Computer-Based Guidelines for Concrete Pavements Volume II
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This report documents the investigation, modeling and
validation of the enhanced High PERformance PAVing (HIPEPAV®) II, a
comprehensive, yet user-friendly software package. HIPERPAV II primarily incorporates a set of guidelines for the
proper selection of design and construction variables to minimize early-age
damage to Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP) and Continuously Reinforced
Concrete Pavement (CRCP). In addition,
the software determines the effect of early-age behavior factors on JPCP
long-term performance. This report, Volume II of a three-volume set, is the
Construction and Design Guidelines and HIPERPAV II User's Manual, which
provides general instructions on the use and application of the HIPERPAV II.
Volume I is the Project Summary documenting the efforts undertaken for the
development of the guidelines. Volume
III is the Technical Appendices, which documents the investigation, modeling,
and validation of the HIPEPAV II. HIPERPAV II software program will be
available on a CD, or will be downloadable from FHWA Web site
This report will be of interest to those involved in
concrete pavement mix design, as well as the design and construction of
concrete pavements. Sufficient copies of
this report and CD software program are being distributed to provide two copies
to each Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Resource Center, two copies to
each FHWA Division Office, and a minimum of four copies to each State highway
agency. Additional copies for the
public are available from the National Technical Information Services (NTIS),
5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.
Paul Teng, P.E.
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development
This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S.
Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S.
Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in
this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or
The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers.
Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are
considered essential to the objective of the document.
Quality Assurance Statement
The Federal Highway Administration
(FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the
public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies
are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and
integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and
adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.
|1. Report No.
|2. Government Accession No.
||3. Recipient's Catalog No.
|4. Title and Subtitle
Guidelines For Concrete Pavements Volume II—Design and Construction Guidelines and HIPERPAV II User's Manual
|5. Report Date
|6. Performing Organization Code
J. Mauricio Ruiz, Robert O. Rasmussen, George K. Chang, Jason C. Dick, Patricia K. Nelson
|8. Performing Organization Report No.
|9. Performing Organization Name and Address
The Transtec Group, Inc.
1012 East 38 ½ Street
Austin, TX 78751
|10. Work Unit No.
|11. Contract or Grant No.
|12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Office of Infrastructure Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101
|13. Type of Report and Period Covered
|14. Sponsoring Agency Code
|15. Supplementary Notes
Contracting Officer's Technical Representative: Fred Faridazar, HRDI-11
This report documents enhancements incorporated in the (HIgh
PERformance PAVing) HIPERPAV® II software. Enhancements made within this project
include the addition of two major modules: a module to predict the
performance of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP) as affected by
early-age factors and a module to predict the early-age behavior (first 72
hours) and early life (up to 1 year) of Continuously Reinforced Concrete
Pavement (CRCP). Two additional
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) studies were also incorporated: one
that predicts dowel bearing stresses as a function of environmental loading
during the early age and a module for optimization of concrete paving mixes
as a function of 3-day strength, 28-day strength, and cost. Additional functionality to the software
also was incorporated by reviewing and prioritizing the feedback provided by
users of the first generation of the software, HIPERPAV I.
This volume provides a comprehensive set of
guidelines useful in designing and constructing both JPCP and CRCP concrete
pavements. In addition, this document
also provides sample case studies that illustrate the proper use of HIPERPAV
II to optimize concrete pavement behavior and contains a user's manual for
HIPERPAV II. This is the second
volume in a series of three volumes that document the different tasks carried
out in accomplishing the objectives for this project.
