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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-046
Date: October 2004

Appendix B: Summaryof AGency Hmac Specifications Received

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Alaska

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of the results. The frequency of the testing is determined by the contractor, but must be approved by the engineer prior to construction.

Mix design verification is evaluated for the following properties: Marshall stability, Marshall flow, percent voids in mix, dust-to-asphalt ratio, gradation, VFA, density, and VMA.

Quality Assurance

The engineer is responsible for all assurance testing. Assurance testing is conducted for the following characteristics: gradation, in-place density, and asphalt content. The State's assurance tests cannot be used for QC. The results of the tests will be made available to the contractor within 2 working days.

Acceptance

Acceptance is based on the results of the assurance tests. Acceptance is based on a lot size of 5000 tons (4535 Mg), with tests conducted on 500-ton (454 Mg) sublots. Acceptance of the material and any associated pay factors are determined using quality-level analysis.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, and asphalt content. For density, the density pay factor (DPF) is determined by calculating the quality level of the lot and then selecting a pay factor from a table according to the sample size. The pay factor for gradation and asphalt content (composite pay factor (CPF)) is determined by the following equation:

Equation 37.  The composite pay factor, CPF, equals weight factor, F, subscript 19 MM, times payment factor, PF, subscript 19 MM, plus F subscript 12.5 MM times PF subscript 12.5 MM, plus the set through F subscript AC times PF subscript AC, all divided by sigma F.     (37)

where: f factors are determined from the Weight Factors table below

After the DPF and CPF are known, the pay adjustment is determined by the following:

Equation 38.  Price adjustment equals CPF or density payment factor, DPF, asterisk, minus 1.00, times MG in lot times the price-adjustment base, PAB.      (38)

where: PAB = price-adjustment base (equal to $33.00/Mg)

Weight Factors

Table 58. Alaska weight factors.

Gradation (mm) f Factor
19.0 4
12.5 5
9.5 5
4.75 4
2.36 4
1.18 4
0.600 5
0.300 5
0.150 4
0.075 20
Asphalt Content 40

QC/QA Tests for Alaska

Table 59. Alaska QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Alaska DOT Acceptance by Alaska DOT
Gradation (extracted) Behind paver Determined by contractor One per sublot Based on assurance testing
Asphalt content Behind paver Determined by contractor One per sublot Based on assurance testing
Density Roadway Determined by contractor One per sublot Based on assurance testing

Arkansas

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results. The sampling location and testing frequency are determined by the contractor with the exception of gradation (one per 750 tons (680 Mg) minimum), and must be sufficient for control of the mix.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, air voids, VMA, Marshall stability, Maximum theoretical density, in-place density, and water sensitivity.

Mix design verification is evaluated for the following properties: gradation, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, air voids, VMA, density, asphalt content, dust-to-asphalt ratio, and water sensitivity.

Quality Assurance

The Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department (AHDT) is responsible for all assurance sampling and testing. Testing is based on a lot size of 3000 tons (2720 Mg) with 750-ton (680-Mg) sublots. Assurance testing is conducted on gradation, asphalt content, air voids, VMA, Marshall stability, and in-place density.

Acceptance

The contractor's control test cannot be used for acceptance. Under the supervision of the engineer, the contractor must conduct acceptance testing on the materials. The sampling locations will be independent of the QC locations. Acceptance of the material is based on verification of the contractor's acceptance testing by the AHDT's assurance tests. Acceptance and adjustment is by lot. Lot size is 3000 tons (2720 Mg) with 750-ton (680 Mg) sublots. In addition, the engineer will check the smoothness of the pavement by using a rolling straightedge. Variations shall not exceed 5 millimeters (mm) for binder courses and 3 mm for surface courses. At least one pass shall be made for the full length of each lane. If the surface test is deficient, the surface must be corrected at the contractor's expense.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for in-place density, asphalt content, Marshall stability, air voids, and VMA. The pay factors for each property are determined according to the following schedule and the total reduction for the lot is the sum of the reductions for each property of the lot.

Asphalt Binder: The contract price of the entire lot will be reduced by 12 percent for each deviation outside the compliance limits, up to a maximum of three deviations. One deviation is 0.1 percentage point.

Stability: The contract price of the lot will be reduced by 10 percent for each deviation below the compliance limits, up to a maximum of five deviations. One deviation is 0.2 kilonewtons (kN) (45 pounds force (lbf)).

Air Voids: The contract price of the lot will be reduced by 10 percent for each deviation outside the compliance limits, up to a maximum of five deviations. One deviation is 0.1 percentage point.

VMA: The contract price of the lot will be reduced by 4 percent for each deviation outside the compliance limits, up to a maximum of 10 deviations. One deviation is 0.1 percentage point.

Density: The contract price of the lot will be reduced by 4 percent for each deviation outside the compliance limits, up to a maximum of 10 deviations. One deviation is 0.1 percentage points.

QC/QA Tests for Arkansas

Table 60. Arkansas QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by AHDT Acceptance Testing Frequency by Contractor
Gradation (extracted) Behind paver One per 750 tons One per 750 tons One per 750 tons
Asphalt content Behind paver Contractor's discretion One per 3000 tons One per sublot
Air voids Behind paver Contractor's discretion One per 3000 tons One per sublot
VMA Behind paver Contractor's discretion One per 3000 tons One per sublot
Maximum theoretical density Laboratory sample Contractor's discretion NA NA
In-place density Behind paver Contractor's discretion One per 3000 tons One per sublot
Water sensitivity Laboratory sample Contractor's discretion NA NA
Smoothness Roadway Contractor's discretion NA By engineer (one pass for full length of each lane)
Marshall stability Behind paver Contractor's discretion One per 3000 tons One per sublot

NA = Not applicable
1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Colorado

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

All QC tests must be independent of assurance and acceptance tests. Acceptable testing standards in order of preference include Colorado procedures, AASHTO, and ASTM.

Quality Assurance

Colorado DOT ensures QA by conducting check tests to verify that the personnel and equipment conducting the QC tests and acceptance tests are within acceptable tolerances. If the check test is outside the allowable differences, production will stop and the problem will be identified and corrected.

Acceptance

Acceptance testing is the responsibility of the Colorado DOT. A minimum of 5 asphalt content, 3 gradation, and 10 density tests are required for each project. The contractor, under the direction of the engineer, obtains acceptance test samples. Acceptance is based on the State's tests only.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, density, and asphalt content. To determine the pay factors, quality-level analysis is used to obtain a quality level for a process with three or more test results. When the process has been completed, the number of random samples (Pn) that it contains will determine the computation of the element pay factor, based on the table and equation below. When the Pn is 3 to 9, or greater than 200, the element pay factor is computed using the equations designated in the table below. When the Pn is equal to or greater than 10, and less than 201, the element pay factor is computed using the following equation:

Equation 39. Pay factor, PF, equals PF subscript 1 plus PF subscript 2, divided by 2, plus PF subscript 2 plus PF subscript 3, divided by 2, minus PF subscript 1 plus PF subscript 2, divided by 2, times PN subscript 2 minus PN subscript X divided by PN subscript 2 minus PN subscript 3.     (39)

where (when referring to the table below):
PF1 = PF determined at the next lowest Pn equation using the process quality level (QL)
PF2 = PF determined using the Pn equation shown for the process QL
PF3 = PF determined at the next highest Pn equation using the process QL
Pn2 = lowest Pn in the spread of values listed for the process Pn equation
Pn3 = lowest Pn in the spread of values listed for the next highest Pn equation
Pnx = actual number of test values in the process

Table 61. Colorado pay factor equations.

Pn
When the Pn is 3 to 9, or greater than 200, use the designated equation below to calculate the pay factor.

