U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
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Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations

This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information 

Publication Number: FHWARD02085 Date: July 2006 
Figure 1. Estimated traffic on Georgia site.
This figure is a graph showing traffic data needed for the fatigue analysis. Years, from 1991 to 2002, is graphed on the horizontal axis. Cumulative traffic, in million E S A Ls, is graphed on the vertical axis from zero to 14. Twoway average daily traffic equals 25,750 in 1992, 19.5 percent truck. Average truck factor equals 1.37. The annual growth in E S A Ls is 3 percent. The line begins in 1992 at zero million E S A Ls and increases in a straight line to 12 million in 2001.
Figure 2. Available material strength data for the Georgia sections.
This figure is a histogram showing lower strength for cores retrieved at 2 months and 28day lab. Three sections, Georgia Department of Transportation parenthesis G A D O T end parenthesis mix, Fast Track 1 parenthesis F T 1 end parenthesis, and very early strength parenthesis V E S end parenthesis are graphed on the horizontal axis. Compressive strength, measured in poundforce per square inch parenthesis P S I end parenthesis is graphed on the vertical axis from zero to 7,000. For all three sections, the 28day labs have higher results than the cores at 2 months. For the 28day lab, G A D O T has 5,600 P S I, F T 1 has 5,700 P S I, and V E S has 6,500 P S I. For the cores at 2 months, G A D O T has 4,800 P S I, F T 1 has 4, 500 P S I, and V E S has 5,800 P S I.
Figure 3. Estimated strength development of G A D O T mix.
This figure is a line graph showing longterm strength development of the G A D O T mix. The year is graphed on the horizontal axis from 1991 to 1999. Portland cement concrete parenthesis P C C end parenthesis modulus of rupture is graphed on the vertical axis from 640 P S I to 760 P S I. Starting in 1992 and 645 P S I, the strength increases to 710 P S I within a year. By 1994, the strength increases to 738 P S I. After 1994, the strength slowly increases steadily to 750 P S I in 1998.
Figure 4. Comparison of field performance of 4.6meter repairs in the G A D O T section and predicted cracking given by rigid pavement performance/rehabilitation parenthesis R P P R end parenthesis 1998 model parenthesis Yu, et al., 1998 end parenthesis.
This figure is a line graph. The year is graphed on the horizontal axis from 1991 to 2002. Percent of slab cracking is graphed on the vertical axis from zero to 100. The R P P R model begins in 1992 at 3 percent cracking. The model increases gradually to 65 percent in 2001. The field performance was repaired in 1992 where there was zero cracking, in 1994 and 1995 where there was 20 percent cracking, in 1996 at 30 percent cracking, and in 1997 and 1998 at 50 percent cracking. The performance increases each year.
Figure 5. Illustration of the effects of damage due to early opening.
This figure is a line graph showing the effects of damage due to early opening. Years are graphed on the horizontal axis from 1991 to 2002. The percent slab cracking is graphed on the vertical axis from zero to 80 percent. There are dual, parallel lines starting in 1992 at 5 and 6 percent cracking, respectively. The lines increase gradually to 65 and 66 percent in 2001. The space between the two lines represents the effects of damage due to early opening.
Figure 6. The effects of repair length and builtin curling on performance of fulldepth repairs.
This figure is a line graph with 3 different lines, which are 15foot repairs, 15foot repairs with typical amount of builtin temperature gradient, and 12foot repairs. Years are graphed on the horizontal axis from 1991 to 2002. Percent of slab cracking is graphed on the vertical axis from zero to 70 percent. All the lines begin in 1992. The 15foot repairs line begins at 3 percent in 1992 and increases in a 45degree angle to 65 percent in 2001. The 15foot repair with typical amount of builtin temperature gradient line begins in 1992 with 1 percent cracking and increases gradually to 15 percent in 2001. The 12foot repairs line begins in 1992 with 1 percent cracking and increases minimally to 5 percent in 2001. Figure 6 shows that if moderate builtin curling were introduced, the fatigue life of the 15foot repairs would increase dramatically.
