Severity Levels

LOW
Longitudinal and transverse cracks are tight and may have spalling < 75 mm or faulting < 6 mm with no loss of material and no patching. Does not include "Y" cracks.

MODERATE
Spalling ³ 75 mm and < 150 mm or faulting ³ 6 mm and < 13 mm exists.

HIGH
Spalling ³ 150 mm, or concrete within the punchout is punched down by ³ 13 mm or is loose and moves under traffic or is broken into two or more pieces or contains patch material.

 

FIGURE 123.  Distress Type CRCP 12 - Punchouts, Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 12 - punchouts.  The drawing shows a lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  There are illustrations of how to identify three types of punchouts.  The first is a single punchout, in which 2 parallel transverse cracks have been intersected by a longitudinal crack to form the rectangular area next to the pavement edge called a punchout.  The second is a "Y" crack with spalling and/or faulting, in which a transverse crack splits and branches into 2 cracks that meet the pavement edge at separate points, forming a Y-shaped area.  The third is an area of 3 interconnected punchouts, in which 4 parallel transverse cracks have been intersected by a longitudinal crack to form 3 rectangular punchout areas next to the pavement edge.

FIGURE 123
Distress Type CRCP 12—Punchouts

 

FIGURE 124.  Distress Type CRCP 12 - Low Severity Punchout, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 12 - low severity punchout.  A single punchout is pictured, in which 2 parallel transverse cracks have been intersected by a longitudinal crack to form the rectangular area next to the pavement joint.  Small areas with spalling up to approximately 25 mm are evident, as indicated by the 500-mm scale in the center of the photograph.

FIGURE 124
Distress Type CRCP 12—Low Severity

 

How to Measure

Record number of punchouts at each severity level.

The cracks which outline the punchout are also recorded under "Longitudinal Cracking" (CRCP 2) and "Transverse Cracking" (CRCP 3).

Punchouts that have been repaired by completely removing all broken pieces and replacing them with patching material (rigid or flexible) should be rated as a patch. If the boundaries of the punchout are visible, then also rate as a high severity punchout.

Note: Areas between two transverse cracks spaced greater than 0.6 m but less than or equal to 1 m apart, and bounded by the edge of pavement (or longitudinal joint) and a longitudinal crack, are rated as punchouts if the cracks are exhibiting spalling, or the area is breaking up or faulting.

 

FIGURE 125.  Distress Type CRCP 12 - Moderate Severity Punchout, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 12 - moderate severity punchout.  A single punchout is pictured, in which 2 parallel transverse cracks have been intersected by a longitudinal crack to form the rectangular area next to the pavement joint.  Areas with spalling up to approximately 75 mm and faulting up to approximately 12 mm are evident, as indicated by the 500-mm scale in the center of the photograph.

FIGURE 125
Distress Type CRCP 12—Moderate Severity Punchout

 

FIGURE 126.  Distress Type CRCP 12 - High Severity Punchout, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 12 - high severity punchout.  An area of punchouts is pictured, in which 2 parallel transverse cracks have been intersected by several longitudinal cracks to form rectangular areas next to the pavement joint.  There is significant spalling and loss of concrete, and some pieces of the surface are loose.

FIGURE 126
Distress Type CRCP 12—High Severity Punchout

 

13. SPALLING OF LONGITUDINAL JOINTS

Description

Cracking, breaking, chipping, or fraying of slab edges within 0.3 m of the longitudinal joint.

Severity Levels

LOW
Spalls < 75 mm wide, measured to the face of the joint, with loss of material or spalls with no loss of material and no patching.

MODERATE
Spalls 75 mm to 150 mm wide, measured to the face of the joint, with loss of material.

HIGH
Spalls > 150 mm wide measured to the face of the joint, with loss of material or is broken into two or more pieces or contains patch material.

 

CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE SURFACES

 

FIGURE 127.  Distress Type CRCP 13 - Spalling of Longitudinal Joints, Schematic drawing of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 13 - spalling of longitudinal joints.  The drawing shows two lanes of a pavement surface; the upper lane as it would be viewed in depth along the width of the lane, and the lower lane as it would be viewed from above with a jointed center line in the middle and edge joint and shoulder at the bottom, and with seven construction joints across the width of the lane.  An arrow indicates that the traffic moves toward the right side of the drawing.  The lane in the upper part of the drawing shows one spalled area with two cracks along the joint, and one cracked area that is 0.3 m from the center line joint.  Vertical lines and arrows at the widest point of the spalls and cracks in both lanes indicate the area that should be measured to determine spall width and crack distance from the center line joint.  The lane in the lower part of the drawing shows the same spalled and cracked areas that extend along the length of the center line joint.  There is another smaller crack along the center line joint; a note indicates that this, as well as the least severe area of the spall, are not counted because they are outside the section limits.