When the Pn is equal to or greater than 10, and less than 201, use formula 1.
Maximum Pay Factor
3 PF = 0.31177 + 1.57878(QL/100) - 0.84862(QL/100)2 1.025
4 PF = 0.27890 + 1.15471(QL/100) - 0.73553(QL/100)2 1.030
5 PF = 0.25529 + 1.48268(QL/100) - 0.67759(QL/100)2 1.030
6 PF = 0.19468 + 1.56729(QL/100) - 0.70239(QL/100)2 1.035
7 PF = 0.16709 + 1.58245(QL/100) - 0.68705(QL/100)2 1.035
8 PF = 0.16394 + 1.55070(QL/100) - 0.65270(QL/100)2 1.040
9 PF = 0.11412 + 1.63532(QL/100) - 0.68786(QL/100)2 1.040
10-11 PF = 0.15344 + 1.50104(QL/100) - 0.58896(QL/100)2 1.045
12-14 PF = 0.07278 + 1.62485(QL/100) - 0.65033(QL/100)2 1.045
15-18 PF = 0.07826 + 1.55649(QL/100) - 0.56616(QL/100)2 1.050
19-25 PF = 0.09907 + 1.43088(QL/100) - 0.45550(QL/100)2 1.050
26-37 PF = 0.07373 + 1.41851(QL/100) - 0.41777(QL/100)2 1.055
38-69 PF = 0.10586 + 1.26473(QL/100) - 0.29660(QL/100)2 1.055
70-200 PF = 0.21611 + 0.86111(QL/100) 1.060
≥ 201 PF = 0.15221 + 0.92171(QL/100) 1.060

For pay estimates, each individual element will have the average pay factor (PFa), weighted by the quantities as follows:

Equation 40.  PF subscript A equals M subscript 1 times PF subscript 1, plus M subscript 2 times PF subscript 2, plus the set through M subscript J times PF subscript J, all divided by sigma M.     (40)

where: Mj = quantity represented by the process
PFj = process pay factor
åM = total quantity

QC/QA Tests for Colorado

Table 62. Colorado QC/QA tests.

Test Sample Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Acceptance Testing Frequency by Colorado DOT Check Testing Frequency by Colorado DOT
Asphalt content Behind paver One per 500 metric tons One per 1000 metric tons One per 10,000 metric tons
Dry gradation: #4, #8, #200 Cold feed One per day One per 2000 metric tons One per 20,000 metric tons
In-place density Roadway One per 500 metric tons One per 500 metric tons One per 5000 metric tons

Idaho

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation (3/4 inch (19 mm), 3/8 inch (9.5 mm), #8, and #200), sand equivalent, fracture count, asphalt content, and density. The lot size is 1 day's production, represented by at least four tests. If the day's production is represented by fewer than four tests, the tests will be combined with the following day's production to form one lot. One test must be conducted for every 750 tons (680 Mg) of production (never less than once per day). Asphalt content is the exception to this rule, with testing conducted as needed to control production.

Quality Assurance

Idaho DOT is responsible for all assurance testing. Assurance testing is conducted on gradation, sand equivalent, asphalt content, density, and fracture count. The QA testing frequency is two per lot, not to exceed two per day.

Acceptance

Acceptance testing is the responsibility of the contractor for the properties of gradation, sand equivalent, and fracture count. These acceptance tests are not to be used as part of the QC testing. The State is responsible for the acceptance testing of asphalt content and density. The lot size is 1 day's production, represented by at least four tests. If the day's production is represented by fewer than four tests, the tests will be combined with the following day's production to form one lot. One test must be conducted for every 750 tons (680 Mg) of production (never less than one per day).

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, and asphalt content. Quality-level analysis is used to determine the PWL for the lot. If any one pay factor for asphalt content, density, or gradation falls below 0.85, the pay factor for all quality characteristics represented by the same quantity will be determined by the lowest pay factor.

Once the individual gradation pay factors for the lots are determined, they are averaged on a weighted basis, considering the amount of material represented by each lot. This average gradation pay factor is then multiplied by 0.3 to obtain the composite pay factor for plant-mix aggregate (CPFPM).

The individual pay factors for asphalt content are also averaged on a weighted basis to obtain the average asphalt content pay factor. This factor is then multiplied by 0.3 to obtain the composite pay factor for asphalt content (CPFAC).

The same procedure is then performed to obtain the composite pay factor for density (CPFDens). The bonus to be paid or deducted is determined using the following equation:

Equation 41. Total bonus, B, equals the unit bid price, A, times the following: CPF subscript PM plus CPF subscript AC plus CPF subscript dens, all minus 1, then multiply this product by the total quantity of plant mix accepted, Q.     (41)

where: B = total bonus
A = unit bid price
Q = total quantity of plant mix accepted

QC/QA Tests for Idaho

Table 63. Idaho QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance or Verification Testing Frequency by State Acceptance
Gradation (washed) (¾ inch, 3/8 inch, #8, #200) Crusher for QC, cold feed for acceptance One per 750 tons, but not less than one per day Two per lot, not to exceed two per day By contractor: one per 750 tons, but not less than one per day
Asphalt content Hot plant or roadway As needed to control operation Two per lot, not to exceed two per day By State: one per 750 tons, but not less than one per day
Sand equivalent Crusher for QC, cold feed for acceptance One per 750 tons, but not less than one per day Two per lot, not to exceed two per day By contractor: one per 750 tons, but not less than one per day
Fracture count Crusher for QC, cold feed for acceptance One per 750 tons, but not less than one per day Two per lot, not to exceed two per day By contractor: one per 750 tons, but not less than one per day
Density Roadway One per 750 tons, but not less than one per day Two per lot, not to exceed two per day By State: one per 750 tons, but not less than one per day

1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Illinois

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation (1/2 inch (13 mm), #4, #8, #30, and #200), BSG, MSG, air voids, and density. The contractor is responsible for providing split samples to the engineer for assurance testing.

Quality Assurance

The engineer is responsible for all assurance testing and acceptance of the material. The assurance tests are conducted on split samples taken by the contractor for QC testing. Additionally, the engineer will witness the sampling and splitting of these samples a minimum of twice a month and will retain these samples for assurance testing.

Acceptance

The contractor's control tests are used for acceptance if they are verified by the engineer's assurance tests. The testing frequencies vary, depending on the property being measured. Acceptance is based on the validation of the QC program, reviewing the contractor's control charts, and by the assurance tests for voids and density. Assurance testing is conducted on gradation (1/2 inch (13 mm), #4, #8, #30, and #200), BSG, MSG, air voids, and density.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for thickness and smoothness. Smoothness is determined using a California profilograph. The pay factor for smoothness is presented in the price-adjustment table for smoothness. The lot size for thickness testing shall be 1500 meters (m) (single lane). Each lot is divided into 10 sublots. One core will be taken from each sublot. Any pavement found to be less than 10-percent deficient may remain in place with no additional action required. After analyzing the cores, the PWL for the lot is determined. The following equations allow for the calculation of a bonus or penalty for thickness.

Equation 42. Pay factor percentage equals 55 plus 0.5PWL.     (42)

Equation 43.  Total payment equals the total pay factor, PF, times the product of the contract unit price, CUP, times the sum of the square meters of pavement placed, SQMPAVT, minus the square meters of deficient pavement, DEFPAVT.     (43)

where: PF = total pay factor
CUP = contract unit price
SQMPAVT = square meters of pavement placed
DEFPAVT = square meters of deficient pavement

Smoothness Pay Factors

Table 64. Illinois smoothness pay factors.

Profile Index for Entire Project (mm/km) Percent of Unit Bid Price
≤3 103
> 3-6 102
> 6-8 101
Profile Index for 160-m Section (mm/km) Percent of Unit Bid Price
> 8-160 100
> 160-175 98
> 175-190 96
> 190-205 94
> 205-220 92
> 220-235 90
> 235 Corrective work required

QC/QA Tests for Illinois

Table 65. Illinois QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Illinois DOT Acceptance by Illinois DOT
Dry gradation (½ inch, #4, #8, #30, #200) Cold Feed One per ½ day ≥10% of QC Based on validation of QC tests by assurance tests
MSG Plant (hot mix) One per ½ day for first 2 days, then one per day ≥20% of QC Based on validation of QC tests by assurance tests
BSG Plant (hot mix) One per ½ day for first 2 days, then one per day ≥20% of QC Based on validation of QC tests by assurance tests
Air voids Plant (hot mix) One per ½ day for first 2 days, then one per day ≥20% of QC Based on validation of QC tests by assurance tests
Thickness Roadway One per sublot NA Based on contractor's tests
Asphalt content Plant (hot mix) One per ½ day ≥20% of QC Based on validation of QC tests by assurance tests
Smoothness Roadway One pass per lane per 1 day's paving (1000 ft) NA Based on contractor's tests
Density Roadway One per ½ mi ≥20% of QC Based on validation of QC tests by assurance tests

1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot (ft) = 0.305 meter (m), 1 mile (mi) = 1.61 kilometers (km)

Iowa

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: laboratory density, laboratory voids, asphalt content, gradation, MSG, and field density. The contractor must provide split samples to the engineer for assurance testing. One of each control test must be conducted on the first 500 tons (450 Mg) and the remaining day's production is divided into three equal sublots and tested once per sublot.

Quality Assurance

Iowa DOT is responsible for all assurance testing and acceptance of the material. Assurance testing frequency is at the discretion of the engineer, but must be at least 10 percent of the contractor's QC testing, except for density and thickness, which require a minimum of seven cores per lot. Properties tested include gradation, laboratory density, laboratory voids, asphalt content, MSG, air voids, thickness, and in-place density.

