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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-046
Date: October 2004

Appendix C: Summaryof AGency Superpave Specifications Received

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Connecticut

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

Mix design verification is evaluated for the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, voids @ Ndes, VMA, VFA, Gmm @ Ndes and Nmax, Gmb, Gse, TSR, Ndes, Nini, Nmax, recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) gradation, fine aggregate angularity (FAA), coarse aggregate angularity (CAA), sand equivalent, and dust-to-asphalt ratio.

The contractor must exercise control over the following properties: asphalt content, gradation, air voids, mix moisture, VMA, VFA, BSG of mix, MSG of mix, RAP gradation, aggregate moisture, RAP moisture, and density. In addition, the contractor must provide split samples to the engineer for verification testing.

Quality Assurance

Connecticut DOT is responsible for QA. Assurance is accomplished through verification testing by Connecticut DOT and through independent assurance testing. Verification tests are conducted on split samples. A lot is considered 1 day's production. Sublots are five equal divisions of any lot.

Acceptance

Acceptance is based on the QC tests as verified by Connecticut DOT's verification tests. Density acceptance is based on the PWL of a lot. The PWL is calculated using 10 tests (2 per sublot).

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, asphalt content, joint density, and mat density. The pay factors for each can be determined from the following tables. Total payment is determined by successively multiplying the percent payment by the contract price per metric ton of material.

Pay Factors for Gradation and Binder Content

Maximum Allowable Deviation (M.A.D.) From Job-Mix Formula for Consecutive Tests

Table 107. Connecticut M.A.D. from job-mix formula for consecutive tests.

Item M.A.D. Percent Payment
Binder 0.4 90
75 ±2 90
150 ±3 90
300 ±3 90
600 ±4 90
1.18 ±4 90
2.36 ±6 90
4.75 ±6 90
9.5 ±6 90
12.5 ±6 90
19.0 ±6 90
25.0 ±6 90
37.5 ±6 90
50.0 ±6 90

Pay Factors for Joint and Mat Density

Table 108. Connecticut pay factors for joint and mat density.

PWL Percent Payment Mat Density Percent Payment Joint Density
90-100 100 100
80-90 0.5PWL + 55 0.5PWL + 55
65-80 2.0PWL - 65 2.0PWL - 65
< 65 0 or remove 50

QC/QA Tests for Connecticut

Table 109. Connecticut QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Verification Testing Frequency by Connecticut DOT Acceptance by Connecticut DOT based on ...
Gradation Conveyor prior to binder addition Five per lot One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
Moisture content of RAP Stockpile Two per day One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
Moisture content of aggregate Conveyor prior to binder addition Two per day One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
Asphalt content of RAP Stockpile Two per day One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
Rap gradation Stockpile Two per day One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
Asphalt content Behind paver Five per lot One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
Superpave molds @ Nmax Behind paver Five sets (two molds) per lot One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
BSG Behind paver Five per lot One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
Air voids Behind paver Five per lot One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
VMA Behind paver Five per lot One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
VFA Behind paver Five per lot One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
MSG of mix Plant Five per lot One per lot QC verified by Connecticut DOT's test
Mat density (nuclear) Roadway 10 per lot NA Based on PWL for lot
Joint density (nuclear) Roadway 10 per lot NA Based on PWL for lot

NA = Not applicable

Kansas

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. All testing equipment and procedures must conform to the Kansas DOT Superpave Mix Design and Superpave Field Laboratory Technician Certification Training Manual. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

Mix design verification is evaluated for the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, theoretical MSG, BSG, air voids, VMA, VFA, dust-to-asphalt ratio, flat or elongated particles, percent moisture, and TSR.

The contractor must exercise control over the following properties: asphalt content, gradation, air voids, VMA, VFA, CAA, sand equivalent, FAA, TSR, density, and dust-to-asphalt ratio. Samples for mixture properties, aggregate gradation, and binder must be taken from behind the paver and transported to the field laboratory for testing.

Quality Assurance

Kansas DOT is responsible for all assurance and verification testing. Kansas DOT assurance tests are independent of the contractor's QC tests. The lot size for verification testing is 3000 tons (2720 Mg) with 750-ton (680 Mg) sublots.

Acceptance

The contractor's control tests are used for acceptance unless the results do not compare favorably with Kansas DOT's verification test results. In this case, Kansas DOT's tests are used for acceptance unless the contractor requests referee testing. The testing frequencies vary, depending on the property being measured.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for in-place density, air voids, and smoothness. Pay factors for density and air voids can be determined from the following tables. Information concerning methods for determining a smoothness pay factor was not included.

