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This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-01-163
Date: March 2002

Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treatment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pavements Volume 1

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Submitted to:
Federal Highway Administration
Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101

Submitted by:
Michigan Tech Transportation Institute
Michigan Technological University
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
1400 Townsend Drive
Houghton, Michigan 49931
Applied Pavement Technology
3001 Research Road, Suite C
Champaign, IL 61822

March 2002


Executive Summary

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1Project Description
1.2 Objectives
1.3Scope of Work
1.4 Report Organization

Chapter 2. MRD in Concrete Pavements

2.1 Background
2.2 Types of MRD

Deterioration Due to Physical Mechanisms

Deterioration Due to Chemical Mechanisms

2.3 Advisory Guidelines

Chapter 3. Development of Advisory Guidelines

3.1 Background for Field Distress survey, Sampling, and Sample Handling Procedures

Review of Selected Distress Survey Methodologies

Procedures Adopted for a Distress Survey of MRD Affected Concrete Pavement

3.2Background for Laboratory and Data Interpretation Procedures

Review of Laboratory Procedures for Investigation of Concrete Deterioration

Recommended Laboratory Procedures for Investigation of MRD in Concrete Pavements

Background to Data Analysis and Interpretation of MRD in Concrete Pavements

Approach to Data Analysis and Interpretation

3.3 Background for Treatment and Prevention of MRD in Concrete Pavements

Background on Treatment and Rehabilitation Methods

Approach for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Concrete Pavements Affected by MRD

Background on the Prevention of MRD in Concrete Pavements

Recommended Approach for Prevention of MRD in Concrete Pavements

Chapter 4. Evaluation of the Field and Laboratory Guidelines

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Project Selection Process
4.3 Field Data Collection and Laboratory Testing

Field Distress Data Collection

Pavement Coring and Sampling

Laboratory Analysis

Chapter 5. Summary And Conclusions

Appendix A: Distress Mechanisms

A.1 Deterioration Due to Physical Mechanisms

A.2 Deterioration Due to Chemical Attack Mechanisms.



1. Fundamental process for analyzing a concrete MRD sample
1-1. Flow of guidelines for identification, treatment, and prevention of MRD
1-2. SHRP LTPP distress symbols for jointed concrete pavements (JCP)
1-3. SHRP LTPP distress symbols for continuously reinforced concrete pavements (CRCP)
1-4. Example SHRP LTPP survey form
1-5. Example PCI sample unit inspection form
1-6. Fundamental process for analyzing a concrete MRD sample
1-7. Effect of treatment with LiOH solution
1-8. Effect of various lithium treatments
1-9. Flowchart for selecting preferred treatment and rehabilitation options
1-10. A holistic model of concrete deterioration from environmental effects.
1-11. General location of projects included in study
A-1. The electrochemical process of steel corrosion


1. Summary of key MRDs in concrete pavements.
1-1. Summary of key MRDs.
1-2. SHRP LTPP distress types for PCC pavements.
1-3. PCI distress types for PCC roads.
1-4. Simplified ACI survey checklist.
1-5. ASTM sampling standards for concrete and concrete-making materials.
1-6. Effect of overlay thickness on freeze-thaw cycling.
1-7. Available treatment and rehabilitation options.
1-8. Recommended air contents for freeze-thaw distress resistant concrete.
1-9. Minimum moist curing times for scaling resistance.
1-10. Recommendations
1-11. Improvement in sulfate resistance versus the R-factor.
1-12. Primary and secondary test sites included in study.
1-13. Standard photographs taken for each project.
A-1. Preliminary definitions of forms of ettringite being considered by ACI Committee 116-names and definitions.


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