Acceptance

The contractor's control test will be used for acceptance when the test results are verified by Iowa DOT's assurance tests.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for in-place density and thickness, based on a quality index for these two properties. The pay factors are based on square yards per lot. The pay factors for density are determined using the following tables:

Pay Factors for Density

Table 66. Iowa pay factors for density.

Quality Index Percentage of Full Payment
0.73 100
0.40-0.72 95
0.00-0.39 85
All negative values 75 maximum or remove

Pay Factors for Thickness

Table 67. Iowa pay factors for thickness.

Quality Index Percentage of Payment Previously Adjusted for Density
0.35+ 100
0.14-0.34 95
0.00-0.13 85
All negative values 75 maximum or remove

QC/QA Tests for Iowa

Table 68. Iowa QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Iowa DOT Acceptance by Iowa DOT
Gradation (extracted) Behind paver One per day As needed for QC verification Based on QC tests verified by assurance tests
Laboratory density Plant mix (laboratory) One per sublot As needed for QC verification Based on QC tests verified by assurance tests
Laboratory voids Plant mix (laboratory) One per sublot As needed for QC verification Based on QC tests verified by assurance tests
Asphalt content Behind paver One per sublot As needed for QC verification Based on QC tests verified by assurance tests
MSG Plant mix (laboratory) One per sublot As needed for QC verification Based on QC tests verified by assurance tests
Thickness Roadway One per sublot Seven cores per lot Based on QC tests verified by assurance tests
Air voids Roadway One per sublot As needed for QC verification Based on QC tests verified by assurance tests
In-place density Roadway One per sublot Seven cores per lot Based on QC tests verified by assurance tests

Maryland

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer 30 days prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, density, asphalt content, MSG, VTM, VMA, Marshall flow smoothness, and Marshall stability. The contractor must provide split samples to the engineer for assurance testing.

Quality Assurance

Maryland DOT is responsible for all assurance testing. Assurance testing is conducted on split samples provided by the contractor. Properties measured include gradation, density, asphalt content, MSG, VTM, VMA, Marshall flow smoothness, and Marshall stability. Additional assurance samples may be taken and tested if deemed necessary by the engineer. The lot size for all properties is 3000 tons (2720 Mg) with 1000-ton (910-Mg) sublots, except for density, which is 1000 tons (910 Mg) with 200-ton (180-Mg) sublots.

Acceptance

Independent tests on split samples, observing contractor's testing, monitoring control charts, additional sampling as deemed necessary by the engineer, and monitoring the contractor's adherence to the QC plan provides acceptance. The lot size for all properties is 3000 tons (2720 Mg) with 1000-ton (910-Mg) sublots, except for density, which is 1000 tons (910 Mg) with 200-ton (180 Mg) sublots.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, asphalt content, and smoothness. A pay factor for density and a composite pay factor for binder content and gradation is computed using quality-level analysis-the standard deviation method to determine the PWL and the associated pay factor. The lot payment is then determined using the following equation:

Equation 44.  Lot payment equals CUP times PF subscript dens times CPF subscript GAC times tonnage.     (44)

where: CUP = contract unit price
PFDens = density pay factor
CPFGAC = composite pay factor for gradation and density

Smoothness is measured by a computerized profilograph that takes measurements in 0.1-mi (0.16-km) increments and must conform to the following:

  1. Single-lift construction with a wedge and leveling on tangent alignment and pavement on horizontal curves having a centerline radius of 2000 ft (610 m) or more shall have a profile index of ≤10 inches/mi (158 mm/km).
  2. Multiple-lift construction, with or without a wedge and leveling on tangent alignment and pavement on horizontal curves having a centerline radius of 2000 ft (610 m) or more shall have a profile index of ≤7 inches/mi (110 mm/km).
  3. Either of the above on horizontal curves having a centerline radius of curve of 1000 ft (305 m) or more, but less than 2000 ft (610 m), and pavement within the superelevation transition of such curves shall have a profile index of ≤12 inches/mi (190 mm/km).
  4. Single-lift construction without wedge and leveling placed on a tangent alignment pavement after grinding shall have a profile index of = 12 inches/mi (190 mm/km).
  5. Single-lift construction without wedge and leveling placed on pavement shall have a profile index of ≤15 inches/mi (240 mm/km).

Areas that are accepted at a reduced price for a profile index deficiency will be adjusted by the factors shown in the following table in conformance with the procedures specified in items 1 through 5 above:

Table 69. Maryland profile index adjustment (normal projects).

Profile Index Exceeds Specification (inches/mi per 0.1-mi section) Percentage of Payment Unit Bid Price
0.1-1.0 98
1.1-2.0 96
2.1-3.0 94
3.1-4.0 92
4.1-5.0 90
≥ 5.1 Corrective work required

1 inch/mi = 16 mm/km, 1 mi = 1.61 km

This adjustment is made at the end of paving and is based on the overall average profile index for the project.

Areas that are accepted on incentive projects shall use the following adjustment pay factor schedule and shall be in conformance with items 1 through 5 above.

Table 70. Maryland profile index adjustment (incentive projects).

Final Average Profile Index Percentage of Pavement Unit Price
(5) (3,4) (1) (2)
0.0-1.9 0.0-1.9 0.0-1.9 0.0-1.9 105
2.0-2.9 2.0-2.9 2.0-2.9 2.0-2.9 104
3.0-3.9 3.0-3.9 3.0-3.9 3.0-3.9 103
4.0-15.0 4.0-10.0 4.0-10.0 4.0-7.0 100

QC/QA Tests for Maryland

Table 71. Maryland QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Maryland DOT Acceptance by Maryland DOT
Density Roadway Five cores per 1000-ton lot Three cores per 6000 tons Based on verification of QC by QA
Gradation Cold feed One per 1000 tons or per day One per lot Based on verification of QC by QA
Asphalt content Plant (hot mix) or behind paver One per 1000 tons or per day One per lot Based on verification of QC by QA
MSG Plant (hot mix) or behind paver One per 1000 tons or per day One per lot NA
VTM Plant (hot mix) or behind paver One per 1000 tons or per day One per lot NA
VMA Plant (hot mix) or behind paver One per 1000 tons or per day One per lot NA
Flow Plant (hot mix) or behind paver One per 1000 tons or per day One per lot NA
Stability Plant (hot mix) or behind paver One per 1000 tons or per day One per lot NA
Smoothness Roadway 0.1-mi segments Randomly at engineer's discretion Based on verification of QC by QA

NA = Not applicable, 1 mi = 1.61 km, 1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Michigan

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation (#4, #30, and #200), air voids, VMA, TMD, binder content, and crushed particle content.

Quality Assurance

Michigan DOT is responsible for all assurance testing and acceptance of the material. QA testing on loose mix and on compacted mix will be done at the field laboratory.

Acceptance

Acceptance is based on verification of the contractor's QC tests. If the engineer's tests and the contractor's tests are within allowable tolerances for the job mix formula, the material is considered to be acceptable. Testing is conducted on equal sublot sizes with a maximum size of 1200 tons (1090 Mg). Five consecutive sublots constitute a lot.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, TMD, binder content, crushed particle count, density, and VMA. The criteria for each of the pay factors are not available at this time. However, the negative price adjustments for the bituminous mixture contract unit price is cumulative according to the following equation:

Equation 45.  Price adjustment equals CUP times the sum of pavement density plus mixture properties plus failure to suspend operations.     (45)

where: CUP = contract unit price
Mixture properties = gradation, TMD, binder content, crushed particle count, and VMA

QC/QA Tests for Michigan

Table 72. Michigan QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Michigan DOT Acceptance by Michigan DOT
TMD Plant One per sublot One per lot Based on acceptable tolerances with JMF
Gradation (dry): #4, #30, #200 Cold feed One per day One per lot Based on acceptable tolerances with JMF
Crushed particle content Cold feed One per day One per lot Based on acceptable tolerances with JMF
Binder content Plant One per sublot One per lot Based on acceptable tolerances with JMF
Air voids Plant One per sublot One per lot Based on acceptable tolerances with JMF
VMA Plant One per sublot One per lot Based on acceptable tolerances with JMF
In-place density Roadway Three per sublot One per lot Based on acceptable tolerances with JMF

Minnesota

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, Marshall BSG, MSG, air voids, VMA, TSR, crushed count, and moisture content. Testing frequency is determined by taking the day's planned production, dividing by 1000, then rounding that figure to the next whole number.

Quality Assurance

Minnesota DOT is responsible for all assurance testing and acceptance of the material. At least one set of assurance tests is run on one set of production tests per day. Assurance is accomplished by testing, observing the contractor's QC sampling and testing, taking additional samples, and monitoring QC control charts.