Pay Factors for Specified Density

Table 110. Kansas pay factors for specified density.

Percentage of MSG, Pay Factor A(b) (Average of 10 Density Tests(a)) Pay Factor A(b)
Mixes SM-2A, SR-2A, SM-2C, and SR-2C Mix SM-1T Mixes SM-1B and SR-1B
≥ 94.0     1.020
≥ 93.0 1.020 1.020  
93.0-93.9     A4
92.0-92.9 A1 A1 1.000
91.0-91.9 1.000 1.000  
90.0-90.9   1.000  
88.0-91.9     A5
87.0-90.9 A2    
86.0-89.9   A3  
< 88.0     (c)
< 87.0 (c)    
< 86.0   (c)  
Lowest Average of Any Sublot Within the Lot Pay Factor B(b)
≥ 92.0     1.020
≥ 91.0 1.020 1.020  
91.0-90.9     B4
90.0-90.9 B1 B1 1.000
89.0-89.9 1.000 1.000  
88.0-88.9   1.000  
86.0-89.9     B5
85.0-88.9 B2    
84.0-87.9   B3  
< 86.0     (c)
< 85.0 (c)    
< 84.0   (c)  

(a) For low daily production rates of less than 1000 tons (910 Mg) or when the engineer's verification tests are to be used for density pay determination, the lot sample size is as determined under subsection 603.05(b) for compaction testing.
(b) For shoulders less than 1.8 m wide and containing rumble strips, the density pay factors will not apply for the top lift. Density will be controlled by using an approved rolling procedure.
(c) Engineer will determine whether the material may remain in place. The pay factor for such material remaining in place is 0.700 for pay factor A and 0.800 for pay factor B.

Calculations for Pay Factors A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5:

A1 = [100 + 2 (percentage of lot MSG - 92.0)] ÷ 100
A2 = [90 + 2.5 (percentage of lot MSG - 87.0)] ÷ 100
A3 = [90 + 2.5 (percentage of lot MSG - 86.0)] ÷ 100
A4 = [100 + 2 (percentage of lot MSG - 93.0)] ÷ 100
A5 = [90 + 2.5 (percentage of lot MSG - 88.0)] ÷ 100
B1 = [100 + 2 (percentage of sublot MSG - 90.0)] ÷ 100
B2 = [90 + 2.5 (percentage of sublot MSG - 85.0)] ÷ 100
B3 = [90 + 2.5 (percentage of sublot MSG - 84.0)] ÷ 100
B4 = [100 + 2 (percentage of sublot MSG - 91.0)] ÷ 100
B5 = [90 + 2.5 (percentage of sublot MSG - 86.0)] ÷÷ 100

Equation 56.  Density pay adjustment factor, P subscript D asterisk, equals pay factor A times pay factor B, all minus 1.     (56)

Air Void Payment

Payment adjustment for air voids will be computed by multiplying the air voids pay adjustment factor (PV) times the number of tons included in the lot times the bid price per ton. Calculate PV to 0.001.

A lot will normally be comprised of the results of four contiguous individual air void tests performed on Superpave gyratory compacted samples of a given mix design. Lot size is defined in subsections 5.0(f) and 5.0(g) of this special provision. (Air void lots and density lots are normally of different sizes.)

The absolute value of the deviation from the target at Ndes for each individual air void test in a lot will be computed as shown:

Equation 57.  Deviation from target equals 4.0 minus test value.     (57)

The average deviation (D) from the target will be computed as follows:

Equation 58.  The average deviation from the target, D, equals the sum of deviations from target divided by the number of tests in lot.     (58)

The average air void deviation (D) will be used to select the air void pay factor from the appropriate table below. Calculate D to 0.01.

Pay Factor Table for Air Voids (Lot Size of Four Tests)

Table 111. Kansas pay factors for air voids (lot size of four tests).

Air Void Average Deviation Pay Factor
0.00 ≤ D4 ≤ 0.35 1.030
0.36 ≤ D4 0.55 1.000 + 0.15(0.55 - D)
0.56 ≤ D4 ≤ 1.05 1.000
1.06 ≤ D4 ≤ 1.40 1.000 - 0.44(D - 1.05)
1.41 ≤ D4 (a)

(a) Engineer will determine whether the material may remain in place. The pay factor for such material remaining in place is 0.8000.

When the testing rate does not provide a complete four-test lot (e.g., at the end of a production run), the following applies: Combine the three tests into a lot and use the following table for D3. When there are one or two tests remaining, combine them with the previous four tests to create a five- or six-test lot, respectively. The pay factors for D5 and D6 are also shown below.

