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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-01-164
Date: March 2002

Figure C-2

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Figure C-2: Flowchart. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete paste and air. This flowchart can be used to assist with assessment of the paste and air-void system and identify any problems in the concrete.

The following scenarios show the symptoms for various concrete problems associated with the paste and air-void system.

Symptoms of corrosion of embedded steel include the following:

Symptoms of a possible paste freeze thaw include the following:

Symptoms of possible aggregate freeze thaw including the following:

The next step would be to identify whether the cracks or voids are filled. If they are filled, identify the filling material, look at other problems as a source of distress, and proceed as if there are no cracks in the paste. If they are not filled then the sample might be poorly prepared or have shrinkage cracks and symptoms of other problems should be evaluated as the source of distress. Proceed as if there were no cracks in the pavement.

Note also that cracks or voids should be evaluated to determine if they are filled even if the cracks extend through the aggregates and an aggregate freeze-thaw occurs.

Symptoms of a sulfate attack include the following:

Symptoms of a possible de-icer attack include the following:

The aggregates should be examined if any of the following occur:

 

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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