Acceptance

The contractor's control test cannot be used for acceptance. Acceptance is based on Minnesota DOT's assurance tests. Pavement smoothness is the exception. The contractor's testing for smoothness is observed by the engineer and is used for acceptance and pay adjustments.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, VMA, asphalt content, density, profile index, and air voids. Pay factors for gradation, VMA, asphalt content, and air voids are determined from the following table, with the lowest single payment applied:

Payment Schedule

Table 73. Minnesota payment schedule.

Item Percentage of Payment
Gradation 90
VMA 85
Asphalt content 85
Air voids (individual) 70

The pay factor for in-place density is determined on a lot-by-lot basis, with the number of lots determined by the following table:

Determination of Lots for Density

Table 74. Minnesota determination of lots for density.

Daily Production (tons) Lots
0-300 1
301-600 2
601-1000 3
1001-1600 4
1601-3600 5
3601-5000 6
5000+ 7

1 ton = 0.907 Mg

When the density of a lot of compacted mixture is less than the specified minimum, payment will be made at an adjusted price as specified in the following table:

Adjusted Payment Schedule for Maximum Density (Disincentive)

Table 75. Minnesota adjusted payment schedule for maximum density (disincentive).

Percentage of Density Below Specified Minimum Payment Factor (percentage of contract price)
0.1-1.0 inclusive 98
1.1-1.5 inclusive 95
1.6-2.0 inclusive 91
2.1-2.5 inclusive 85
2.6-3.0 inclusive 70
> 3.0 Remove and replace

An incentive is available for density exceeding the specified minimum according to the following table:

Adjusted Payment Schedule for Maximum Density (Incentive)

Table 76. Minnesota adjusted payment schedule for maximum density (incentive).

Percentage of Density Above Specified Minimum Pay Factor (percentage of contract price)
0.1-1.0 inclusive 100
1.1-1.5 inclusive 102
> 1.5 104

The profile index is determined using a California-type profilograph. Profiles will be made for segments of 0.1 km.

The following table determines the pay factor for smoothness:

Payment Schedule for Smoothness

Table 77. Minnesota payment schedule for smoothness.

mm per km per 0.1-km segment Dollars per Segment
0-13 110
14-25 90
26-38 65
39-79 0
80-92 -90
93-105 -180
106-118 -360
> 118 Corrective action

QC/QA Tests for Minnesota

Table 78. Minnesota QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Minnesota DOT Acceptance by Minnesota DOT
Gradation (extracted) Truck or paver One per 2200 tons One per 2200 tons Based on assurance test results
Asphalt content Truck or paver One per 1000 tons One per day Based on assurance test results
VMA Truck or paver Two per day One per day Based on assurance test results
TSR Truck or paver One per 11,000 tons Engineer's discretion Based on assurance test results
Density Roadway Three per lot One per day Based on assurance test results
Air voids Truck or paver Two per day One per day Based on assurance test results
Crushed count Cold feed Two per day for 2 days then one per day One per day Based on assurance test results
MSG Truck or paver Two per day One per day Based on assurance test results
Smoothness Roadway One pass per lane segment (0.1 km) Observation of QC Based on QC testing as observed by the engineer
BSG Truck or paver Two per day One per day Based on assurance test results

1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Montana

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, density, asphalt content, and fractured faces.

Quality Assurance

Montana DOT is responsible for all assurance sampling and testing. Assurance testing is conducted on the properties evaluated for QC. Assurance is conducted on a sublot size of 600 tons (540 Mg).

Acceptance

The contractor's control test cannot be used for acceptance. Acceptance is determined by evaluating the QA tests for compliance with the JMF tolerances for gradation, in-place density, and asphalt content. Quality incentives and disincentives are established by determining if the mix is within the allowable tolerances of the JMF. Acceptance is based on a 3000-ton (2720-Mg) lot.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, and asphalt content. The factors are determined according to the following equations and the Price Reduction Factors table. All of the individual test results in the lot for the element to be evaluated will be averaged and the percentage of price reduction for the lot will be determined by the applicable equation:

Equation 46. The percent reduction in the contract price, P, equals the average of several test values from samples from the lot, X subscript N, plus a variable factor used as N changes, A, times the product of the difference between the highest and lowest values in the group of values, R, minus the upper tolerance limit, RU, times the price reduction factor from table 79, F.     (46)

Equation 47.  P equals the lower tolerance limit, TL, plus the product of A times R, minus the average of several test values from samples from the lot, XN, times F.     (47)

where: P = percent reduction in the contract price
Xn = average of several test values from samples from the lot. (n = sample size)
a = variable factor used as n changes: n = 3, a =0.45; n = 4, a = 0.38; n = 5, a = 0.33;
n = 6, a = 0.30; and n = 7, a = 0.28
R = difference between the highest and lowest values in the group of values
Tu = upper tolerance limit
TL = lower tolerance limit
F = price reduction factor from the following table:

Price Reduction Factors

Table 79. Montana price reduction factors.

Element f Factor
100% sieve 1
½-inch sieve and larger 1
#100 sieve to 3/8-inch sieve inclusive, except 100% sieve size Cover material: 2 All other aggregate: 3
#200 Cover material: 3
All other aggregate: 6
Density 12
Fractured faces 2

1 inch = 25.4 mm

If P < 3 or a negative quantity, the lot is accepted as being in conformance. If one or more elements for a contract item show a positive P-value, the positive values are added and the resulting sum is used to determine whether the lot is in conformance. If P = 3 to 25, corrective action is required or the lot is accepted at a reduced price. If P = 25+, remove and replace. An incentive pay factor of 1.05 is allowed when the aggregate gradation for #4, #40, and #200 sieves is not more than one-half the allowable tolerance from the JMF. Additionally, a pay factor of 1.05 will be applied when the average density of the lot is from 97 percent to 98 percent, inclusive, from the target field Marshall density and the range is 3 or less.

QC/QA Tests for Montana

Table 80. Montana QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Montana DOT Acceptance by Montana DOT
Gradation (dry) Cold feed One per 600 tons One per 600 tons Based on QA testing
Density Roadway One per 600 tons One per 600 tons Based on QA testing
Asphalt content Behind paver One per 600 tons One per 600 tons Based on QA testing
Fractured faces Cold feed One per 600 tons One per 600 tons NA

NA = Not applicable
1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Nebraska

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, BSG, ESG, binder content, TMD, air voids, VMA, and density.

Mix design verification is evaluated for the following properties: number of Marshall blows, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, percent voids in mix, dust-to-asphalt ratio, binder content, VMA, crushed face, TMD, BSG, and ESG.

Quality Assurance

Nebraska Department of Roads (DOR) is responsible for all assurance testing and acceptance of the material. All assurance test samples are split samples obtained from the contractor under the direction of the Nebraska DOR. From each sample, three Marshall samples are made and tested. Cores for density testing are obtained by Nebraska DOR. Assurance testing is conducted on the properties evaluated for QC.

Acceptance

Acceptance is based on verification of the contractor's QC tests for air voids, VMA, gradation, BSG, and in-place density by Nebraska DOR's assurance tests. If the results are verified, Nebraska DOR's tests are used for acceptance.

Pay Factors

A pay factor is assigned for density. The appropriate pay factor is then multiplied by the contract unit price. The pay factor for density is determined according to the following tables:

Density of Asphalt Concrete (First Lot)

Table 81. Nebraska density of asphalt concrete (first lot).

Average Density (Five Samples) Pay Factor
> 90.0 1.00
> 89.5-90.0 0.95
> 89.0-89.5 0.70
≤89.0 0.40 or reject

Density of Asphalt Concrete (Subsequent Lots)

Table 82. Nebraska density of asphalt concrete (subsequent lots).

