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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-04-150
Date: July 2006
The literature on these subjects is voluminous. It is impossible to include all of the worthwhile works. A few are listed. It is recommended that the reader pursue individual subjects of interest by consulting the bibliographies of the individual entries.
Bates, R.L., and Jackson, J.A., Eds. 1987. Glossary of Geology, third edition. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA.
The paperback version, The Dictionary of Geology, can be almost as useful. One of these two references should be available to writers and clerical workers in the geological fields.
Deer, W.A.; Howie, R.A.; and Zussman, J. 1962–1963. Rock Forming Minerals, Volumes 1–5. Longman, Green, and Co., Ltd., London, England.
This five-volume work should be available to all whose work includes the identification of mineral species. The minerals are grouped according to families (e.g., feldspars together, micas together). The end members of each family group are described, and the variation in chemical composition, indices of refraction, optical properties, etc., between members are identified. Sketches of the crystal orientation and numerous chemical analyses contribute to the usefulness of this work.
Deer, W.A.; Howie, R.A.; and Zussman, J. 1992. An Introduction to the Rock Forming Minerals. Longman, Green, and Co., Ltd., London, England.
A condensed version of the previous work, originally published in 1966. The expanded second edition was published in 1992.
DeHoff, R.T., and Rhines, F.N. 1968. Quantitative Microscopy. McGraw–Hill, New York, NY.
Dolar-Mantuani, L. 1983. Handbook of Concrete Aggregates. Noyes, Park Ridge, NJ.
This is a definitive and very important work that is recommended for study by anyone who has any control over the selection and purchase of aggregates for use in HCC construction.
Federal Highway Administration. 1991. Rock and Mineral Identification for Engineers, Report No. FHWA-HI-91-025, Washington, DC.
This guide can help practicing civil engineers in identifying rocks and minerals and understanding their characteristics and properties.
Gaynor, R.D., and Meininger, R.C. 1983. "Evaluating Concrete Sands," Concrete International, Volume 5, No. 12, pp. 53–60.
Heinrich, E.W. 1965. Microscopic Identification of Minerals. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Part 3 of this work has numerous useful tables and charts, including the clearest and most easily understood chart of interference colors we have seen.
Krumbein, W.C., and Pettijohn, F.J. 1938. Manual of Sedimentary Petrography. Appleton– Century–Crofts, New York, NY.
Milner, H.B. 1952. Sedimentary Petrography. T. Murby, London, England.
Mullen, W.G. 1978. "Weight, Density, Absorption and Surface Moisture," Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete–Making Materials. Report No. ASTM STP 169B. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 629–645.
Very clearly written with good illustrations clarifying some of the concepts.
Pettijohn, F.J. 1975. Sedimentary Rocks. Harper and Row, New York, NY.
Well illustrated with photographs and sketches of thin sections.
Pirsson, L.V. 1953. Rocks and Rock Minerals. John Wiley and Sons, revised by A. Knopf, New York, NY.
Williams, H.; Turner, F.J.; and Gilbert, C.M. 1954. Petrography: An Introduction to the Study of Rocks in Thin Section. Freeman, San Francisco, CA.
Includes numerous sketches of the appearance of thin sections of rock under the microscope.
Bensted, J., and Barnes, P., Eds. 2002. Structure and Performance of Cements. Spon Press, London, England, and New York, NY.
Berube, M.A.; Fournier, B.; and Durand, B. 2000. "Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete," Proceedings, 11th International Conference. Centre de Recherchè Interuniversitaire sur le Beton CRIB [Center for Research of Infrastructure Concrete], Laval University, Ste.–Foy, Canada.
Bredsdorff, P.; Idorn, G.M.; Kjaer, A.; Plum, M.N.; and Poulsen, E. 1962. "Chemical Reactions Involving Aggregate," Chemistry of Cement: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium, Volume 2. NBS Monograph No. 43. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, pp. 749–806.
Includes a discussion of the paper.
