U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations
|This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information|
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-01-164
Date: March 2002
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FHWA Contract DTFH61-96-C-00073
Federal Highway Administration
Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101
Michigan Tech Transportation Institute
Michigan Technological University
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
1400 Townsend Drive
Houghton, Michigan 49931
Applied Pavement Technology
3001 Research Road, Suite C
Champaign, IL 61822
Group 1: Core Receipt and Cataloging
Group 2: Visual Inspection
Group 3: Stereo Optical Microscope Examination
Group 4: Staining Tests
Group 5: Petrographic Optical Microscope Examination
Group 6: Scanning Electron Microscope Examination
Group 7: Chemical Tests
Group 8: X-ray Diffraction Analysis
Flowchart for Assessing the Likelihood of
Flowchart for Visual Inspection
Flowchart for Analysis of the Paste and Air
Flowchart for Analysis of the Aggregate Structure
Flowchart for Analysis of the Secondary Deposits
Freeze-Thaw Deterioration of Aggregate
Freeze-Thaw Deterioration of Cement Paste
Available Treatment Methods for Sulfate Attack
Available Rehabilitation Methods for Sulfate Attack
Selection Guidelines for Sulfate Attack
Corrosion of Embedded Steel
Joint and Crack Sealing
AASHTO PTP 34-99: Proposed Standard Method
of Test for Restrained Drying Shrinkage
ASTM C 457: Practice for Microscopical Determination of Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hardened Concrete
ASTM C 666: Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing
ASTM C 672: Test Method for Scaling Resistance of Concrete Surfaces Exposed to Deicing Chemicals
ASTM C 1202: Electrical Indication of Concretes Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration
ASTM C 642: Test Method for Specific Gravity, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete
Paste Freeze-Thaw Deterioration
Aggregate Freeze-Thaw Deterioration
External Sulfate Attack
Internal Sulfate Attack
Corrosion of Embedded Steel
Barium Chloride Potassium Permanganate (BCPP)
Stain for Sulfate Minerals
Sodium Cobaltinitrite/Rhodamine B Staining Method for ASR Reaction Products
SHRP Uranyl Acetate Test for ASR Reaction Products
Phenolphthalein Staining Method for Determining Depth and Extent of Carbonation
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Conventional Scanning Electron Microscope (CSEM)
Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM)
Low Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope (LVSEM)
Purchasing a Scanning Electron Microscope
I-1 Guidelines for identification, treatment, and
prevention of MRD.
I-2. Flow of field data collection activities.
I-3. General project information form.
I-4. Concrete mixture design information form.
I-5. Concrete fine aggregate information form.
I-6. Concrete coarse aggregate information form.
I-7. Construction information form.
I-8. Modified LTPP distress survey form.
I-9. Modified LTPP distress summary form.
I-10. Survey form for illustrating typical MRD.
I-11. MRD characterization form.
I-12. Distress map symbols for jointed concrete pavements.
I-13. Distress map symbols for CRCP.
I-14. Flow chart for assessing likelihood of MRD.
I-15. Illustration of minimum number of cores for JCP required for MRD evaluation.
I-16. Illustration of minimum number of cores for CRCP required for MRD evaluation.
I-17. Specific core locations for JCP with MRD concentrated at the joints.
I-18. Specific core locations for JCP with MRD not concentrated at joints.
I-19. Specific core locations for CRCP with MRD concentrated at the cracks.
I-20. Specific core locations for CRCP with MRD not concentrated at cracks.
I-21. Typical hardened concrete sampling log sheet.
I-22. Example core identification label.
II-1. Fundamental process for analyzing a concrete MRD sample.
II-2. Group 1: Laboratory log of PCC pavement cores.
II-3. Group 1: Core sampled for laboratory analysis.
II-4. Group 2: General condition of the concrete.
II-5. Group 3: Stereo OM - observations of the concrete.
II-6. Group 3: Stereo OM observations - alterations of the aggregate.
II-7. Group 3: Results of ASTM C 457.
II-8. Group 4: Summary of staining tests.
I-9. Group 5: Petrographic OM - observations of the concrete.
II-10. Group 5: Petrographic OM observations - alterations of the aggregate.
II-11. Group 6: SEM - general conditions.
II-12. Group 6: Summary of scanning electron microscope tests.
II-13. Group 7: Summary of chemical tests.
II-14. Group 8: XRD - analytical conditions and results of qualitative analysis.
II-15. Flowchart for assessing general concrete properties based on visual examination.
II-16. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete paste and air.
II-17. Flowchart for identifying infilling materials in cracks and voids.
II-18. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete aggregates.
III-1. Flowchart for selecting preferred treatment and rehabilitation options.
III-2. Flowchart for the selection of durable aggregates.
III-3. Benefaction techniques for mitigation of aggregate freeze-thaw deterioration.
C-1. Flowchart for assessing general concrete properties based on visual examination.
C-2. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete paste and air.
C-3. Flowchart for identifying infilling materials in cracks and voids.
C-4. Flowchart for assessing the condition of the concrete aggregates.
I-1. Summary of key MRDs.
I-2. Summary of distress survey components.
I-3. Field survey equipment checklist.
I-4. Distresses to be evaluated during pavement distress surveys.
I-5. Standard photographs to be taken for each project.
II-1. Diagnostic features of corrosion of embedded steel.
II-2. Diagnostic features of paste freeze-thaw damage.
II-3. Diagnostic features of aggregate freeze-thaw deterioration.
II-4. Diagnostic features of sulfate attack.
II-5. Diagnostic features for deicer scaling/deterioration.
II-6. Diagnostic features of ASR.
II-7. Diagnostic features of ACR.
III-1. Selection of feasible alternatives to address freeze-thaw deterioration of aggregate.
III-2. Selection of feasible alternatives to address freeze-thaw deterioration cement paste.
III-3. Selection of feasible alternatives to address deicer scaling/deterioration.
III-4. Selection of feasible alternatives to address ASR.
III-5. Selection of feasible alternatives to address ACR.
III-6. Selection of feasible alternatives to address sulfate attack.
III-7. Selection of feasible alternatives to address corrosion of embedded steel.
III-8. Aggregate characteristics and test methods.
III-9. Recommended air contents for freeze-thaw distress-resistant concrete.
III-10. ASTM C 94: Acceptance criteria for questionable water supplies.
III-11. ASTM C 94: Optional chemical limits for wash water.
III-12. Recommendations for normal weight concrete subject to sulfate attack.
III-13. Chloride ion penetrability based on charge passed.
C-1. Diagnostic features of corrosion of embedded steel.
C-2. Diagnostic features of paste freeze-thaw damage.
C-3. Diagnostic features of aggregate freeze-thaw deterioration.
C-4. Diagnostic features of sulfate attack.
C-5. Diagnostic features of deicer scaling/deterioration.
C-6. Diagnostic features of ASR.
C-7. Diagnostic features of ACR.