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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-01-168
Date: July 2006

Rehabilitation of Asphalt Concrete Pavements: Initial Evaluation of The SPS-5 Experiment-Final Report

Alternative Text

Figure 1. Map. Location of the SPS-5 projects. This is a schematic chart showing the SPS-5 project locations in the United States and Canada. The project sites are located in Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Wisconsin, and Alberta and Manitoba Canada.

Figure 2. Chart. LTPP data collection and data movement flowchart. This flowchart shows the LTPP data collection procedure consisting of seven key modules:

  1. Deflection data collected with falling weight deflectometer parenthesis F W D close parenthesis.
  2. Longitudinal data collected with profiler.
  3. Transverse profile data collected with dipstick or with film.
  4. Distress data collected with manual measurement or photographically.
  5. Climatic data collected at automatic weather stations parenthesis A W S close parenthesis.
  6. Traffic data collected by weigh-in-motion parenthesis W I M close parenthesis and automated vehicle classifier parenthesis A V C close parenthesis.
  7. Materials data collected in field and by laboratory tests.

The data collected in the above seven modules are loaded to the Regional Information Management System parenthesis R I M S close parenthesis and, after quality control/quality assurance checking, are made public as the national information management system parenthesis I M S close parenthesis database.

Figure 3. Histograms. Thicknesses for the thin overlay layer parenthesis 50 millimeters close parenthesis from I M S tables SPS-5 LAYER THICKNESS parenthesis construction data close parenthesis and T S T L 0 5 B. This figure contains two histograms showing the constructed 50-millimeter asphalt concrete parenthesis A C close parenthesis overlay thickness data from I M S tables SPS-5 LAYER THICKNESS and T S T L 0 5 B, respectively. The SPS-5 LAYER THICKNESS table contains overlay thickness data from the rod-and-level measurements. The T S T 0 5 B table contains the representative overlay thicknesses that have the pre- and postconstruction structure information. The Y axis is the frequency in percentage, while the X axis is the overlay thickness ranging from 0 to 110 millimeters with 10-millimeter bins. Using the SPS-5 LAYER THICKNESS table, the upper histogram appears to be normally distributed with mean close to 50 millimeters and standard deviation of 30 millimeters. Using the T S T 0 5 B table, the lower histogram appears to be normally distributed with mean close to 60 millimeters and standard deviation of 40 millimeters.

Figure 4. Histograms. Thicknesses for the thick overlay layer parenthesis 125 millimeters close parenthesis from I M S tables SPS-5 LAYER THICKNESS parenthesis construction data close parenthesis and T S T L 0 5 B. This figure contains two histograms showing the constructed 125-millimeter A C overlay thickness data from I M S tables SPS-5 LAYER THICKNESS and T S T L 0 5 B, respectively. The Y axis is the frequency in percentage, while the X axis is the overlay thickness ranging from 50 to 170 millimeters with 10-millimeter bins. Using the SPS-5 LAYER THICKNESS table, the upper histogram appears to be normally distributed with mean close to 120 millimeters and standard deviation of 50 millimeters. Using the T S T 0 5 B table, the lower histogram appears to be normally distributed with mean close to 120 millimeters and standard deviation of 40 millimeters.

Figure 5. Histograms. Milling depth for sections with intensive surface preparation from I M S tables SPS-5 LAYER THICKNESS parenthesis construction data close parenthesis and T S T L 0 5 B. This figure contains two histograms showing the milling depth data for sections with intensive surface preparation from IMS tables SPS-5 LAYER THICKNESS and TST L05B, respectively. The Y axis is the frequency in percentage, while the X axis is the milling depth ranging from 20 to 100 millimeters with 10-millimeter bins. Using the Using the SPS-5 LAYER THICKNESS table, the upper histogram appears to be normally distributed with mean close to 60 millimeters and standard deviation of 30 millimeters. Using the T S T 0 5 B, the lower histogram appears to be undulating in the range of 30 to 80 millimeters with peak close to 60 millimeters.

Figure 6. Histograms. Gradation of aggregate in recycled asphalt pavement parenthesis R A P close parenthesis overlay. This figure contains two histograms showing the gradation of aggregate in recycled asphalt pavement parenthesis R A P close parenthesis overlay in the SPS-5 sections. The Y axis is the frequency in percentage, while the X axis is the percentage passing a given sieve size with 5 percent bins. For the Number 4 sieve size, the upper histogram appears to be undulating in the range of 45 to 75 percent with peak taking place at 65 percent passing Number 4 sieve. For the Number 200 sieve size, the lower histogram appears to be normally distributed with mean close to 7 percent passing Number 200 sieve and standard deviation of 5 percent.

