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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-02-083
Date: August 2006

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AASHTO Materials, Part II, Tests, 15th Edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1990.

Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02, Concretes and Aggregates, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1992.

El-Korchi, T, M. Simon, and S. Forster, "Assessing freezing and thawing resistance of concrete using the modified AASHTO T161 (ASTM C 666) procedure," Concrete Under Severe Conditions: Environment and Loading, Vol. 1, edited by K. Sakai, N. Banthia, and O.E. GjØrv, London: E&FN Spon, 1995, pp. 65-72.

Heinz, D, U. Ludwig and I. RÜdiger, "Delayed ettringite formation in heat treated mortars and concretes."Concrete Precasting Plant and Technology,Vol. 56, No. 11, 1989, pp. 56-61.

Janssen, D.J. and M.B. Snyder, Resistance of Concrete to Freezing and Thawing. SHRP-C-391, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1994.

Malhotra, V.M. and N.J. Carino, Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, CRC Press Inc., New York, 1991.

Okamoto, P.A., C.L.Wu, S.M. Tam, M.I. Darter, and K.D. Smith, Performance-Related Specifications for Concrete Pavements, Vol. III: Appendix D-Lat. Testing Procedures and Testing Results, Report FHWA-RD-91-044, FHWA, Nov. 1993.

Snyder, M.B. and D.J. Janssen, Resistance of Concrete to Freezing and Thawing,SHRP-C-391, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1994.

Stark, J., K. Bollmann and K. "Seyfarth, Ettringit—schadensverursacher, schadensverstärker oder unbeteiligter dritter?" ZKG International, 51. Jahrgang, Nr. 5, 1998, pp. 280-292 (in English and German).

Vokes, E.A., S.L. Clarke, and D.J. Janssen, "Damping measurements for non-destructive evaluation of concrete beams," Frost Resistance of Concrete, edited by M.J. Setzer and R. Auberg, London: E&FN Spon, 1997, pp. 288-297.

Whiting, D., M. Nagi, P. Okamoto, H. T. Yu, D. Peshkin, K. D. Smith, M. I. Darter, J. Clifton, and L. Kaetzel, Optimization of Highway Concrete Technology. SHRP-C-373, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1994.


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