Fournier, B.; Berube, M.A.; and Bergeron, G. 1991. "A Rapid Autoclave Mortar Bar Method to Determine the Potential Alkali-Silica Reactivity of St. Lawrence Lowlands Carbonate Aggregates, Quebec, Canada," Cement, Concrete & Aggregates, Volume 131, pp. 58–71.
Grattan-Bellew, P.E., Ed. 1986. "Concrete Alkali–Aggregate Reactions," Proceedings of the 7th International Conference. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ.
Highway Research Board. 1964. "Symposium on Alkali-Carbonate Rock Reactions," Highway Research Record 45. Washington, DC.
Hilton, M.H. 1974. "Expansion of Reactive Carbonate Rocks Under Restraint," Transportation Research Record 525. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
This is the only experimentation in alkali-carbonate reactions that we have heard of in which the reaction took place under restraint. In field situations, expansive reactions are almost always under the restraint of the surrounding concrete and other portions of the structure. Even small members are usually under some restraint. For a report of an alkali–silica reaction under restraint, see B.W. Houston, Effects of Axial Restraint on Length Change of Expanding Mortar Bars, Technical Report C–69–8, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, 1969.
Lane, D.S. 1994. Alkali–Silica Reactivity in Virginia. Report No. VTRC 94–R17. Virginia Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, VA.
Mather, B. 1974. "Developments in Specification and Control," Transportation Research Record 525. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
An excellent summary of the knowledge available at the time.
Newlon, H.H.; Sherwood, W.C.; and Ozol, M.A. 1972. Potentially Reactive Carbonate Rocks: A Strategy for Use and Control of Potentially Reactive Carbonate Rocks (Including an Annotated Bibliography of Virginia Research): Progress Report No. 8. Report No. VTRC 71–R41. Virginia Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, VA.
All of the reports in this series may be found to be useful. This particular report includes an extensive bibliography and is listed to provide a reference and guide to the others of the Series 1 through 7b.
Okada, K.; Nishibayashi, S.; and Kawamura, M. 1989. Alkali–Aggregate Reaction: 88th International Conference. Elsevier Applied Science, London, England, and New York, NY.
Rogers, C.A., Ed. 1990. Canadian Developments in Testing Concrete Aggregates for Alkali–Aggregate Reactivity. Report No. EM-92. Engineering Materials Office, Ministry of Transportation, Downsview, Ontario, Canada.
Recommended for information concerning the most up–to–date methods of testing for alkali–carbonate, alkali–silica, and alkali-silicate reactivity.
Ryell, J.; Chojnald, B.; Woda, G.; and Koniuszy, Z.D. 1974. "The Uhthoff Quarry Alkali–Carbonate Rock Reaction: A Laboratory and Field Performance Study," Transportation Research Record 525. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
Shayan, A. 1996. "Alkali–Aggregate Reaction in Concrete," Proceedings of the 10th International Conference. Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Melbourne, Australia.
Stark, D. 1990. Handbook for the Identification of Alkali–Silica Reactivity in Highway Structures. Report No. SHRP-C/FR-91-101. National Research Council, Washington, DC.
This publication is noted for its fine color photographs that illustrate the features described more clearly than would black-and-white photographs.
Swenson, E.G. 1957. "A Reactive Aggregate Undetected by ASTM Tests," ASTM Bulletin No. 226. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
The first recorded instance of deterioration caused by alkali–carbonate–aggregate reactivity. As the title indicates, the ASTM tests available at the time could not detect alkali-carbonate reactivity. These early tests were designed to detect alkali–silica reactivity.
Walker, H.N. 1974. " Reaction Products in Expansion Test Specimens of Carbonate Aggregate," Transportation Research Record 525. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
Wang, H., and Gillott, J.E. 1991. "Mechanism of Alkali–Silica Reaction and Significance of Calcium Hydroxide," Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 21, pp. 647–654.
Backstrom, J.E.; Burrows, R.C.; Mielenz, R.C.; and Wolkodoff, V.E. 1958. "Origin, Evolution, and Effects of the Air-Void System in Concrete: Part 2, Influence of Type and Amount of Air Entraining Agent," Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Volume 30, Proceedings 55, pp. 261–272.