Design and Construction Written Guidelines and HIPERPAV II User's Manual
|17. Key Words
High Performance Concrete
Pavement; HIPERPAV; Jointed; Continuously Reinforced; Early-Age Behavior;
Long-Term Performance; Mechanistic-Empirical Models; Temperature; Hydration;
Shrinkage; Relaxation; Creep; Thermal Expansion; Slab Base Restraint; Curling;
Warping; Plastic shrinkage; Cracking; JPCP; CRCP
|18. Distribution Statement
No Restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service; Springfield, VA 22161
|19. Security Classif. (of this report)
|20. Security Classif. (of this page)
|21. No. of Pages
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)
Reproduction of completed page authorized (art. 5/94)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.3 SCOPE AND FORMAT
CHAPTER 2. EARLY-AGE PAVEMENT BEHAVIOR
2.1.1 Temperature and Moisture Changes
2.1.2 Development of Concrete Properties
2.1.3 Development of Stresses
2.1.4 Thermal Cracking
2.2 EARLY-AGE INDICATORS OF LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF JPCP
2.2.1 Physical Mechanisms Governing Joint Opening at Early Ages
2.2.2 Effect of Joint Opening on
Load Transfer Efficiency-JPCP without Dowels
2.2.3 Effect of Joint Opening on Load Transfer Efficiency-JPCP with Dowels
2.2.4 Distresses Influenced by
Joint Opening-JPCP without Dowels
2.2.5 Distresses Influenced by Joint Opening-JPCP with Dowels
2.3 EARLY-AGE INDICATORS OF LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF CRCP
2.3.1 Crack Spacing
2.3.2 Crack Width
2.3.3 Steel Stress
2.3.4 Factors Affecting Crack Spacing, Crack Width, and Steel Stress
2.4 EARLY-AGE INDICATORS OF LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE COMMON TO JPCP AND CRCP
2.4.2 Built-In Curling
CHAPTER 3. EARLY-AGE PAVEMENT DISTRESSES
3.1 PLASTIC SHRINKAGE CRACKING
3.2 CRACKING DUE TO THERMAL SHOCK
3.2.1 Distress Manifestation on JPCP
3.2.2 Distress Manifestation on CRCP
3.2.3 Recommended Precautions against Thermal Shock
CHAPTER 4. IMPACT OF EARLY-AGE BEHAVIOR ON LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE
4.1 FAULTING OF JPCP WITHOUT DOWELS
4.1.1 Early-Age Inputs
4.1.2 Materials Characterization
4.1.3 Early-Age Response
4.1.4 Pavement Behavior
4.1.5 Long-Term Inputs
4.1.6 Distress Prediction
4.1.7 Long-Term Performance
4.2 FAULTING OF JPCP WITH DOWELS
4.2.1 Early-Age Inputs
4.2.2 Materials Characterization
4.2.3 Early-Age Response
4.2.4 Pavement Behavior
4.2.5 Long-Term Inputs
4.2.6 Distress Prediction
4.2.7 Long-Term Performance
4.3 JPCP TRANSVERSE CRACKING
4.3.1 Early-Age Inputs
4.3.2 Materials Characterization
4.3.3 Early-Age Response
4.3.4 Pavement Behavior
4.3.5 Long-Term Inputs
4.3.6 Distress Prediction
4.3.7 Long-Term Performance
4.4 JPCP CORNER CRACKING
4.4.1 Early-Age Inputs
4.4.2 Materials Characterization
4.4.3 Early-Age Response
4.4.4 Pavement Behavior
4.4.5 Long-Term Inputs
4.4.6 Distress Prediction
4.4.7 Long-Term Performance
4.5 DELAMINATION SPALLING
4.5.1 Early-Age Inputs
4.5.2 Material Characterization
4.5.3 Pavement Response
4.5.4 Pavement Behavior
4.5.5 Long-Term Inputs
4.5.6 Distress Prediction
4.5.7 Pavement Long-Term
4.6 DEFLECTION SPALLING
4.6.1 Early-Age Inputs
4.6.2 Materials Characterization
4.6.3 Early-Age Response
4.6.4 Pavement Behavior
4.6.5 Long-Term Inputs
4.6.6 Distress Prediction
4.6.7 Long-Term Performance
4.7.1 Early-Age Inputs
4.7.2 Material Characterization
4.7.3 Pavement Response
4.7.4 Pavement Behavior
4.7.5 Long-Term Inputs
4.7.6 Distress Prediction
4.7.7 Pavement Long-Term Performance History
CHAPTER 5. HIPERPAV II INPUT PARAMETERS
5.1 DESIGN INPUTS
5.1.1 Pavement Type
5.1.3 Joint Spacing
5.1.6 Support Layers
5.1.7 Load Transfer
5.2 MATERIALS AND MIX DESIGN INPUTS
5.2.3 Chemical Admixtures
5.2.4 Supplementary Cementitious Materials
5.2.5 Mix Design
5.2.6 Strength and Maturity
5.2.7 PCC Modulus of Elasticity
5.3 CLIMATIC INPUTS
5.3.1 Early-Age Climatic Inputs
5.3.2 Long-Term Climatic Inputs
5.4 CONSTRUCTION INPUTS