Average Density (Five Samples) Pay Factor
> 92.4 1.00
> 91.9-92.4 0.95
> 91.4-91.9 0.90
> 90.9-91.4 0.85
> 90.4-90.9 0.80
> 89.9-90.4 0.70
≤89.9 0.40 or reject

QC/QA Tests for Nebraska

Table 83. Nebraska QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Nebraska DOR Acceptance by Nebraska DOR
Marshall test Plant mix One per 1100 tons One per 1 day's production Based on verification of contractor's QC tests by Nebraska DOR's QA tests
BSG Plant mix One per 1100 tons One per 1 day's production Based on verification of contractor's QC tests by Nebraska DOR's QA tests
TMD Plant mix One per 1100 tons One per 1 day's production NA
ESG Plant mix One per 1100 tons One per 1 day's production NA
Asphalt content Plant mix or behind paver One per 1100 tons One per 1 day's production Based on verification of contractor's QC tests by Nebraska DOR's QA tests
Air voids Plant mix or behind paver One per 1100 tons One per 1 day's production Based on verification of contractor's QC tests by Nebraska DOR's QA tests
VMA Plant mix One per 1100 tons One per 1 day's production Based on verification of contractor's QC tests by Nebraska DOR's QA tests
Density Roadway Five per 2750 tons Five per 1 day's production Based on verification of contractor's QC tests by Nebraska DOR's QA tests
Gradation Cold feed One per 1100 tons One per 1 day's production Based on verification of contractor's QC tests by Nebraska DOR's QA tests

NA = Not applicable
1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Nevada

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor must conduct QC tests on the following properties: gradation, liquid limit and plastic index, in-place density, absorption, fractured faces, theoretical MSG, moisture content, binder temperature, and mix temperature. The contractor is responsible for providing split samples to the engineer for verification and referee testing.

Nevada DOT is responsible for conducting the QC tests for Hveem stability, ITS, and TSR.

Quality Assurance

The contractor is responsible for all assurance testing. The testing frequencies vary, depending on the property being measured. Nevada DOT conducts verification testing to determine if the contractor's assurance test results are within acceptable limits. If the test values are not within the tolerances, referee testing is conducted.

Acceptance

Acceptance is based on the results of the QC tests, assurance tests, verification tests, and referee tests (if required). A production lot is four equal sublots. The sublot size is agreed upon by the contractor and the engineer prior to construction and may be 250, 500, or 750 tons (230, 450, or 680 Mg).

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, asphalt content, and profile index. The pay factors for each of these properties is determined from the following tables:

Pay Factors for Profile Index

Table 84. Nevada pay factors for profile index.

Pay Factor mm/km
Type A Type B Type C
1.05 0-45 0-80 0-85
1.04 46-60 81-94 86-110
1.02 61-70 95-100 111-140
1.00 71-80 101-110 141-160
0.98 81-95 111-125 161-165
0.96 96-110 126-140 166-175
0.94 111-125 141-160 176-180
0.92 126-140 161-175 181-190
0.90 141-160 176-190 -
Corrective work > 160 > 190 > 190

Pay Factors for Gradation

Table 85. Nevada pay factors for gradation.

Pay Factor Mean Absolute Deviation From JMF Target
Pass 2 mm Pass 75 μm
1.05 0.00-0.99 0.00-0.50
1.02 1.00-1.90 0.51-0.90
0.95 3.01-4.00 1.51-2.00
0.90 4.01-5.00 2.01-2.50
0.85 5.01-6.00 2.51-3.00
0.80 6.01-7.00 3.01-3.50
0.75 7.01-8.00 3.51-4.00
0.70 8.01-9.00 4.01-4.50
Remove > 9.00 > 4.50

Pay Factors for Asphalt Content

Table 86. Nevada pay factors for asphalt content.

Pay Factor Mean Absolute Deviation From JMF Target
1.05 0.00-0.19
1.02 0.20-0.24
1.00 0.25-0.30
0.95 0.31-0.35
0.90 0.36-0.40
0.85 0.41-0.45
0.80 0.46-0.50
0.75 0.51-0.60
0.70 0.61-0.65
Remove > 0.65

Pay Factors for In-Place Air Voids

Table 87. Nevada pay factors for in-place air voids.

Pay Factor Measured Air Voids (average of five locations per sublot)
1.05 4.0-5.9
1.02 6.0-6.9
1.00 7.0-8.0
0.95 3.5-3.9 or 8.1-9.5
0.90 3.0-3.4 or 9.6-10.0
0.80 2.6-2.9 or 10.1-11.0
0.70 11.1-12.0

Note: If the average in-place air void for a sublot is less than 2.5 or greater then 12.0, the entire sublot must be removed.

Once the pay factors have been determined, the pay calculation is as follows:

A = HMA set price × Placement quantity × Production pay factor B = HMA set price × Placement quantity tested for air voids × Placement pay factor C = HMA set price × Placement quantity tested for rideability × Ride pay factor

The total pay quantity (TPQ) shall be based on the applicable pay adjustment factors for production, placement, and ride quality:

For production only: TPQ = A
For production and placement: TPQ = 0.40A + 0.60B
For production, placement, and ride quality: TPQ = 0.30A + 0.40B + 0.30C

The incentive or disincentive pay amount is the difference between the standard pay quantity (SPQ) and the TPQ.

QC/QA Tests for Nevada

Table 88. Nevada QC/QA tests.

Test Sample Location QC Testing Frequency Assurance Testing Frequency by Nevada DOT Verification Testing Frequency by Nevada DOT
Gradation (except 2 mm and 75 μm) Cold feed One per sublot by contractor NA 1 per 12 sublots by Nevada DOT
Gradation (2 mm and 75 μm) Behind paver NA One per sublot by contractor 1 per 12 sublots by Nevada DOT
Asphalt content Behind paver NA One per sublot by contractor 1 per 12 sublots by Nevada DOT
HVEEM stability Behind paver One per eight sublots by Nevada DOT NA NA
Theoretical MSG Behind paver Average of two random tests per lot by contractor NA 1 per 12 sublots by Nevada DOT
Moisture content Behind paver One per four sublots by contractor NA 1 per 12 sublots by Nevada DOT
Binder temperature Plant Continuous by contractor NA Continuous by Nevada DOT
Mix temperature Truck bed Continuous by contractor NA Continuous by Nevada DOT
In-place air voids Roadway NA Five per sublot by contractor 1 per 12 sublots by Nevada DOT
Liquid limit Stockpile One per four sublots by contractor NA 1 per 12 sublots by Nevada DOT
Plastic index Stockpile One per four sublots by contractor NA 1 per 12 sublots by Nevada DOT
Fractured faces Stockpile One per four sublots by contractor NA One per four sublots by Nevada DOT
Absorption Stockpile One per four sublots by contractor NA 1 per 12 sublots by Nevada DOT
ITS Behind paver 1 per 20 sublots by Nevada DOT NA NA
Smoothness Roadway One pass per lane of travel per 0.1 km One pass per lane of travel per 0.1 km One pass per lane per lot
TSR Behind paver 1 per 20 sublots by Nevada DOT NA NA

NA = Not applicable

North Dakota

Quality Control

The contractor must use a mix design developed by North Dakota DOT. It is the contractor's responsibility to meet the design requirements of the JMF. In addition, the contractor is responsible for providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction and for providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, plastic index, lightweight aggregate, fractured faces, MSG, BSG, air voids, asphalt content, and density. The contractor must provide split samples for the engineer to conduct assurance testing.

Quality Assurance

North Dakota DOT is responsible for all assurance testing and acceptance. The engineer may select any or all of the split samples for assurance testing. Assurance testing is conducted on the properties evaluated for QC.

Acceptance

Acceptance is based on the contractor's QC tests if the results are verified by North Dakota DOT's assurance testing. The testing frequencies vary, depending on the property being measured. For density, the lot size is 1 day's production, with two core samples for each equal sublot being averaged.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, asphalt content, and density. The determination of the pay factors was not available; however, the total pay adjustment is determined by successively multiplying the pay factors for gradation, asphalt content, and density by the contract unit price.

QC/QA Tests for North Dakota

Table 89. North Dakota QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by North Dakota DOT Acceptance by North Dakota DOT
Gradation Cold feed One per 1500 tons Engineer's discretion, minimum of 10% QC testing Based on QC tests if verified by assurance test
Plastic index Stockpiles Three per 10,000 tons Engineer's discretion, minimum of 10% QC testing Based on QC tests if verified by assurance test
Lightweight aggregate Stockpiles Three per 10,000 tons Engineer's discretion, minimum of 10% QC testing Based on QC tests if verified by assurance test
Fractured faces Stockpiles Three per 10,000 tons Engineer's discretion, minimum of 10% QC testing Based on QC tests if verified by assurance test
MSG Plant mix One per 1500 tons Engineer's discretion, minimum of 10% QC testing Based on QC tests if verified by assurance test
BSG Plant mix One per 1500 tons Engineer's discretion, minimum of 10% QC testing Based on QC tests if verified by assurance test
Air voids Plant mix or behind paver One per 1500 tons Engineer's discretion, minimum of 10% QC testing Based on QC tests if verified by assurance test
Asphalt content Plant mix or behind paver Four per 1 day's production Engineer's discretion, minimum of 10% QC testing Based on QC tests if verified by assurance test
Density Roadway Two per sublot per 1 day's production Engineer's discretion, minimum of 10% QC testing Based on QC tests if verified by assurance test

1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Ohio

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, air voids, MSG, and density. The contractor must provide split samples to the engineer for assurance testing.