Backstrom, J.E.; Burrows, R.C.; Mielenz, R.C.; and Wolkodoff, V.E. 1958. "Origin, Evolution, and Effects of the Air–Void System in Concrete: Part 3, Influence of Water–Cement Ratio and Compaction," Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Volume 30, Proceedings 55, pp. 359–375.
Hover, K. 1994. "Air Content and Unit Weight of Concrete," Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete–Making Materials, P. Klieger and J.F. Lamond, Eds. Report No. ASTM STP 169C. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 296–314.
Khayat, K.H., and Nasser, K.W. 1991. "Comparison of Air Contents in Fresh and Hardened Concretes Using Different Air Meters," Cement, Concrete & Aggregates, Volume 131, pp. 18– 24.
Mielenz, R.C.; Wolkodoff, V.E.; Backstrom, J.E.; and Burrows, R.W. 1958. "Origin, Evolution, and Effects of the Air–Void System in Concrete: Part 4, The Air Void System in Job Concrete," Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Volume 30, Proceedings 55, pp. 507–517.
Mielenz, R.C.; Wolkodoff, V.E.; Backstrom, J.E.; and Flack, H.L. 1958. –Origin, Evolution, and Effects of the Air–Void System in Concrete: Part 1, Entrained Air in Unhardened Concrete," Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Volume 30, Proceedings 55, pp. 95–121.
These four reports were written during the time that air entrainment was beginning to come into widespread use. There was still much resistance to its use, a lack of belief in its efficacy, and fear that air would lower the compressive strength of the concrete below the specified strength.
Pigeon, M., and Pleau, R., 1994. Durability of Concrete in Cold Climates. E & FN Spon, Ltd., London, England.
Schell, H., and Konecny, J. 2003. "Development of an End-Result Specification for Air–Void Parameters of Hardened Concrete in Ontario’s Highway Structures," 2003 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, CD–ROM.
The ASTM standard methods should be used with care and all applicable precautions taken. They should be conducted by persons who are qualified by education or experience to conduct such tests and use such standards. These are only a few of the test methods under the jurisdiction of Committee C–9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates as published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 04.02, Concrete and Aggregates. Many of the standards in this volume, in addition to those listed here, will be needed for specialized testing of individual materials such as epoxy rebar coating, fly ash, or ground granulated blast-furnace slag or as they may be referenced in other standards or for testing individual properties or kinds of concrete. The entire volume should be available for reference.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 04.02: Concrete and Aggregates (published annually). West Conshohocken, PA:
C 33: Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates
C 39: Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
C 42: Standard Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete
C 117: Standard Test Method for Materials Finer Than 75–µm (No. 200) Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing
C 136: Standard Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
C 289: Standard Test Method for Potential Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Aggregates (Chemical Method)
C 873: Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Concrete Cylinders Cast in Place in Cylindrical Molds
D 2419: Standard Test Method for Sand Equivalent Value of Soils and Fine Aggregate
R 0030: Manual of Aggregate and Concrete Testing–Related Material
Bensted, J., and Barnes, P. 2002. Structure and Performance of Cements. Spon Press, New York, NY.
Campbell, D.H. 1986. Microscopical Examination and Interpretation of Portland Cement and Clinker. Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL.
The best we have seen on cement clinker. Numerous color photomicrographs.
DeHayes, S., and Stark, D., Eds. 1994. Petrography of Cementitious Materials. Report No. ASTM STP 1215. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Hewlett, P.C., Ed. 1998. Lea’s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, fourth edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Insley, H., and Frechette, V.D. 1955. Microscopy of Ceramics and Cements. Academic Press, New York, NY.
Lea, F.M., and Desch, C.M. 1956. The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. Edward Arnold, London, England.
Orchard, D.F. 1962. Concrete Technology: Volume 1, Properties of Materials. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Taylor, H.F.W. 1997. Cement Chemistry, second edition. Thomas Telford, London, England.