Figure 7. Map cracking observed in F S section in 1997.
This figure is a blackandwhite photograph of cracking in concrete. The concrete has horizontal grooV E S along the entire surface. On the center of the surface is a wide vertical split. To the left of the split are alligator cracks. Some of the surface has come off on the alligator cracks.
Figure 8. Illustration of typical longitudinal cracking in Ohio sections.
This figure is a rectangular box with two parallel vertical lines near the center. Between the two vertical lines is another line that starts on one side and goes across to the other side of the vertical line. The line in between is curved and arches upward slightly before curving back downward, ending at almost the same level.
Figure 9. Development of longitudinal cracking in Ohio sections.
This figure is a line graph of longitudinal cracking over time. Years are graphed on the horizontal axis from 1992 to 1998. Percent repairs with longitudinal cracking is graphed on the vertical axis. There are eight lines represented on the graph, including Ohio Department of Transportation parenthesis O D O T end parenthesis F S, rapid set concrete parenthesis R S C end parenthesis 1, V E S, F T 1, R S C 2, high early strength parenthesis H E S end parenthesis, Pyrament cement parenthesis P C end parenthesis 1, and P C 2. O D O T F S remains at 100 percent from 1992 to 1998. R S C 1 begins at 90 percent, increases to 100 percent in 1994, where it remains to 1998. V E S begins at 55 percent in 1992, increases to 88 percent in 1994, where it remains to 1998. F T 1 begins at 22 percent in 1992, increases to 55 percent in 1994, increases again to 68 percent in 1995, where it stays through 1997, then increases to 88 percent in 1998. R S C 2 begins at zero percent in 1992. It then increases to 45 percent in 1994 and stays there through 1996, then increases to 55 percent in 1997 and stays there to 1998. H E S holds steady at 34 percent from 1992 through 1997, then increases to 68 percent in 1998. P C 1 begins at 10 percent in 1992, increases to 22 percent in 1994, where it stays to 1998. P C 2 remains constant from 1992 to 1998 at 10 percent.
Figure 10. Correlation between the difference of average curing and overnight low temperatures and longitudinal cracking in Ohio sections at 2 months.
This figure is a line graph with R squared equals 0.6797. The difference between average curing and overnight low temperatures is graphed on the horizontal axis from 40 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Percent of slabs cracked at 2 months is graphed on the vertical axis from zero to 100. The line begins at 50 degrees at 10 percent and increases in a straight line to 80 degrees at 100 percent. There is a correlation between the average curing and overnight low temperatures and longitudinal cracking at 2 months.
Figure 11. Correlation between the difference of average curing and overnight low temperatures and longitudinal cracking in Ohio sections at 2 years.
This figure is a line graph with R squared equals 0.5821. The difference between average curing and overnight low temperatures is graphed on the horizontal axis from 40 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Percent slabs cracked after 2 years is graphed on the vertical axis from zero to 100. The line begins at 50 degrees and 30 percent, then increases in a straight line to 77 degrees at 100 percent. The correlation between average curing and overnight temperatures and longitudinal cracking is worse after 2 years.
Figure 12. Correlation between the difference of average curing and overnight low temperatures and longitudinal cracking in Ohio sections at 6 years.
This figure is a line graph with R squared equals 0.5213. The difference between average curing and overnight low temperatures is graphed on the horizontal axis from 40 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Percent slabs cracked after 6 years is graphed on the vertical axis from zero to 100. The line begins at 50 degrees and 38 percent, then increases in a straight line to 77 degrees at 100 percent. The correlation between average curing and overnight temperatures and longitudinal cracking is worse after 6 years.
Figure A1. Backcalculation results for the G A D O T section.