Quality Assurance

Ohio DOT is responsible for all assurance testing and acceptance of the material. Assurance testing is conducted on the properties evaluated for QC.

Acceptance

The contractor's control test can be used for acceptance for gradation, density, and asphalt content if the results are verified by Ohio DOT's assurance tests.

Pay Factors

A pay factor is assigned for gradation, density, and asphalt content. The determination of the pay factors was not provided. However, the pay factors are cumulative. The sum is then multiplied by the contract unit price to determine the amount of the bonus or penalty.

QC/QA Tests for Ohio

Table 90. Ohio QC/QA tests.

Test Sample Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Ohio DOT Acceptance by Ohio DOT
Asphalt content Behind paver Two per day or one for each 1400 tons One per 2800 tons Based on QC tests as verified by QA tests
Gradation (dry) Cold feed Two per day or one for each 1400 tons One per 2800 tons Based on QC tests as verified by QA tests
Air voids Behind paver Two per day or one for each 1400 tons One per 2800 tons NA
MSG Behind paver Two per day or one for each 1400 tons One per 2800 tons NA
Density Roadway Two per sublot (700 tons) One per 2800 tons Based on QC tests as verified by QA tests

NA = Not applicable
1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Ontario

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the contract administrator prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow assurance samples to be taken to a certified laboratory at the request of the owner.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, air voids, and density.

Quality Assurance

The owner is responsible for all assurance testing. Owner assurance testing is conducted on gradation, air voids, VMA, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, and asphalt content.

Acceptance

The contractor is responsible for all acceptance testing. The contractor's control test can be used for acceptance if the results agree with the owner's assurance results. In the event that the two results do not agree, additional samples will be taken for referee testing by an independent laboratory. Acceptance testing is conducted for the following characteristics: gradation, air voids, VMA, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, and asphalt content. Acceptance is based on the PWL for each lot. Sublot sizes vary and are decided on by the owner and the contractor, but usually consist of 500-metric ton sublots.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, asphalt content, and air voids. The individual pay factors are weighted and summed to arrive at the composite pay factor. The composite pay factor is then multiplied by the contract unit price to determine the amount of the bonus or penalty.

QC/QA Tests for Ontario

Table 91. Ontario QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Owner Acceptance Testing Frequency by Contractor
Gradation Cold feed As needed for control One per 500 metric tons One per 500 metric tons
Asphalt content Behind paver As needed for control One per 500 metric tons One per 500 metric tons
Air voids Behind paver As needed for control One per 500 metric tons One per 500 metric tons
VMA Behind paver As needed for control One per 500 metric tons One per 500 metric tons
Marshall stability Behind paver As needed for control One per 500 metric tons One per 500 metric tons
Marshall flow Behind paver As needed for control One per 500 metric tons One per 500 metric tons
Density Roadway As needed for control Three per sublot Three per sublot

Oregon

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, MSG, moisture content, air voids, VMA, TSR, dust-to-asphalt ratio, and density. The contractor must supply the engineer with split samples for assurance testing.

Quality Assurance

Oregon DOT is responsible for all assurance testing. Assurance testing is conducted on the properties evaluated for QC. All control and assurance tests are conducted on 1000-Mg sublots.

Acceptance

The contractor's control test cannot be used for acceptance. Acceptance testing is conducted for the following characteristics: gradation, in-place density, asphalt content, and moisture content. Acceptance is on a lot-by-lot basis where a lot is represented by all the material produced under the JMF. Test results are used to establish an acceptable quality level using quality-level analysis.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, asphalt content, and moisture. Once the PWL for an element is determined, the pay factor is taken from a table and then weighted according to the following equation:

Equation 48.  WPF equals PF times weighting factor F subscript I.     (48)

where: fi = weighting factor

The following table determines these factors:

Weighting Factors

Table 92. Oregon weighting factors.

Constituent Weighting f Factor
Aggregate passing 37.5-, 31.5-, 25.0-, 19.0-, and 12.5-mm sieves 1 each
Aggregate passing 6.3-mm sieve 5
Aggregate passing 2.00-mm sieve 5
Aggregate passing 425-μm sieve 3
Aggregate passing 75-μm sieve 10
Asphalt content 26
Moisture content 8
Density 40

The composite pay factor is then determined by the following equation:

Equation 49. CPF equals sigma WPF divided by sigma F subscript I.     (49)

The composite pay factor is then multiplied by the quantity in the lot and by the contract unit price to determine the total amount of payment for the lot. The following table is a summary of the QC/QA tests:

QC/QA Tests for Oregon

Table 93. Oregon QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Oregon DOT Acceptance Testing Frequency by Oregon DOT
Gradation Cold feed One per 1000 Mg One per 1000 Mg One per lot
Dust-to-asphalt ratio Cold feed One per 1000 Mg One per 1000 Mg
NA
Asphalt content Truck or behind paver One per 1000 Mg One per 1000 Mg One per lot
Moisture Truck One per 1000 Mg One per 1000 Mg One per lot
Air voids Truck or behind paver One per 1000 Mg One per 1000 Mg
NA
VMA Truck or behind paver One per 1000 Mg One per 1000 Mg
NA
TSR Truck or behind paver One per 1000 Mg One per 1000 Mg
NA
MSG Truck or behind paver One per 1000 Mg One per 1000 Mg
NA
Density Roadway One per 1000 Mg One per 1000 Mg Five per lot

NA = Not applicable

Pennsylvania

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, stability, flow, voids, asphalt content, mix temperature, and density. These properties must be tested once per 250-ton (230 Mg) sublot.

Quality Assurance

Pennsylvania DOT is responsible for all assurance sampling and testing. The assurance tests are independent of the contractor's control tests. Assurance testing is conducted for gradation, asphalt content, and density.

Acceptance

Acceptance is based on certification at the plant when QC and assurance tests conform to the JMF tolerances, except for in-place density. Acceptance for density is accomplished by verification of the QC tests by the QA tests in the field. Acceptance properties are asphalt content, gradation (#200), stability, flow voids, and density.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, and asphalt content. The pay factors are based on the deviation from the specification limits. The following tables provide the pay factor for asphalt content, gradation, and density:

Adjustment of Contract Price Relative to the Specification Limits

Table 94. Pennsylvania adjustment of contract price relative to the specification limits.

Asphalt Content Test Value Payment Factor Percentage
±0.07% 100
±0.8-1.0% 75
> ±1.0% *
Percentage Passing #200 Sieve ±3.1-4.0% 75
±3.0% 100
> ±4.0% *
Density ≥ 92% or < 97% of TMD 100
90-91% or 97-99% of TMD 98
≤ 89% or > 99% of TMD *

*Indicates remove and replace.

QC/QA Tests for Pennsylvania

Table 95. Pennsylvania QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Pennsylvania DOT Acceptance by Pennsylvania DOT
Gradation (dry) Cold feed One per sublot (250 tons) One per lot (1000 tons) Based on plant certification by QC and assurance tests
Mixture temperature Truck One per sublot (250 tons) NA
NA
Flow Plant One per sublot (250 tons) NA Based on plant certification by QC and assurance tests
Air voids Plant One per sublot (250 tons) NA Based on plant certification by QC and assurance tests
Asphalt content Plant One per sublot (250 tons) One per lot (1000 tons) Based on plant certification by QC and assurance tests
Density Roadway One per sublot (250 tons) One per lot (1000 tons) Based on QC as verified by QA
VMA Plant One per sublot (250 tons)
NA
Based on plant certification by QC and assurance tests

NA = Not applicable
1 ton = 0.907 Mg

South Carolina

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for all QC testing. Prior to the start of construction, the contractor must submit a QC program for approval by the engineer. This plan must include, at a minimum, the name of the QC manager, sampling frequency and procedure, testing procedures, method of recording results, and the procedure for managing variable test results. The contractor must provide a certified level 1 technician to monitor gradation and binder content. The contractor is also required to develop and submit a JMF that conforms to all South Carolina DOT requirements. The technician must make all test results available to the engineer and the engineer must be permitted to observe all testing of material.

The JMF is verified based on gradation, asphalt content, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, air voids, TSR, VMA, and dust-to-asphalt ratio.

The contractor shall use the test methods identified in the table below to perform the plant QC tests and verifications at a frequency not less than that indicated.

Required QC Tests and Verifications

Table 96. South Carolina required QC tests and verifications.