Pay Factor Table for Air Voids (Lot Size of Three Tests)

Table 112. Kansas pay factors for air voids (lot size of three tests).

Air Void Average Deviation Pay Factor
0.00 ≤ D3 ≤ 0.37 1.030
0.38 ≤ D3 ≤ 0.58 1.000 + 0.14(0.58 - D)
0.59 ≤ D3 ≤ 1.11 1.000
1.12 ≤ D3 ≤ 1.48 1.000 - 0.35(D - 1.11)
1.49 ≤ D3 (a)

(a) Engineer will determine whether the material may remain in place. The pay factor for such material remaining in place is 0.8000.

Pay Factor Table for Air Voids (Lot Size of Five Tests)

Table 113. Kansas pay factors for air voids (lot size of five tests).

Air Void Average Deviation Pay Factor
0.00 ≤ D5 ≤ 0.29 1.030
0.30 ≤ D5 ≤ 0.53 1.000 + 0.125(0.53 - D)
0.54 ≤ D5 ≤ 1.01 1.000
1.02 ≤ D5 ≤ 1.35 1.000 - 0.41(D - 1.01)
1.36 ≤ D5 (a)

(a) Engineer will determine whether the material may remain in place. The pay factor for such material remaining in place is 0.8000.

Pay Factor Table for Air Voids (Lot Size of Six Tests)

Table 114. Kansas pay factors for air voids (lot size of six tests).

Air Void Average Deviation Pay Factor
0.00 ≤ D6 ≤ 0.28 1.030
0.29 ≤ D6 ≤ 0.51 1.000 + 0.13(0.51 - D)
0.52 ≤ D6 ≤ 0.98 1.000
0.99 ≤ D6 ≤ 1.31 1.000 - 0.39(D - 0.98)
1.32 ≤ D6 (a)

(a) Engineer will determine whether the material may remain in place. The pay factor for such material remaining in place is 0.8000.

Equation 59.  Air void pay adjustment factor, P subscript V, equals pay factor minus 1.000.     (59)

QC/QA Tests for Kansas

Table 115. Kansas QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Verification Testing Frequency by Kansas DOT Assurance Testing Frequency by Kansas DOT
Binder sampling Plant One per three loads One per project NA
Binder content Behind paver One per sublot One per three lots Witness and test once per year by certified technician
Mix gradation (extraction) Behind paver One per sublot One per three lots Witness and test once per year by certified technician
Theoretical MSG Behind paver One per sublot One per lot Witness and test once per year by certified technician
Air voids Behind paver One per sublot One per lot Compact and test split sample once per week or 15,000 tons
RAP binder content Stockpile One per 1000 tons One per 20,000 tons NA
RAP gradation Stockpile One per 1000 tons One per project NA
Moisture damage to mix Behind paver One on first lot, then one per week or 10,000 tons One per project Witness and test once per year by certified technician
Sand equivalent From conveyor One per lot One per project Witness and test once per year by certified technician
CA angularity Stockpile One per 1000 tons One per week or 10,000 tons Witness and test once per year by certified technician
FA angularity Stockpile One on first lot, then one per 10,000 tons One per project Witness and test once per year by certified technician
Gradation of individual aggregate Stockpile One per 1000 tons One per project per aggregate Witness and test once per year by certified technician
Percent moisture in mix Behind paver One per lot One per project NA
Percent moisture in combined aggregate From conveyor One per lot One per project NA
Percent moisture in RAP Stockpile One per lot One per project NA
Plasticity index and gradation of mineral filler Stockpile One per 250 tons One per project Witness and test once per year by certified technician
In-place density Roadway 10 tests per lot Five companion tests per lot Witness and test once per year by certified technician
Smoothness Roadway NA NA NA
Flat or elongated particles Behind paver One on first lot One per project Witness and test once per year by certified technician

NA = Not applicable
1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Louisiana

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project. The JMF must include the recommended formula, extracted gradation, and supporting design data. In addition, the contractor is responsible for providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

Mix design verification is evaluated on the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, percent crushed aggregate, MSG, corrected BSG @ Ndes, percent air voids @ Ndes, percent VMA @ Ndes, percent VFA @ Ndes, gyratory compaction curve @ Nmax, slope of the compaction curve, and percent anti-strip.

Upon validation of the JMF, the validation parameters shall be used to control the process. The quality of the mixtures will be evaluated during two phases: (1) production of the mixture at the plant, and (2) hauling, laying, and compacting of the mixture. The quality of both phases must be evaluated continuously.