Figure 7. Histograms. Gradation of the aggregate contained in the virgin asphalt overlay. This figure contains two histograms showing the gradation of aggregate in virgin asphalt overlay in the SPS-5 sections. The Y axis is the frequency in percentage, while the X axis is the percentage passing a given sieve size with 5 percent bins. For the Number 4 sieve size, the upper histogram appears to be normally distributed with mean close to 60 percent passing Number 4 sieve. For the Number 200 sieve size, the lower histogram appears to be undulating in the range of 1 to 9 percent on the X axis with peaks taking place at 7 and 9 percent passing Number 200 sieve.

Figure 8. Histogram. Air voids measured on the virgin overlay. This histogram shows the air voids in virgin asphalt overlay in the SPS-5 sections. The Y axis is the frequency in percentage, while the X axis is the air void percentage with 1 percent bins. The histogram appears to be normally distributed with mean close to 5 percent air voids and standard deviation of 6 percent.

Figure 9. Histogram. Air voids measured on the R A P overlay. This histogram shows the air voids in recycled asphalt overlay in the SPS-5 sections. The Y axis is the frequency in percentage, while the X axis is the air void percentage with 1 percent bins. The histogram appears to be normally distributed with mean close to 5 percent air voids and standard deviation of 8 percent.

Figure 10. Graph. Fatigue cracking measured over time for the SPS-5 projects for those sections with H M A overlay mixtures with and without R A P. This figure is a time plot of the fatigue cracking in virgin parenthesis square dots close parenthesis and recycled parenthesis diamond dots close parenthesis asphalt overlays in the SPS-5 sections. The Y axis is fatigue cracking in square meters, while the X axis is the age of the section in years. Both the square and diamond dots appear to be right-skewed normally distributed with peaks close to 7 years old. The square dot distribution has a higher peak than the diamond dot distribution does.

Figure 11. Graph. Total transverse cracking measured along the SPS-5 projects over time or age for those sections with minimum and intensive surface preparation. This figure is a time plot of the transverse cracking in the SPS-5 sections with minimum parenthesis diamond dots close parenthesis and intensive parenthesis square dots close parenthesis surface preparation. The Y axis is transverse cracking in meters, while the X axis is the age of the section in years. Both the diamond and square dots appear to be undulating with increasing trends. The diamond dot distribution appears to be higher than the square dot distribution in the first five years, but the position is switched for the last five years.

Figure 12. Graph. Rut depths measured over time for the SPS-5 projects for those sections with minimum and intensive surface preparation. This figure is a time plot of the rut depth in the SPS-5 sections with minimum parenthesis diamond dots close parenthesis and intensive parenthesis square dots close parenthesis surface preparation. The Y axis is rut depth in millimeters, while the X axis is the age of the section in years. Both the diamond and square dots appear to be normally distributed with means close to 4 years. The diamond dot distribution appears to be higher than the square dot distribution.

Figure 13. Graph. I R I measured over time for the SPS-5 projects for those existing pavements in the fair and poor categories. This figure is a time plot of the International Roughness Index parenthesis I R I close parenthesis measured in the SPS-5 sections with pre-overlay existing pavements in the fair parenthesis diamond dots close parenthesis and poor parenthesis square dots close parenthesis categories. The Y axis is I R I in meters per kilometer, while the X axis is the age of the section in years. Both the diamond and square dots appear to be undulating with increasing trends. The square dot distribution appears to be higher than the diamond dot distribution as aging increases.

Figure 14. Graphs. Longitudinal cracking outside the wheel path time-series for the Manitoba project. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of longitudinal non-wheel path cracking for the Manitoba, Canada, SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed on September 12, 1989. The Y axis is the longitudinal non-wheel path cracking in meters. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the non-milled sections, while the bottom graph is for the milled sections. In both graphs, five time series go up in the middle time range and go down in the end time range.

Figure 15. Graphs. Longitudinal cracking within the wheel path time-series data for the Manitoba project. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of longitudinal within wheel path cracking for the Manitoba, Canada, SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed on September 12, 1989. The Y axis is the longitudinal within wheel path cracking in meters. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the non-milled sections while the bottom graph is for the milled sections. In both graphs, five time series appear to be bimodal.

Figure 16. Graphs. Fatigue cracking time-series for the Manitoba project. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of fatigue cracking for the Manitoba, Canada, SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed on September 12, 1989. The Y axis is the fatigue cracking in square meters. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the non-milled sections, while the bottom graph is for the milled sections. In both graphs, five time series go flat in the beginning and go up after certain time point.

Figure 17. Graphs. Transverse crack length time-series data for the Manitoba project. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of transverse crack length for the Manitoba, Canada, SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed on September 12, 1989. The Y axis is the transverse crack in meters. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the non-milled sections, while the bottom graph is for the milled sections. In both graphs, five time series go flat in the beginning and go up after certain time point.

