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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-01-164
Date: March 2002
Figure II-15: Flowchart. Flowchart for assessing general concrete properties based on visual examination. This flowchart is used when performing a visual inspection to assess the general properties of a piece, slab, or core of concrete.
Possible errors in mix proportioning can occur if the mix volumetrics are not as specified.
Symptoms of possible poor mix design, and/or mix proportioning include the following:
Symptoms of possible poor finishing or curing include the following:
Symptoms of possible poor steel placement include the following:
Symptoms of possible poor mix design, mix proportioning, placement, and/or finishing include the following:
After determining if any of the above symptoms and problems are present, the next step is to determine if visual cracking is present. If yes, then determine if cracking is caused by plastic shrinkage. If this is the cause, then poor finishing and/or curing is possibly responsible and the depth of carbonation should be measured. If carbonation is at depths greater than 5 to 10 millimeters, then a high water-cement ratio could possibly be responsible. If the carbonation does not go down to these depths, then the paste/air and aggregates should be examined.