Acceptance

The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) is responsible for all acceptance testing. Louisiana DOTD's acceptance tests are independent of the contractor's QC tests. The lot size is 5000 Mg, with 1000-Mg sublots unless otherwise specified by the engineer. Acceptance is based on the validation parameters used to verify the JMF. Acceptance testing for VMA, VFA, voids, maximum theoretical gravity, Nini, Ndes, Nmax, percent anti-strip, quality of asphalt cement, extracted aggregate gradation, percent crushed aggregate, percent asphalt cement, and percent moisture in the mix will be conducted on the total lot quantity.

Pay Factors

Payment adjustments will be calculated based on specification limits and specified maximum variances from the JMF:

Plant Acceptance:

For: Percent voids
Percent VMA
Extracted aggregate gradation
#8 sieve
#200 sieve

PWL will be calculated for each of the parameters listed above. A mixture with any parameter below 40 PWL is subject to removal as directed by the engineer. The percent payment for each of the parameters will be calculated using the formula:

Equation 60.  Percent payment equals 55 plus 0.5PWL.     (60)

For: Percent anti-strip additive

Payment adjustments for anti-strip additive will be based on the table below.

For: Asphalt cement

Payment adjustments for asphalt cement will be based on section 1012 of the specifications.

For: Percent payment for plant acceptance

All payment parameters will be averaged. The maximum payment factor shall be 100 percent.

Roadway Acceptance:

For: Pavement density

PWL will be calculated for the pavement density. A mixture with density results below 40 PWL is subject to removal as directed by the engineer. The percent payment for pavement density will be calculated using the formula:

Equation 61.  Percent payment equals 55 plus 0.5PWL.     (61)

For: Surface tolerance (final wearing course travel lanes)

Payment adjustments for surface tolerance will be based on the table below.

For: Percent payment for roadway acceptance

All payment parameters will be averaged. The maximum payment factor shall be 100 percent.

Total Payment Factor:

The total payment factor for the mixture used for the project will be calculated using the following formula:

Total Percent Payment = (Percent payment for plant acceptance) + (Percent payment for roadway acceptance) - 100

Payment Adjustment Schedule: Smoothness and Percent Anti-Strip

Table 116. Louisiana payment adjustment schedule.

Surface Tolerance (inches/mi per lot) Percentage of Contract Unit Price per Lot
100 98 95 80 50 or remove
Multi-lift new construction 0.0-3.0 - 3.1-4.0 4.1-6 More than 6.0
One- or two-lift overlays over planed surfaces 0.0-5.0 - 5.1-6.0 6.1-10 More than 10.0
Single-lift overlays over existing surface 0.0-8.0 - 8.1-10 10.1-15 More than 15.0
Anti-strip, percent below JMF Within JMF - 0.2 or less More than 0.2 -

1 inch/mi = 15.8 mm/km

QC/QA Tests for Louisiana

Table 117. Louisiana QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Acceptance Testing Frequency by Louisiana DOTD
Gradation (extracted) Mix from truck Two per sublot One per sublot
Percent crushed Mix from truck Two per sublot One per sublot
Asphalt content Mix from truck Two per sublot One per sublot
Percent VMA Mix from truck Two per sublot Average of five per lot
Percent VFA Mix from truck Two per sublot Average of five per lot
Air voids Mix from truck Two per sublot Average of five per lot
Maximum theoretical gravity Mix from truck Two per sublot One per lot
Nini Mix from truck Two per sublot One per lot
Ndes Mix from truck Two per sublot One per lot
Nmax Mix from truck Two per sublot One per lot
Percent anti-strip Plant Two per sublot Two per lot
Asphalt properties Plant Two per sublot One per lot
Percent moisture in mix Mix from truck Two per sublot One per lot
Density Roadway Obtain samples for engineer Five per sublot
Profile index Roadway One per day's placement One per lot

Maine

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project, providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction, and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The QC inspections and tests must be documented and provided to Maine DOT. The contractor must maintain records of all inspections and tests. These records shall indicate the nature, number, and type of deficiencies found; the quantities approved and rejected; and the nature of the corrective actions taken. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

Mix design verification is evaluated on the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, theoretical MSG, CA angularity, FA angularity, air voids, VMA, VFA, dust-to-asphalt ratio, flat or elongated particles, percent moisture, and TSR.

The contractor must exercise control over the following properties: asphalt content, temperature of mix, temperature of mat, percent TMD, gradation, air voids, VMA, VFA, Rice specific gravity, CA angularity, and dust-to-asphalt ratio.

Quality Assurance

Maine DOT is responsible for QA and acceptance of the material. QA is accomplished using verification testing. Maine DOT's verification tests are independent of the contractor's QC tests. Lot size is usually 6000 Mg or less, with sublots of 1500 Mg or less.