Winchell, A.N., and Winchell, H. 1964. The Microscopical Characters of Artificial Inorganic Solid Substances: Optical Properties of Artificial Minerals. Academic Press, New York, NY, and London, England.
Schwartz, D.R. 1987. "D–Cracking of Concrete Pavements," NCHRP Synthesis 134. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
This is a short, easily absorbed synthesis of the state of the knowledge in 1987 on D–cracking caused by the failure of carbonate aggregate. There has been much written since, but nothing so succinct. For information on D-cracking caused by lack of an air-void system sufficient to protect the paste against freezing and thawing, see L.E. Andrews, "Record of Experimental Air–Entrained Concrete 10 to 14 Years After Construction," Highway Research Board Bulletin 70, Highway Research Board, Washington, DC, 1953.
Powers, T.C. 1962. "Physical Properties of Cement Paste," Bulletin No. 154. Research Laboratories of the Portland Cement Association. Reprinted from "Chemistry of Cement," Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium, Washington, DC, 1960. Monograph 43, Volume II, Session V, Paper V–1, pp. 577–609. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC.
Powers, T.C., and Brownyard, T.L. 1948. "Studies of the Physical Properties of Hardened Portland Cement Paste," Bulletin No. 22. Research Laboratories of the Portland Cement Association. Reprinted from Journal of the American Concrete Institute, October 1946–April 1947, Proceedings 43, Detroit, MI.
Beauchamp, R.H., and Williford, J.F. 1974. "Metallographic Methods Applied to Ultrathinning Lunar Rocks, Meteorites, Fossils, and Other Brittle Materials for Optical Microscopy," Metallographic Specimen Preparation: Optical and Electron Microscopy, J.L. McCall and W.M. Muller, Eds. Plenum Press, New York, NY, pp. 233–250.
Beauchamp, R.H., Williford, J.F., and Gafford, E.L. 1972. Exploratory Development and Services for Preparing and Examining Ultrathin Polished Sections of Lunar Rocks and Particulates, NASA 9–11993, 211b00862: Final Report, Parts I and II. Revision 1 to NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, TX. Pacific Northwest Laboratories, A Division of Battelle Memorial Institute, Richland, WA.
Of these two publications by this team of Beauchamp, et al., the first is more readily available and has some very instructive photographs; however, the second, available only from the authors, has much more detailed information concerning the sample preparation procedures used for fabricating thin sections of lunar rock. Some of these procedures were adapted at VTRC for use in the fabrication of thin sections of concrete (H.N. Walker and B.F. Marshall, "Methods and Equipment Used in Preparing and Examining Fluorescent Ultrathin Sections of Portland Cement Concrete," Cement, Concrete & Aggregates, Volume 11, 1979, pp. 3–91).
Bloss, F.D. 1961. An Introduction to the Methods of Optical Crystallography. Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York, NY.
This work places more emphasis on cataloging mineral species by means of their birefringence than does any other text on optical crystallography or petrography we have encountered.
DeHoff, R.T., and Rhines, F.N. 1968. Quantitative Microscopy. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
French, W.J. 1991. "Concrete Petrography: A Review," Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, Volume 24, pp. 17–48.
Hutchinson, C.S. 1974. Laboratory Handbook of Petrographic Techniques. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Johannsen, A. 1968. Manual of Petrographic Methods (facsimile of the second edition, 1918). Hefner, New York, NY.
"The first attempt to give in English a comprehensive review of petrographic methods" (from the dust jacket). It elucidates the optical parameters of crystalline substances and the use of the modern type of petrographic microscope for determining the optical properties of minerals and the principles of light, harmonic motion, lenses, and other related subjects.
Kerr, P.F. 1959. Optical Mineralogy, third edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Larsen, E.S., and Berman, H. 1964. "Microscopical Determination of the Non–Opaque Minerals," Geological Survey Bulletin 848. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
This indispensable work includes chapters on the determination of the optical constants of minerals and, most important, various arrangements of tables of the optical properties. The optical character of the mineral is considered the most important subdivision. Tables are available under each subdivision in order of the indices of refraction of the minerals.