5.4.2 Time of Day of Construction
5.4.3 Initial PCC Mix Temperature
5.4.4 Sawcutting Methods and Timing
5.4.5 Initial Subbase Temperature
5.5 TRAFFIC LOADING INPUTS
5.5.1 Load Configuration
5.5.3 Traffic Volume, Growth Rate, and Distribution
CHAPTER 6. CASE STUDIES
6.1 PROACTIVE JPCP CASE STUDY: TIME OF PLACEMENT
6.1.2 HIPERPAV II Analysis Strategy
6.1.4 Long-Term Performance
6.2 POST-MORTEM JPCP CASE STUDY: FAULTING
6.2.2 Analysis Strategy
6.3 PROACTIVE CRCP STUDY: SEASONAL TEMPERATURE DROP
6.3.2 Analysis Strategy
6.4 POST-MORTEM CRCP CASE STUDY: AGGREGATE SELECTION
6.4.2 Analysis Strategy
CHAPTER 7. HIPERPAV II USER'S MANUAL
7.1 PROJECT INFORMATION
7.1.1 Geography Screen
7.1.2 Monthly Weather Data Screen
7.2 EARLY-AGE JPCP ANALYSIS
7.2.2 Design Inputs
7.2.3 Materials and Mix Design Inputs
7.2.4 Construction Inputs
7.2.6 Early-Age JPCP Analysis
7.3 JPCP LONG-TERM COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
7.3.1 Long-Term Strategy Information
7.3.2 Performance Parameters
7.3.3 Joint Design
7.3.4 Traffic Inputs
7.3.5 Long-Term Analysis
7.3.6 Multiple Long-Term Comparative Strategies
7.3.7 Early-Age and Long-Term JPCP Analysis-Sample Scenario
7.4 EARLY-AGE CRCP ANALYSIS
7.4.1 Early-Age CRCP Strategies Section
7.4.2 CRCP Design Inputs
7.4.3 Materials and Mix Design Inputs
7.4.6 Post 72-Hour Temperatures
7.4.7 CRCP Analysis
7.4.8 Interpretation of CRCP Analysis
7.5 HIPERPAV II Reports
7.6 COMET Module
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Conceptual representation of temperature development in a concrete element with time.
Figure 2. Conceptual effect of creep/relaxation on concrete stresses.(11)
Figure 3. Schematic of joint opening due to temperature drop (-T).
Figure 4. Schematic of joint in JPCP without dowels.
Figure 5. Schematic of JPCP after loss of aggregate interlock/load transfer at the joint.
Figure 6. Schematic of doweled joint in JPCP.
Figure 7. Conceptual reduction in mean crack spacing over time.(16)
Figure 8. Moisture gradient resulting from excessive moisture loss.
Figure 9. Effect of drying shrinkage and thermal gradient on curling and warping (thermal gradient at set = 0 and thermal gradient at time t = 0).
Figure 10. Effect of drying shrinkage and thermal gradient on curling and warping (thermal gradient at set = 0 and thermal gradient at time t is positive).
Figure 11. Effect of drying shrinkage and thermal gradient on curling and warping (thermal gradient at set = 0 and thermal gradient at time t is negative).
Figure 12. Effect of positive thermal gradient at set on curling and warping (thermal gradient at set is positive and thermal gradient at time t = 0).
Figure 13. Effect of positive thermal gradient at set on curling and warping (thermal gradient at set is positive and thermal gradient at time t is positive).
Figure 14. Effect of positive thermal gradient at set on curling and warping (thermal gradient at set is positive and thermal gradient at time t is negative).
Figure 15. Effect of negative thermal gradient at set on curling and warping (thermal gradient at set is negative and thermal gradient at time t = 0).
Figure 16. Effect of negative thermal gradient at set on curling and warping (thermal gradient at set is negative and thermal gradient at time t is positive).
Figure 17. Effect of negative thermal gradient at set on curling and warping (thermal gradient at set is negative and thermal gradient at time t is negative).
Figure 18. Plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete pavement.
Figure 19. Closely spaced cracks resulting from thermal shock in CRCP.
Figure 20. Longitudinal crack in CRCP due to thermal shock. Crack is enhanced for clarity.
Figure 21. Flowchart outlining impact of early-age input on long-term faulting performance of JPCP without dowels.
Figure 22. Deflected pavement shape.
Figure 23. Schematic of faulting progression in JPCP without dowels, wheel on leave edge of slab (exaggerated to show mechanism).