Parameter Minimum Frequency Sampling Method Test Method
Bituminous mixture gradation One per lot SC-T-62 SC-T-76
MSG (Rice method) Two per lot SC-T-62 SC-T-83
Marshall stability One per lot SC-T-62 SC-T-66
Lime rate verification Two per lot SC-T-71 SC-T-71
SC-T-78
Mixture temperature verification Four per lot - SC-T-84
Aggregate stockpile gradation One per 10,000 tons SC-T-1, SC-T-2 SC-T-4
Temperature
Ambient air

Mat

Before paving starts, then two per lot
Four per lot

-
-

SC-T-84
SC-T-84
Calculated lay-down rate One per 200 tons - SC-T-85
Tack rate, type, and dilution One per application - SC-T-86

1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Compaction control and the number and types of rollers shall be the contractor's responsibility. The contractor shall have a nuclear density gauge at the site during all HMA placement and compaction operations and shall use the gauge to assist in QC of the compaction process.

Quality Assurance

The contractor is responsible for conducting all acceptance testing. South Carolina DOT personnel may witness the sampling and testing being performed by the contractor. South Carolina DOT will conduct its own tests to verify the contractor's test results. The verification tests for asphalt binder content will be on the split samples retained by the contractor. For most paving, the verification tests for in-place density will be on cores retained by the contractor. For thin-lift surface courses, verification tests for in-place density analysis will be at independent locations determined and tested by South Carolina DOT using the same type of nuclear density gauge as used by the contractor.

In general, the frequency of South Carolina DOT's verification tests will be equal to or greater than 10 percent of the tests required for the contractor.

Acceptance

The contractor shall use the test methods identified in the table below to perform the plant acceptance tests at a frequency not less than that indicated.

Required Acceptance Tests

Table 97. South Carolina required acceptance tests.

Test Parameter Typical Frequency Sampling Method Test Method
Asphalt binder content, percent Four per lot SC-T-100 SC-T-62 SC-T-64 or SC-T-75
Voids analysis
Air voids, percent
VMA, percent

Four per lot
Four per lot

SC-T-100, SC-T-62
SC-T-100, SC-T-62

SC-T-68
SC-T-68
In-place density (percentage of maximum theoretical)
Note: Requirements apply to intermediate courses and to surface courses other than type 3 and type 4.
One per 1500-ft sublot SC-T-100, SC-T-87 SC-T-87
In-place density (percentage of target nuclear control-strip density)
Note: Requirements apply to type 3 and type 4 surface courses and for all thin-lift surface courses regardless of type.
10 per lot SC-T-100 SC-T-65

1 ft = 0.305 m

The engineer is responsible for determining the air voids and VMA from Marshall samples. The technician is responsible for determining the binder content. Density is determined by coring and is the responsibility of the contractor at the direction of the engineer. Lot size is 1 day's production. Test frequency is at the discretion of the engineer; however, the minimum requirements are listed in the table.

Pay Factors

For asphalt binder content and the Marshall volumetric properties of air voids and VMA, a lot is normally defined as 1 day's production. The acceptance and pay factors for asphalt binder content and the Marshall volumetric properties of air voids and VMA will be based on the percentage of the lot that is within the specification limits (PWL) based on the quality index calculated using the test results from the lot.

The pay factor for each property is determined based on the total percent within limits (TPWL) value from the following equation:

Equation 50. PF equals 55 plus 0.5 times the total percent within limits, TPWL.     (50)

The percent pay factor for the lot (LPF) will be determined by multiplying the percent pay factors for asphalt binder content, air voids, VMA, and in-place density by weighted coefficients as shown in the equation below. The LPF will be calculated to the nearest tenth (0.1) and rounded up to the next whole percent (1.0). The LPF will be determined from the following equation:

Equation 51.  LPF equals 0.2 times the percent pay factor for asphalt binder content, PF subscript AC, plus 0.35 times the percent pay factor for air voids, PF subscript AV, plus 0.1 times the percent pay factor for VMA, PF subscript VMA, plus 0.35 times the percent pay factor for in-place density, PF subscript den.     (51)

where: LPF = percent pay factor for the lot
PFAC = percent pay factor for asphalt binder content
PFAV = percent pay factor for air voids
PFVMA = percent pay factor for VMA
PFDen = percent pay factor for in-place density

Texas

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results. To complete the required testing, the contractor must provide technicians certified at levels I through IV, depending on the test being conducted. The standard lot size is 6000 square yards (5000 m2) of surface area of PCC pavement of the same thickness. A sublot is equal to one-fifth of the surface area of a lot. If the final lot is 3000 square yards (2500 m2 ) or greater, it will be considered a full lot. QC must be exercised on all properties contained in the table entitled QC/QA Tests for Texas.

Quality Assurance

QA is accomplished through verification testing conducted by Texas DOT. Independent assurance testing is conducted to review the QC testing and to check the accuracy of the equipment used for verification testing.

Acceptance

Acceptance of the material is based on the QC tests and the verification tests. If the contractor's QC test results and the engineer's verification test results are not within tolerances, referee testing will be conducted. If referee tests are requested, the referee test results shall govern.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for ride quality, thickness, and flexural strength. The pay factor for flexural strength is based on the following table:

Table 98. Texas pay factors for flexural strength.

Average Flexural Strength (Three Beams) (lbf/inch2) Strength Adjustment Factor (SF)
≥555 1.0000
550 0.9695
545 0.9397
540 0.9106
535 0.8820
530 0.8542
525 0.8269
< 525 Remove or remain with no payment

1 pound force per square inch (lbf/inch2) = 6.89 kilopascals (kPa)

The pay factor for ride quality was not provided. The pay factor for thickness is determined using the following table:

Table 99. Texas pay factors for thickness.

Thickness Deficiency (inch) Thickness Adjustment Factor (TF)
> 0.00-0.20 1.00
> 0.20-0.30 0.80
> 0.30-0.40 0.72
> 0.40-0.50 0.68
> 0.50-0.75 0.57

1 inch = 25.4 mm

The pay adjustment factor for each lot is calculated as AF = (SF)(TF). The pay adjustment for each lot is then calculated to be Payment = (BP)(AF)(Q), where BP = bid price and Q = lot quantity of acceptable pavement.

QC/QA Tests for Texas

Table 100. Texas QC/QA tests.

Test Sample Location QC Testing by Contractor Verification Testing by Texas DOT Acceptance by Texas DOT
Mix temperature Plant One per sublot One per day Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Air content (plastic) Roadway after discharge One per sublot 1 per 10 QC tests Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Concrete unit weight Roadway after discharge One per sublot 1 per 10 QC tests Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Making/curing strength specimens Roadway after discharge One per sublot 1 set per 10 sublots
NA
7-day flexural strength Roadway after discharge
NA
One per sublot Based on verification
Coarse aggregate gradation Stockpile One per stockpile per day 1 per 10 QC tests Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Coarse aggregate loss by decantation Stockpile One per 5 PCC production days 1 per 10 QC tests Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Fine aggregate gradation Stockpile One per stockpile per day 1 per 10 QC tests Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Fineness modulus Stockpile One per stockpile per day 1 per 10 QC tests Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Fine aggregate organic impurity Stockpile One per 5 PCC production days 1 per 10 QC tests Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Sand equivalent Stockpile One per 5 PCC production days 1 per 10 QC tests Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Aggregate moisture content Stockpile One per stockpile per day 1 per 10 QC tests Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Water-to-cement ratio Roadway after discharge One per batch Review plant printout and calibration Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Cement factor Roadway after discharge One per batch Review plant printout and calibration Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Admixture dosage Roadway after discharge One per batch Review plant printout and calibration Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required
Coring for thickness Roadway One per sublot NA NA
Measuring pavement thickness Roadway (plastic)
NA
One per sublot Based on QC, verification, and referee, if required

Virginia

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

Mix design verification is evaluated for the following properties: Marshall stability, Marshall flow, MSG, gradation, BSG, VMA, VFA, VTM, dust-to-asphalt ratio, and asphalt viscosity.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: air voids, VFA, VMA, dust-to-asphalt ratio, density, temperature, and fractured faces. The contractor must cooperate with the engineer to obtain samples for assurance testing. The contractor must perform at least one set of tests per day or one set per 1000 metric tons.

Quality Assurance

QA is achieved through the QC testing by the contractor and by independent monitoring (assurance) tests conducted by Virginia DOT. Assurance testing may be conducted on air voids, VFA, VMA, dust-to-asphalt ratio, density, temperature, and fractured faces. The frequency of testing is at the engineer's discretion.