Acceptance

The contractor's control tests are not used for acceptance. Acceptance is based on Maine DOT's verification tests. If the QC and QA test results do not agree, acceptance is based on referee testing for asphalt content, density, air voids, and VMA. The testing frequencies vary, depending on the property being measured.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, asphalt content, in-place density, air voids, and VMA. The determination of these factors uses quality-level analysis and price adjustment or f factors listed in the specification for the applicable property. Pay factors are assigned on a lot-by-lot basis. The composite pay factor is then computed by:

Equation 62.  CPF equals F subscript 1 times PF subscript 1, plus F subscript 2 times PF subscript 2, plus the set through F subscript J times PF subscript J, all divided by sigma F.     (62)

QC/QA Tests for Maine

Table 118. Maine QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location Quality Control Testing Frequency by Contractor Verification Testing Frequency by Maine DOT Acceptance by Maine DOT
Gradation Truck body or paver hopper One per day minimum One per 1500 Mg Based on verification tests unless referee testing is required
Percent TMD Mat behind all rollers One per 125 Mg One per 250 Mg Based on verification tests unless referee testing is required
Dust-to asphalt ratio Truck body or paver hopper One per 1500 Mg One per 1500 Mg Based on verification tests unless referee testing is required
Temperature of mix Truck body or paver hopper Six per day at plant and street NA NA
Temperature of mat Roadway Four per day NA NA
Asphalt content Truck body or paver hopper One per 750 Mg One per 1500 Mg Based on verification tests unless referee testing is required
Air voids Truck body or paver hopper One per 750 Mg One per 1500 Mg Based on verification tests unless referee testing is required
VMA Truck body or paver hopper One per 750 Mg One per 1500 Mg Based on verification tests unless referee testing is required
Rice specific gravity Truck body or paver hopper One per 750 Mg NA NA
CA angularity Stockpile One per 5000 Mg NA NA
Flat or elongated particles Stockpile One per 5000 Mg NA NA
Density (nuclear) Roadway One per 250 Mg One per 250 Mg Based on verification tests unless referee testing is required

NA = Not applicable

Minnesota

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design in accordance with AASHTO TP-4, June 1997, or the Asphalt Institutes' Superpave Mix Design Manual (SP-2), such that it meets the requirements of the specification. In addition, the contractor is responsible for providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction and providing qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

Mix design verification is evaluated on the following properties: gradation; asphalt content; voids; VMA; TSR; compaction @ Ndes, Nini, and Nmax; VFA; FA angularity; CA angularity; Gmm; Gmb; Gsb; mix moisture; and dust-to asphalt ratio.

The contractor must exercise control over the following properties: asphalt content, gradation, voids, mix moisture, VMA, FA angularity, density, CA angularity, and percent Gmm @ Ndes. In addition, the contractor must provide split samples to the engineer for verification testing. Testing frequency will be equal to the day's planned production divided by 1000, then rounded to the next whole number.

Quality Assurance

Minnesota DOT is responsible for QA and for the acceptance of the material. The assurance process is achieved through the use of verification tests conducted on split samples, observation of sampling and testing performed by the QC personnel, the taking of additional samples for testing, and the monitoring of the required QC summary sheets and control charts. Lot size varies based on the contract quantity. Verification tests are conducted once per day on all production parameters.

Acceptance

Acceptance is based on the QC tests as verified by Minnesota DOT's tests for gradation, asphalt content, maximum specific gravity, Gmb, air voids, VMA, and density.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for nonconforming mixes for the following properties: gradation, FA angularity, CA angularity, VMA, asphalt content, and Gmm @ Ndes. For these characteristics, the lowest single payment applies according to the following table:

Payment Schedule

Table 119. Minnesota payment schedule.

Item Percent Payment
FAA 95
CAA 95
Gradation (extracted) 90
VMA 85
Asphalt binder content 85
Gmm @ Ndes 70

The pay factor for in-place density is determined on a lot-by-lot basis, with the number of lots determined by the following table:

Determination of Lots for Density

Table 120. Minnesota determination of lots for density.

Daily Production (tons) Lots
0-300 1
301-600 2
601-1000 3
1001-1600 4
1601-3600 5
3601-5000 6
5000+ 7

1 ton = 0.907 Mg

The pay factor is then computed using the following table:

Payment Schedule for Density

Table 121. Minnesota payment schedule for density.