Figure 24. Schematic of faulting progression in JPCP without dowels, wheel on approach edge of slab
Figure 25. Schematic of faulting progression in JPCP without dowels, resultant behavior at the JPCP joint that causes faulting.
Figure 26. Photograph of faulting in JPCP.
Figure 27. Schematic of time growth of faulting for JPCP without dowels.
Figure 28. Flowchart outlining the influence of early-age properties on long-term faulting performance of JPCP with dowels.
Figure 29. Schematic of ideal JPCP at set (dowel bar straight).
Figure 30. Schematic of curled JPCP connected by a dowel in bending (enlarged to show mechanism).
Figure 31. Schematic of wheel load on JPCP with dowels (dowel enlarged to show bearing stresses).
Figure 32. Schematic of time and traffic growth of faulting for JPCP with doweled joints.
Figure 33. Flowchart outlining impact of early-age input on long-term transverse cracking performance of JPCP.
Figure 34. Schematic of JPCP with a positive temperature gradient at set.
Figure 35. Schematic of JPCP with a negative temperature gradient at set.
Figure 36. Schematic of curled-down JPCP. Note the pavement lifts off the subbase at midslab, and its edges bear on the subbase.
Figure 37. Plan view of JPCP slab showing location of critical edge stresses that cause transverse cracking at midslab.
Figure 38. Schematic of curled-up JPCP.
Figure 39. Schematic of top-down JPCP transverse cracking due to severe erosion of subbase.
Figure 40. Photograph of transverse crack. Transverse crack and joints enhanced for clarity.
Figure 41. Schematic of long-term performance of JPCP: Percent cracked slabs vs. time.
Figure 42. Flowchart outlining the influence of early-age properties on long-term JPCP corner breaks.
Figure 43. Schematic of top-down JPCP corner cracking in pavements with built-in curling and reduced subbase support and load transfer. Wheel loading results in top-down cracking.
Figure 44. Photograph of corner breaks. Joints and corner breaks are enhanced for clarity.
Figure 45. Plan view of JPCP showing a corner break.
Figure 46. History of JPCP corner breaks.
Figure 47. Flowchart outlining impact of early-age input on long-term delamination spalling distress for JPCP and CRCP.
Figure 48. Relative humidity as a function of slab depth.
Figure 49. Strength development as a function of slab depth.
Figure 50. Shear stresses as a function of slab depth.
Figure 51. Delamination mechanism.
Figure 52. Vertical cracks at delaminated areas leading to spalling distress.
Figure 53. Delamination spalling at a CRCP crack.
Figure 54. Round-shaped aggregates at a spalled CRCP crack.
Figure 55. Spalling progression as a function of evaporation rate.(16)
Figure 56. Flowchart outlining the impact of early-age input on long-term deflection spalling performance for JPCP and CRCP.
Figure 57. Schematic of deflection spalling mechanism.
Figure 58. Schematic of deflection spalling mechanism.
Figure 59. Photograph of deflection spalling on a CRCP.
Figure 60. Schematic of percent JPCP spalled joints/cracks vs. time.
Figure 61. Flowchart outlining impact of early-age input on long-term punchout distress of CRCP.
Figure 62. Schematic of position of tensile stresses in CRCP.
Figure 63. CRCP longitudinal and transverse stresses in CRCP as a function of crack spacing.
Figure 64. Typical CRCP punchout distress.
Figure 65. CRCP punchout progression with time.
Figure 66. Typical temperature development in the slab for concrete placement at 10 a.m.
Figure 67. Typical temperature development in the slab for concrete placement at 8 p.m.
Figure 68. Early-age stress-to-strength ratio as a function of time of placement.
Figure 69. Transverse cracking as a function of time of placement.
Figure 70. International Roughness Index (IRI) and serviceability as a function of time of placement.
Figure 71. Early-age analysis results for 4.5-m joint spacing.
Figure 72. Early-age analysis results for 7.6-m joint spacing.
Figure 73. Predicted faulting for 4.5-m and 7.6-m joint spacing alternatives with no dowels.
Figure 74. Predicted faulting for 4.5-m and 7.6-m joint spacing alternatives with dowels.
Figure 75. Change in crack spacing with time for summer and winter placements.
Figure 76. Representation of PCCP temperatures in the early age and at the lowest seasonal air temperature.
Figure 77. Crack spacing distribution for pavements constructed during summer and winter.
Figure 78. Illustration of differences in cracking patterns for pavements A and B.