Acceptance

The contractor's control test can be used for acceptance if the results are verified by the assurance tests conducted by Virginia DOT. The testing frequencies vary, depending on the property being measured.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation and asphalt content. The pay factors are assigned on an adjustment point system. Adjustment points are assigned for each sieve size and for asphalt content. Any lot receiving 25 or more points must be removed. Any lot with fewer than 25 adjustment points may be left in place with a 1-percent reduction in the unit bid price per point. A summary of the QC/QA tests follows:

QC/QA Tests for Virginia

Table 101. Virginia QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Virginia DOT Acceptance by Virginia DOT
Gradation (extracted) Truck One per 500 tons or four per lot (2000 tons) At the discretion of the engineer for QC verification Based on observed and verified results of QC by assurance tests
Asphalt content Truck One per 500 tons or four per lot (2000 tons) At the discretion of the engineer for QC verification Based on observed and verified results of QC by assurance tests
Air voids Truck One Marshall test per day or 1000 tons At the discretion of the engineer for QC verification Based on observed and verified results of QC by assurance tests
VFA Truck One Marshall test per day or 1000 tons At the discretion of the engineer for QC verification Based on observed and verified results of QC by assurance tests
VMA Truck One Marshall test per day or 1000 tons At the discretion of the engineer for QC verification Based on observed and verified results of QC by assurance tests
Fractured faces Cold feed One Marshall test per day or 1000 tons At the discretion of the engineer for QC verification Based on observed and verified results of QC by assurance tests
Dust-to-asphalt ratio Cold feed One Marshall test per day or 1000 tons At the discretion of the engineer for QC verification Based on observed and verified results of QC by assurance tests
Density Roadway Based on nuclear gauge testing of control strip At the discretion of the engineer for QC verification Based on nuclear gauge testing of control strip
VTM Truck One Marshall test per day or 1000 tons At the discretion of the engineer for QC verification Based on observed and verified results of QC by assurance tests

1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Washington

Quality Control

The contractor must submit materials to be used in the mix to Washington State DOT for mix design development. The contractor must allow 15 working days for the development and approval of the design. In addition, the contractor is responsible for providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, density, fractured faces, and sand equivalent.

The frequency of the QC testing is established and agreed upon by the contractor and the engineer in a preconstruction conference establishing the control plan.

Quality Assurance

Washington State DOT is responsible for all assurance sampling and testing. The assurance testing frequencies vary, depending on the property being measured and are established by the engineer. Assurance testing is conducted on the properties evaluated for QC.

Acceptance

Acceptance testing is the responsibility of Washington State DOT. The contractor's control test cannot be used for acceptance. Acceptance is based on the following characteristics: gradation, in-place density, smoothness, and asphalt content. A lot is considered to be all material produced using the same JMF. Sublot sizes vary, but cannot exceed 800 tons (730 Mg). Acceptance and the corresponding pay factors are based on the PWL.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, and asphalt content. The individual pay factors for an element are determined using quality-level analysis. These individual pay factors are weighted with an f-factor. The composite pay factor is then determined according to the following equation:

Equation 52.  CPF equals F subscript 1 times PF subscript 1, plus F subscript 2 times PF subscript 2, plus the set through F subscript I times PF subscript I, all divided by sigma F subscript I.(52)

QC/QA Tests for Washington

Table 102. Washington QC/QA tests.

Test Sample Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Washington State DOT Acceptance Testing Frequency by Washington State DOT
Extracted gradation (5/8 inch, ½ inch, 3/8, ¼ inch, #10, #40, #200) Truck Engineer's discretion Engineer's discretion Five per lot minimum
Asphalt content Truck Engineer's discretion Engineer's discretion Five per lot minimum
Density Roadway Engineer's discretion Engineer's discretion Five per lot minimum
Smoothness Roadway Engineer's discretion Engineer's discretion Based on one lot
Fractured faces Cold feed Engineer's discretion Engineer's discretion Five per lot minimum

1 inch = 25.4 mm

Wisconsin

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor must conduct QC tests for the following properties: gradation (1/2 inch (13 mm), 3/8 inch (10 mm), #4, #8, #30, and #200), asphalt content, Marshall BSG, MSG, air voids, and VMA.

The contractor must supply the engineer with split samples for assurance testing. The number of samples required depends on the amount of material produced. The number of required tests is as follows:

Sampling Frequencies

Table 103. Wisconsin sampling frequencies.

Total Daily Plant Production (Mg) Number of Samples per Day
45-550 1
551-1360 2
1361-2450 3
2451-3810 4
3811+ Add one sample for each additional 1360 Mg or part thereof

Quality Assurance

Wisconsin DOT is responsible for all assurance testing and acceptance. The assurance testing frequencies must be at least 10 percent of the contractor's QC frequency. Assurance testing is conducted on the properties evaluated for QC.

Acceptance

The contractor's control tests are used for acceptance if the results are verified by Wisconsin DOT's assurance tests.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, asphalt content, air voids, and VMA. The pay factors are assigned if the contractor's test results and the assurance test results are not within specified tolerances. The pay factors are presented in the following table:

Percent Payment for Mixture

Table 104. Wisconsin percent payment for mixture.

Item Produced Within Warning Bands Produced Outside JMF Limits
Gradation 90 75
Asphalt content 85 75
Air voids 70 50
VMA 90 75

The minimum single payment applies.

QC/QA Tests for Wisconsin

Table 105. Wisconsin QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Wisconsin DOT Acceptance by Wisconsin DOT
Gradation (extracted) Truck See Sampling Frequency table 10% of QC frequency Based on verification of QC tests by assurance tests
Asphalt content Truck See Sampling Frequency table 10% of QC frequency Based on verification of QC tests by assurance tests
BSG Truck See Sampling Frequency table 10% of QC frequency Based on verification of QC tests by assurance tests
MSG Truck See Sampling Frequency table 10% of QC frequency Based on verification of QC tests by assurance tests
Air voids Truck See Sampling Frequency table 10% of QC frequency Based on verification of QC tests by assurance tests
VMA Truck See Sampling Frequency table 10% of QC frequency Based on verification of QC tests by assurance tests

Wyoming

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor is responsible for QC for the following properties: gradation, liquid limit and plastic index of virgin material, moisture content of mix, in-place density, test strip, and mix verification.

Mix design verification is evaluated for the following properties: LA abrasion, number of Marshall blows, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, percent voids in mix, dust-to-asphalt ratio, minimum asphalt percentage, minimum TSR, film thickness, and VMA.

Quality Assurance

Wyoming DOT is responsible for all assurance testing. Assurance testing is conducted on the properties evaluated for QC.

Acceptance

The contractor's control test cannot be used for acceptance. The testing frequencies vary, depending on the property being measured. Acceptance testing is conducted on the following characteristics: gradation, in-place density, and asphalt content.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, and asphalt content. Determination of the pay factors uses quality-level analysis. Once the quality level and corresponding pay factor are determined, the pay adjustments are calculated using the following equations:

Equation 53. Pay adjustment of aggregate gradation, PA subscript A, equals 0.67 times bituminous mixture unit price, PMP, times the sum of pay factor for gradation, PF subscript A, minus 1, times the lot size for aggregate gradation evaluation.     (53)

Equation 54. Pay adjustment for density, PA subscript D, equals 1.33 times PMP times the sum of pay factor for density, PF subscript D, minus 1, times the lot size for density evaluation.     (54)

Equation 55. Pay adjustment for asphalt content, PA subscript AC, equals 0.67 times PMP times the sum of pay factor for asphalt, PF subscript D, minus 1, times the lot size for asphalt content evaluation.     (55)

where: PAA = pay adjustment for aggregate gradation
PFA = pay factor for gradation
PAD = pay adjustment for density
PFD = pay factor for density
PAAC = pay adjustment for asphalt content
PFAC = pay factor for asphalt
LSA = lot size for aggregate gradation evaluation
LSD = lot size for density evaluation
LSAC = lot size for asphalt content evaluation
PMP = bituminous mixture unit price

QC/QA Tests for Wyoming

Table 106. Wyoming QC/QA tests.

Test Sample Location QC Testing by Contractor Assurance Testing Frequency by Wyoming DOT Acceptance Testing Frequency by Wyoming DOT
Stockpile gradation Stockpile One per 1000 tons One per 1000 tons One per lot or 5000 tons
Liquid limit and plastic index (virgin aggregate) Individual stockpiles One per 1000 tons One per 1000 tons
NA
Virgin aggregate gradation Cold feed One per 1000 tons One per 1000 tons One per lot or 5000 tons
Mix verification Truck One per day for 4 days, then one per 20,000 tons One per day for 4 days, then one per 20,000 tons NA
Moisture content of mix Truck One per day One per day NA
Test strip Roadway Required NA NA
In-place density Roadway One per 200 tons One per 200 tons Seven per lot or 1500 tons
Asphalt content Truck One per day One per day One per day

NA = Not applicable
1 ton = 0.907 Mg

 

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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