Percentage of Gmb (< 100 mm from surface) Percentage of Gmb (> 100 mm from surface) Percent Payment
≥ 93.6 ≥ 94.6 104
93.1-93.5 94.1-94.5 102
92.0-93.0 93.0-94.0 100
91.0-91.9 92.0-92.9 98
90.5-90.9 91.5-91.9 95
90.0-90.4 91.0-91.4 91
89.5-89.9 90.5-90.9 85
89.0-89.4 90.0-90.4 70
< 89.0 < 90.0 Remove and replace

The profile index is determined using a California-type profilograph. Profiles will be made for segments of 0.1 km. The following table determines the pay factor for smoothness:

Payment Schedule for Smoothness

Table 122. Minnesota payment schedule for smoothness.

mm/km per 0.1-km Segment Dollars per Segment
0-13 110
14-25 90
26-38 65
39-79 0
80-92 -90
93-105 -180
106-118 -360
> 118 Corrective action

QC/QA Tests for Minnesota

Table 123. Minnesota QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Verification Test by Minnesota DOT Acceptance by Minnesota DOT
Gradation (extracted) Truck or paver One day's planned production, divided by 1000, then rounded to the next whole number One per day Based on QC as verified by Minnesota DOT's tests
Asphalt content Truck or paver One day's planned production, divided by 1000, then rounded to the next whole number One per day Based on QC as verified by Minnesota DOT's tests
Air voids Truck or paver One day's planned production, divided by 1000, then rounded to the next whole number One per day Based on QC as verified by Minnesota DOT's tests
VMA Truck or paver One day's planned production, divided by 1000, then rounded to the next whole number One per day Based on QC as verified by Minnesota DOT's tests
Gmm @ Ndes Truck or paver One day's planned production, divided by 1000, then rounded to the next whole number One per day Based on QC as verified by Minnesota DOT's tests
TSR Plant One per 10,000 tons NA NA
Gsb Plant One per 10,000 tons NA NA
CAA Conveyor One per day One per day Based on QC as verified by Minnesota DOT's tests
FAA Conveyor One per day One per day Based on QC as verified by Minnesota DOT's tests
Moisture content Truck or paver Engineer's discretion Engineer's discretion NA
Smoothness Roadway One pass per lane segment (0.1 km) Observation of QC Based on QC testing as verified by observation
Density (percentage of Gmb) Roadway Three cores per lot One companion core per lot Based on QC as verified by Minnesota DOT's tests

NA = Not applicable
1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Mississippi

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project. In addition, the contractor is responsible for providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction. The contractor must also provide qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

Mix design verification is evaluated on the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, asphalt properties, voids @ Ndes, VMA @ Ndes, fractured faces, TSR, Ndes, Nini, Nmax, stripping, RAP gradation, FA angularity, MSG, and dust-to-asphalt ratio.

The contractor must exercise control over the following properties: asphalt content, gradation, voids @ Ndes, mix moisture, VMA @ Ndes, FA angularity, density, fractured faces, MSG, stripping, and RAP gradation. In addition, the contractor must provide split samples to the engineer for verification testing. Sampling frequency for QC of voids, VMA, gradation, MSG, FA angularity, CA angularity, RAP gradation, stripping, and asphalt content is as follows:

Sampling Frequency

Table 124. Mississippi sampling frequency.

Total Estimated Production (tons) Number of Tests
50-600 1
601-1500 2
1501-2700 3
2701+ 4

1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Determination of the lots for density testing is as follows:

Lot Determination for Density

Table 125. Mississippi lot determination for density.

Daily Production (tons) Number of Lots
0-300 1
301-600 2
601-1000 3
1001-1500 4
1501-2100 5
2101-2800 6
2800+ 7

1 ton = 0.907 Mg

Quality Assurance

Mississippi DOT is responsible for QA and acceptance of the material. QA is accomplished by verification testing on split samples, testing additional samples at any time, and observing the QC tests. Lot size varies based on the contract quantity.

Acceptance

Acceptance is based on the QC tests as verified by Mississippi DOT's tests for total voids, VMA @ Ndes, gradation, asphalt content, and density. Acceptance for smoothness is based on the observed contractor QC tests. Should the QC tests and the verification tests fail to meet the allowable differences, the engineer's test results will be used for acceptance.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, in-place density, total voids @ Ndes, smoothness, and VMA @ Ndes. Pay factors for these properties can be determined from the following tables:

Pay Factors for Mixture Quality

Table 126. Mississippi pay factors for mixture quality.*

Item Produced in Warning Bands Outside JMF limits (allowed to remain in place)
Gradation 0.90 0.75
Asphalt content 0.85 0.75
Total voids @ Ndes 0.70 0.50
VMA @ Ndes 0.90 0.75

* Minimum single pay factor applies.

Pay Factors for Density

Table 127. Mississippi pay factors for density.