FIGURE 127
Distress Type CRCP 13—Spalling of Longitudinal Joints

How to Measure

Record length in meters of longitudinal joint spalling at each severity level.

Only record spalls having a length of 0.1 m or more. Spalls that have been repaired by completely removing all broken pieces and replacing them with patching material (rigid or flexible) should be rated as a patch. If the boundaries of the spall are visible, then also rate as a high severity spall.

Note: All patches meeting size criteria are rated as patches.

 

FIGURE 128.  Distress Type CRCP 13 - Close-Up View of Low Severity Spalling of a Longitudinal Joint, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 13 - close-up view of low severity spalling of a longitudinal joint.  As indicated by the 500-mm scale pictured in the center of the photograph, the spalled area at the pavement joint extends approximately 50 mm with loss of some material.

FIGURE 128
Distress Type CRCP 13—Close-up View of Low Severity Spalling of a Longitudinal Joint

 

FIGURE 129.  Distress Type CRCP 13 - Low Severity Spalling of a Longitudinal Joint, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 13 - low severity spalling of a longitudinal joint.  The spalled areas at the pavement joint, with widths up to approximately 25 mm, extend along approximately 50% of its length with loss of some material.

FIGURE 129
Distress Type CRCP 13— Low Severity Spalling of a Longitudinal Joint

 

FIGURE 130.  Distress Type CRCP 13 - Moderate Severity Spalling of a Longitudinal Joint,

FIGURE 130
Distress Type CRCP 13—Moderate Severity Spalling of a Longitudinal Joint

14. WATER BLEEDING AND PUMPING

Description

Seeping or ejection of water from beneath the pavement through cracks or joints. In some cases detectable by deposits of fine material left on the pavement surface, which were eroded (pumped) from the support layers and have stained the surface.

Severity Levels

Not applicable. Severity levels are not used because the amount and degree of water bleeding and pumping changes with varying moisture conditions.

How to Measure

Record the number of occurrences of water bleeding and pumping and the length in meters of affected pavement with a minimum length of 1 m.

Note: The combined quantity of water bleeding and pumping cannot exceed the length of the test section.

 

FIGURE 131.  Distress Type CRCP 14 - Water Bleeding and Pumping, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 14 - water bleeding and pumping.  The photo shows a pavement shoulder surface stained by water and mud that have seeped up from beneath the pavement through the joints.

FIGURE 131
Distress Type CRCP 14—Water Bleeding and Pumping

FIGURE 132.  Distress Type CRCP 14 - Close-Up View of Water Bleeding and Pumping, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 14 - close-up view of water bleeding and pumping.  The photo shows a close-up view of a pavement edge surface stained by water and mud that have seeped up from beneath the pavement through an edge crack.

FIGURE 132
Distress Type CRCP 14—Close-up View of Water Bleeding and Pumping

 

15. LONGITUDINAL JOINT SEAL DAMAGE

Description

Joint seal damage is any condition that enables incompressible materials or a significant amount of water to infiltrate into the joint from the surface. Typical types of joint seal damage are:

Extrusion, hardening, adhesive failure (bonding), cohesive failure (splitting), or complete loss of sealant.

Intrusion of foreign material in the joint.

Weed growth in the joint.

Severity Levels

Not applicable.

How to Measure

Record number of longitudinal joints that are sealed (0, 1, 2). Record length of sealed longitudinal joints with joint seal damage as described above. Individual occurrences are recorded only when at least 1 m in length.

 

FIGURE 133.  Distress Type CRCP 15 - Longitudinal Joint Seal Damage, Color photograph of continuously reinforced concrete pavement with distress type CRCP 15 - longitudinal joint seal damage.  The picture is a close-up view of approximately 250 mm of the length of a longitudinal joint.  There is a loss of sealant to a depth of approximately 25 mm, as indicated by the 500-mm scale in the center of the photograph.

FIGURE 133
Distress Type CRCP 15—Longitudinal Joint Seal Damage

 

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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