Figure 79. Illustration of difference in volumetric changes with temperature for concretes with different CTE.
Figure 80. Average crack spacing after 1 year for aggregates with different CTE.
Figure 81. Crack spacing distribution after 1 year for the siliceous river gravel and limestone strategies.
Figure 82. Project type selection screen for HIPERPAV II analysis.
Figure 83. Project information screen for HIPERPAV II analysis.
Figure 84. Geography screen for HIPERPAV II analysis.
Figure 85. Monthly weather data screen for HIPERPAV II analysis.
Figure 86. Strategy information screen for HIPERPAV II analysis.
Figure 87. Geometry screen.
Figure 88. Schematic of the geometry input in HIPERPAV II.
Figure 89. Dowel input screen.
Figure 90. Slab support input screen.
Figure 91. Available subbase types or subgrade conditions.
Figure 92. Cement input screen.
Figure 93. Available cement types in HIPERPAV II.
Figure 94. Heat of hydration help screen in HIPERPAV II.
Figure 95. PCC mix input screen.
Figure 96. Available coarse aggregate types in HIPERPAV II.
Figure 97. Available admixture types in HIPERPAV II.
Figure 98. Fly ash class drop-down menu.
Figure 99. PCC properties screen for early-age JPCP analysis.
Figure 100. Strength type drop-down menu.
Figure 101. Help icon under PCC properties screen.
Figure 102. Maturity data input screen.
Figure 103. Construction screen.
Figure 104. Drop-down menus and help screens under construction inputs.
Figure 105. Environment screen.
Figure 106. Drop-down menu for selection of climatic input screen to display.
Figure 107. Time-temperature distribution modified with the point feature.
Figure 108. Time-temperature distribution modified with the high-low feature.
Figure 109. Time-temperature distribution modified subjected to a cold front.
Figure 110. Analysis screen for early-age JPCP.
Figure 111. HIPERPAV II early-age analysis showing poor performance.
Figure 112. Evaporation rate analysis for early-age JPCP analysis.
Figure 113. Dowel analysis screen for early-age JPCP.
Figure 114. Strategy type pulldown menu.
Figure 115. Strategy information for long-term JPCP analysis.
Figure 116. Performance criteria screen for long-term JPCP analysis.
Figure 117. Load-transfer design for long-term JPCP analysis.
Figure 118. General traffic loading screen for long-term JPCP analysis.
Figure 119. Single axle load screen for long-term JPCP analysis.
Figure 120. Traffic loading growth rate screen for long-term JPCP analysis.
Figure 121. Analysis screen for long-term JPCP.
Figure 122. Drop-down menu for distress to plot.
Figure 123. Plot method drop-down menu.
Figure 124. Analysis results for the siliceous river gravel strategy.
Figure 125. Analysis screen for limestone strategy.
Figure 126. Selection of early-age strategies to compare.
Figure 127. Long-term strategy transverse cracking results.
Figure 128. Geometry screen for early-age CRCP analysis.
Figure 129. Steel design screen for early-age CRCP analysis.
Figure 130. Early-age construction screen for early-age CRCP analysis.
Figure 131. Post 72-hour air temperatures screen for early-age CRCP analysis.
Figure 132. Analysis screen for early-age CRCP.
Figure 133. Drop-down menu for time period to plot.
Figure 134. Help icon under CRCP analysis screen.
Figure 135. CRCP analysis with poor cracking characteristics.
Figure 136. HIPERPAV II report screen.
Figure 137. Tools drop-down menu in HIPERPAV II.
Figure 138. Mix constituents input screen in COMET.
Figure 139. Factor limits input screen in COMET.
Figure 140. Create trial batches command button in level 1 outputs.
Figure 141. Trial batches in kg/m3, gravimetric form.
Figure 142. Predicted responses for each trial batch.
Figure 143. Lab results screen.
Figure 144. Desirability function for 28-day strength.
Figure 145. Level 2 outputs—command to optimize mixes.
Figure 146. Optimum mixes sorted by desirability in volumetric form.
Figure 147. Optimum mixtures in terms of optimization factors.
Figure 148. Response predictions for optimum mixtures.
Figure 149. Individual response desirabilities for optimum mixtures.
Figure 150. Report view for printing purposes.
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Inputs for 11 a.m. and 7 p.m. times of placement strategies.
Table 2. Long-term inputs for aggregate selection sample scenario.