Pay Factor Lot Density (percentage of maximum density)
1.00 ≥ 92.0
0.90 91.0-91.9
0.80 90.0-90.9

Pay Factors for Smoothness

Table 128. Mississippi pay factors for smoothness.

Profile Index (inch/mi per lot) Pay Factor (percentage of unit bid price)
≤ 3 105
> 3-5 102
> 5-7 100
> 7-8 95
> 8-10 90
> 10 Unacceptable

1 inch/mi = 16 mm/km

QC/QA Tests for Mississippi

Table 129. Mississippi QC/QA tests.

Test Sample Location QC Testing Frequency by Contractor Verification Testing Frequency by Mississippi DOT Acceptance by Mississippi DOT
Binder sampling Plant tank One per 200,000 gal ≥ 10% of QC tests NA
Binder content Truck See QC table 1 = 10% of QC tests Based on verified QC by Mississippi DOT's tests
Mix gradation (extracted) Truck See QC table 1 = 10% of QC tests Based on verified QC by Mississippi DOT's tests
MSG Truck See QC table 1 = 10% of QC tests NA
Voids @ Ndes Truck See QC table 1 = 10% of QC tests Based on verified QC by Mississippi DOT's tests
Fractured faces Stockpiles One per day = 10% of QC tests NA
RAP gradation Stockpiles See QC table 1 = 10% of QC tests NA
Moisture damage to mix Plant mix One per 2 weeks = 10% of QC tests NA
VMA @ Ndes Truck See QC table 1 = 10% of QC tests Based on verified QC by Mississippi DOT's tests
CA angularity Stockpiles See QC table 1 = 10% of QC tests NA
FA angularity Stockpiles See QC table 1 = 10% of QC tests NA
Density (nuclear) Roadway Two readings per lot = 10% of QC tests Based on verified QC by Mississippi DOT's tests
Smoothness Roadway One wheel path per lane per segment (0.1 mi) Observation of QC tests Verification by observation
Percent moisture in mix Truck Two per day = 10% of QC tests NA

NA = Not applicable
1 mi = 1.61 km, 1 gallon (gal) = 3.785 liters (L)

New York

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project. In addition, the contractor is responsible, through the mix manufacturer, for providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction. The contractor must allow the engineer access to all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

Mix design verification is evaluated on the following properties: gradation, asphalt content, compaction @ Nini, Ndes, Nmax, VMA, VFA, dust-to-asphalt ratio, CA angularity, FA angularity, sand equivalent, and flat or elongated particles.

The contractor must exercise control over the following properties: asphalt content, gradation, MSG, BSG, air voids, VMA, VFA, moisture content, RAP extraction, mix temperature, and density. Additionally, the contractor must provide split samples for verification testing by the New York State DOT. The lot size is 1 day's production of a JMF with equal sublots not to exceed 1150 metric tons.

Quality Assurance

New York State DOT is responsible for QA and acceptance of the material. New York State DOT's assurance tests are independent of the contractor's QC tests. The contractor's control tests are used to assign a quality adjustment factor (QAF) for pay factors if the results agree with the verification test results. If New York State DOT's tests and the contractor's tests are not within specified tolerances, referee testing is conducted on independent samples and these results will be used for the determination of the QAF.

Acceptance

Acceptance for density is based on the PWL of the percent MTD. Acceptance for gradation, air voids, mix moisture, asphalt content, VMA, VFA, MSG, and BSG is based on the contractor's QC tests if the results are within specified tolerances of New York State DOT's tests.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, asphalt content, in-place density, and air voids. The method for determining the pay factors is currently being researched.

QC/QA Tests for New York

Table 130. New York QC/QA tests.

Test QC Testing by Contractor Assurance Testing by New York State DOT Acceptance by New York State DOT
Gradation (extracted) One per every other sublot, minimum of one per day One per lot minimum Based on verification of QC by New York State DOT's tests
Aggregate moisture Aggregate moisture One per every other sublot, minimum of two per day One per lot minimum NA
Air voids One per sublot One per lot minimum Based on verification of QC by New York State DOT's tests
Wet analysis of percent passing #200 One per week NA NA
Mix moisture As required by New York State DOT One per lot minimum Based on verification of QC by New York State DOT's tests
Asphalt content Four times per day minimum One per lot minimum Based on verification of QC by New York State DOT's tests
RAP moisture Two per week NA NA
RAP extraction Two per week NA NA
Binder test Two per day One per lot minimum Based on verification of QC by New York State DOT's tests
VMA One per sublot One per lot minimum Based on verification of QC by New York State DOT's tests
VFA One per sublot One per lot minimum Based on verification of QC by New York State DOT's tests
Density Four cores per 1800 lane-meters Average of four per lot Based on verification of QC by New York State DOT's tests
MSG One per day One per lot minimum Based on verification of QC by New York State DOT's tests
BSG One per day One per lot minimum Based on verification of QC by New York State DOT's tests
Mix temperature Four times per day minimum NA NA