Nicol, W. 1828–1829. "On a Method of So Far Increasing the Divergence of the Two Rays in Calcareous–Spar That Only One Image May Be Seen at a Time," The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Volume 6, pp. 83–94 (cited in Johannsen, 1968).
Ray, J.A. 1983. "Things Petrographic Examination Can and Cannot Do With Concrete," Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Cement Microscopy. International Cement Microscopy Association, Duncanville, TX.
Ray, J.A. 1984. "Preparation of Concrete Samples for Petrographic Studies," Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Cement Microscopy. International Cement Microscopy Association, Duncanville, TX.
Ray, J.A. 1987. "Concrete Problems Associated With Air Entrainment," Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Cement Microscopy. International Cement Microscopy Association, Duncanville, TX.
Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Scheetz, B.M.; Idorn, G.M.; Thaulow, N.; and Andersen, K.T. 1993. Concrete Microscopy. Report No. SHRP-C-662. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
St. John, D.S.; Poole, A.W.; and Sims, I. 1998. Concrete Petrography: A Handbook of Investigative Techniques. Arnold (John Wiley and Sons), New York, NY.
Wahlstrom, E.E. 1955. Petrographic Mineralogy. Wiley, New York, NY.
Notable for its charts on feldspars and igneous rocks.
Wilk, W.; Dobrolubov, G.; and Romer, B. 1974. "Development in Quality Control of Concrete During Construction," Transportation Research Record 504. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
This work is the source of the idea of using fluorescent illumination to distinguish true void areas from the areas of the paste that have little or no birefringence. Thus, fluorescence can be used to locate and enhance microcracking and zones of high capillarity. This report contains many other ideas, for example, quick testing for resistance to freezing and thawing and a numerical scale by which to grade each concrete.
American Concrete Institute. ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Volumes 1–5, (revised yearly). Farmington Hills, MI.
This manual is a very important reference and should be available to all concrete technologists.
American Society for Testing and Materials. 1994. Significance of Tests and Properties of Concrete and Concrete–Making Materials, P. Klieger and J.F. Lamond, Eds. Report No. ASTM STP 169C. West Conshohocken, PA.
This worthwhile work is a revision and expansion of ASTM STP 169B (1978), and thus of STP 169(1956) and STP 169A (1966). All volumes of the STP 169 series have the same title. Each of these volumes can be considered to outline the state of the art for the time each was written. Thus, together they detail the recent history of concrete technology. STP 169D is being prepared.
American Society for Testing and Materials, Committee on Performance of Concrete Chemical Aspects, C-9.02.02, Ed. 1965."A Symposium on Alkali–Carbonate Rock Reactions," Highway Research Record 45. Highway Research Board, Washington, DC.
National Bureau of Standards. 1962. Chemistry of Cement: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium, Volumes 1 and 2. NBS Monograph No. 43. Washington, DC.
This entire monograph is a classic work and includes discussions of many of the papers. Volume 2 is mainly concerned with alkali-silica reactions.
Transportation Research Board. 1974. "Cement Aggregate Reactions," Transportation Research Record 525. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
American Concrete Institute. ACI 116R: Cement and Concrete Terminology, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice: Part 1, Materials and General Properties of Concrete. Farmington Hills, MI.
American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM C 125: Standard Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates, Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Volume 04.02, Concrete and Aggregates. West Conshohocken, PA.
Bates, R.L., and Jackson, J.A., Eds. 1987. Glossary of Geology, third edition. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, VA
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Topics: research, infrastructure, pavements and materials
Keywords: research, infrastructure, pavements and materials, petrography, hydraulic cements, portland cement, concrete, aggregate, cracking, voids, microscope, alkali silica reaction (ASR), alkali carbonate reaction (ACR)
TRT Terms: research, facilities, transportation, highway facilities, roads, parts of roads, pavements , pavements, concrete--testing--handbooks, manuals, etc, concrete--testing--handbooks, manuals, etc, petrographic microscope, petrography, specimens