Figure 18. Graphs. Rut depths for the Manitoba project. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of rut depth for the Manitoba, Canada, SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed on September 12, 1989. The Y axis is the rut depth in meters. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the non-milled sections, while the bottom graph is for the milled sections. In both graphs, five time series go flat in the beginning and go up after certain time point.

Figure 19. Graphs. I R I values for the Manitoba project. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of I R I for the Manitoba, Canada, SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed on September 12, 1989. The Y axis is the I R I in meters per kilometer. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the non-milled sections, while the bottom graph is for the milled sections. In both graphs, five time series go flat in the beginning and go up after certain time point.

Figure 20. Graphs. Fatigue cracking time-series data for the California project. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of fatigue cracking for the California SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed on February 25, 1992. The Y axis is the fatigue cracking in square meters. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the non-milled sections, while the bottom graph is for the milled sections. In both graphs, five time series go flat in the beginning, go up after certain time point, and then drop off.

Figure 21. Graphs. Fatigue cracking time-series data for the Colorado project. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of fatigue cracking for the Colorado SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed on October 3, 1991. The Y axis is the fatigue cracking in square meters. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the non-milled sections, while the bottom graph is for the milled sections. In both graphs, five time series go flat in the beginning and go up after certain time point.

Figure 22. Graphs. Transverse crack length time-series data for the Montana project. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of transverse crack length for the Montana SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed on September 11, 1991. The Y axis is the transverse crack in meters. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the non-milled sections, while the bottom graph is for the milled sections. In both graphs, five time series go flat in the beginning and go up after certain time point.

Figure 23. Graphs. Rut-depth time-series data for the Maryland projects. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of rut depth for the Maryland SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed in April 1992. The Y axis is the rut depth in meters. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the milled sections, while the bottom graph is for the non-milled sections. In both graphs, five time series undulate as time increases.

Figure 24. Graphs. I R I value time-series data for the Maine project. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of I R I for the Maine SPS-5 non-milled and milled sections constructed on June 20, 1995. The Y axis is the I R I in meters per kilometer. The X axis is the survey date. The top graph is for the non-milled sections, while the bottom graph is for the milled sections. In both graphs, five time series fan out as time increases.

Figure 25. Graphs. Fatigue cracking observed on each project as of January 2000. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of fatigue cracking for the SPS-5 sections constructed as of January 2000. In the top graph, the Y axis is the fatigue cracking in square meters. In the bottom graph, the Y axis is the number of sections with fatigue cracks. In each graph, the X axis is age in years. In both graphs, data points peak and concentrate in the age between 6 and 10 years.

Figure 26. Graphs. Average area of fatigue cracking for each project over time. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of fatigue cracking for the SPS-5 sections constructed. The top graph shows the fatigue cracking in square meters versus age, in years, for the sections in Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, and Minnesota. The bottom graph shows the fatigue cracking in square meters versus age, in years, for the sections in Mississippi, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Alberta, and Manitoba. In both graphs, data points undulate as time increases.

Figure 27. Graphs. Length of transverse cracks observed on each project as a function of time. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of transverse cracking for the SPS-5 sections. In the top graph, the Y axis is the transverse cracking in meters. In the bottom graph, the Y axis is the number of sections with transverse cracks. In each graph, the X axis is age in years. In both graphs, data points peak and concentrate in the age between 6 and 10 years.

Figure 28. Graphs. Average length of transverse cracking for each project over time. This figure contains two graphs showing the time-plot of transverse cracking for the SPS-5 sections constructed. The top graph shows the fatigue cracking in meters versus age, in years, for the sections in Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, and Minnesota. The bottom graph shows the fatigue cracking in meters versus age for the sections in Mississippi, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Alberta, and Manitoba. In the top graph, data points have no evident pattern. In the bottom graph, the peaks increase somewhat at the age in years increases.

Figure 29. Graph. Percentage of test sections that have more than 9 meters of transverse cracking. This graph is a bar chart that shows the climatic and surface preparation-plot of transverse cracking for the SPS-5 sections constructed. The Y axis is the percentage of total test sections with transverse cracking greater than 9 meters. The X axis charts the four climatic and surface preparation conditions: freeze minimum, freeze intensive, no-freeze minimum, and no-freeze intensive. It appears that the freeze minimum zone has the highest percentage, followed by freeze intensive, no-freeze minimum, and no-freeze intensive.

Figure 30. Graph. Percentage of test sections that have an I R I value greater than 1.2 meters per kilometer. This graph is a bar chart that shows the surface preparation and existing pavement condition-plot of I R I for the SPS-5 sections constructed. The Y axis is the percentage of total test sections with I R I greater than 1.2 meters per kilometer. The X axis charts the four surface preparation and existing pavement conditions: minimum poor, minimum fair, intensive poor, and intensive fair. It appears that the minimum poor has the highest percentage, followed by minimum fair, intensive fair, and intensive poor.

 


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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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