NA = Not applicable

North Carolina

Quality Control

The contractor is responsible for developing the mix design for the project and providing a QC plan that must be approved by the engineer prior to construction. The QC program will include process control inspection, sampling and testing, and necessary adjustments in the process that are related to the production of a pavement that meets all of the requirements of the specification. The contractor must also provide qualified personnel and equipment to conduct QC testing. The contractor must allow the engineer access to the laboratory to observe any and all testing procedures, calculations, test documentation, and plotting of results.

The contractor must exercise control over the following properties: asphalt content, gradation, air voids @ Ndes, VMA @ Ndes, VFA @ Ndes, Gmm, Gmb @ Ndes, dust-to-asphalt ratio, percentage of MSG @ Nini, and aggregate moisture content. In addition, the contractor must provide split samples to the engineer for assurance testing. Testing frequency is as follows:

Testing Frequency

Table 131. North Carolina testing frequency.

Daily Production (metric tons) Number of Tests
80-1000 One
1001-2500 Two
2500+ (in 1500 increments) One per 1500 metric tons

Quality Assurance

North Carolina DOT is responsible for QA and for acceptance of the material. The verification tests are conducted on split samples. Testing frequency is equal to or greater than 10 percent of the contractor's control testing. QA is accomplished by conducting verification tests on split samples, observing tests conducted by the contractor, monitoring control charts, and conducting assurance testing on samples independent of the QC tests.

Acceptance

Acceptance is based on the QC tests as verified by North Carolina DOT's tests for asphalt content, Gmm, Gmb @ Ndes, and density.

Pay Factors

Pay factors are assigned for gradation, binder content, air voids, VMA @ Ndes, density, and profile index. Pay factors are determined as follows:

Payment for Mix Produced in Warning Bands*

Table 132. North Carolina payment for mix produced in warning bands.

Item Percentage of Bid Price for Mix
Gradation 90
Binder content 85
Air voids 70
VMA @ Ndes 90

* Minimum single payment applies.

The pay factor for density is determined using the following formula:

Equation 63.  Pay factor computed to the nearest 0.1 percent, PF, equals 100 minus 10 times the deficiency of the lot average density, not to exceed 3.0 percent, D, raised to the 1.465 power.     (63)

where: PF = pay factor computed to the nearest 0.1 percent
D = deficiency of the lot average density, not to exceed 3.0 percent

The pay factor for smoothness is determined on a lot-by-lot basis, where a lot is 25 test sections of 100 ft (30 m) of single lane. Measurements are made using a North Carolina Hearne Straightedge. The pay factor is assigned as follows:

Table 133. North Carolina pay factor.

Smoothness Index Acceptance Category Corrective Action Pay Adjustments
0.0-9.9 Acceptable None +$300
10-20 Acceptable None +$100
30-40 Acceptable None No adjustment
50-60 Acceptable Allowed -$300
Any other number Unacceptable Required -$600

QC/QA Tests for North Carolina

Table 134. North Carolina QC/QA tests.

Test Sampling Location QC Frequency by Contractor Verification Frequency by North Carolina DOT Acceptance by North Carolina DOT
Gradation (extracted) Truck at plant See QC table 1 ≥ 10% of QC testing Based on QC as verified by North Carolina DOT's tests
Asphalt content Truck at plant See QC table 1 ≥ 10% of QC testing Based on QC as verified by North Carolina DOT's tests
Air voids Truck at plant See QC table 1 ≥ 10% of QC testing Based on QC as verified by North Carolina DOT's tests
VMA Truck at plant See QC table 1 ≥ 10% of QC testing Based on QC as verified by North Carolina DOT's tests
Gmm Truck at plant See QC table 1 NA NA
Gmb Truck at plant See QC table 1 NA NA
VFA Truck at plant See QC table 1 NA NA
Dust-to-asphalt ratio Truck at plant See QC table 1 NA NA
Percent MSG Truck at plant See QC table 1 NA NA
Aggregate moisture content Cold feed One per day NA NA
Smoothness Roadway Test each 100 ft of single lane Observe QC test As verified by observation
Density Roadway One test per 1500 linear-feet ≥ 10% of QC testing Based on QC as verified by North Carolina DOT's tests

NA = Not applicable
1 ft = 0.305 m

 

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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