This figure is a line graph. Location from the beginning of the section is graphed on the horizontal axis, from 0 to 3,500 feet. Subgrade K is graphed on the left vertical axis from 0 to 450 P S I per inches. P C C modulus is graphed on the right vertical side from 0 to 8 mega P S I. Subgrade K begins at 350 P S I per inches and decreases to 225. After 1,250 feet, subgrade K increases back to 350. P C C modulus begins at 4.5 mega P S I and increases to 5 mega P S I at 250 feet. The modulus starts to decline at 1,250 feet to 2.5 mega P S I at 2,500 feet. P C C increases rapidly to 7 mega P S I at 2,500 feet. Whenever subgrade K increases in P S I, P C C modulus decreases in mega P S I.
Figure A2. Backcalculation results for the F T 1 section.
This figure is a line graph. Location from the beginning of the section is graphed on the horizontal axis, from 400 to 800 feet. Subgrade K is graphed on the left vertical side of the graph, from 0 to 450 P S I per inches. P C C modulus is graphed on the right vertical side, from 0 to 7 mega P S I. Subgrade K begins at 375 P S I per inches at 526 feet from the beginning of the section. It gradually decreases to 310 P S I at 675 feet. Subgrade K increases dramatically to 400 P S I at 700 feet, and then decreases dramatically to 275 P S I at 725 feet. P C C modulus begins at 4.5 mega P S I at 425 feet from the beginning of the section, and it gradually increases to 6.5 mega P S I at 575 feet. The P C C modulus starts to decrease at 6.5 mega P S I to 4 P S I at 700 feet and then increases dramatically. As subgrade K increases in P S I per inches, P C C modulus decreases in mega P S I.
Figure A3. Backcalcuation results for the V E S section.
This figure is a line graph. Location from the beginning of the section is graphed on the horizontal axis, from 0 to 3,000 feet. Subgrade K is graphed on the left vertical axis, from 0 to 450 P S I per inches. P C C modulus is graphed on the right vertical side, from 0 to 7 mega P S I. Subgrade K begins at 350 P S I per inches at 200 feet from the beginning of the section, and it starts to fluctuate up and down. After 500 feet, subgrade K decreases to 200 P S I at 1,500 feet and then slowly increases to 300 P S I at 2,800 feet. P C C modulus begins at 4.25 mega P S I at 200 feet from the beginning of the section. It increases to 5 mega P S I at 700 feet and stays above 5 mega P S I for the remainder of the location. Whenever subgrade K has a high level of P S I, P C C modulus has a low level of mega P S I.
Figure A4. Void detection test results for section G A 1.
This figure is a line graph. Sections are graphed on the horizontal axis, from 11 to 118. The void, in 10 to the negative cubed inches, is graphed on the vertical axis, from negative 6 to 8. Sections 12 and 13 had between 35 possible voids. Every other section had below two possible voids. All the points below the possible voids zigzag up and down.
Figure A5. Void detection test results for section F T 1.
This figure is a line graph. Sections are graphed on the horizontal axis from 23A to 215. The void, in 10 to the negative cubed inches, is graphed on the vertical axis, from negative 6 to 8. The points begin below the possible voids line, which is 2 inches, and zigzag slightly between negative 2 and 0 inches. The points increase above the possible voids line at section 213.
Figure A6.Void detection test results for section V E S.
This figure is a line graph. Sections are graphed on the horizontal axis from 32 to 319. The void, in 10 to the negative cubed inches, is graphed on the vertical axis from negative 6 to 8. The points begin below the possible voids line, which is 2 inches. The points remain below 0 inches but increase to 3 inches at section 36, which is above the possible voids section. Then, the points drop below the line and zigzag up and down until section 313 to 316. After section 316, the points drop again below the possible voids line to continue the zigzag pattern.
Topics: research, infrastructure, pavements and materials Keywords: research, infrastructure, pavements and materials, concrete pavement, highearlystrength, early opening, fulldepth repair TRT Terms: research, facilities, transportation, highway facilities, roads, parts of roads, pavements, strategic highway research program (U.S.), pavements, concretemaintenance and repairtesting, high strength concretetesting, pavement performance, high early strength cement Updated: 03/08/2016
