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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-068
Date: October 2005

Achieving A High Level of Smoothness in Concrete Pavements Without Sacrificing Long-Term Performance

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Figure 1. Photo.

Truss-type California profilograph. A photograph of the truss-type California profilograph is shown. The profilograph consists of a truss-type rigid frame with a set of supporting wheels at each end. The set of wheels at each end consists of six wheels, with four wheels on one side of the device, and the other two wheels on the other side. There is a wheel at the center of the device that measures the deviation at the center, with respect to the plane established by the two sets of wheels at each end of the device.

Figure 2. Chart.

Desired and actual frequency response of 12-wheel California style profilograph. The X-axis of the graph shows the pavement wavelength, with values ranging from 1 to 40 feet. The Y-axis of the graph shows the signal response, with values ranging from 0 to 1.9. The values from 0 to 1 are labeled as attenuation factor, while values from 1 to 1.9 are labeled as amplification factor. The desired response has a value of 1 for pavement wavelengths between 1 and 32 feet, and is 0 for pavement wavelengths greater than 32 feet. The actual signal response is variable for wavelengths between 0 and 5 feet, with response values ranging from 0.2 to 1.8. The response varies between 0.95 and 1.2 for wavelengths between 5 and 10 feet, with a peak response of 1.2 occurring at a wavelength of about 8.5 feet. For wavelengths from 10 feet to about 13 feet, the response gradually reduces from a value of 1 to 0.45. Thereafter, for wavelengths from about 13 feet to 16.5 feet, the response gradually increases from 0.45 to 1.0. For wavelengths greater than 16.5 feet, the response gradually increases from 1 and has a peak value of 1.85 at 25 feet, and thereafter the response gradually decreases to a value of 1.45 that occurs at a wavelength of about 37 feet. To convert feet to meters, multiply the number of feet by 0.305.

Figure 3. Photo.

High-speed profiler. A photograph of a van based high-speed profiler is shown.

Figure 4. Photo.

Lightweight profiler. A photograph of a lightweight profiler, which is based on a utility vehicle, is shown.

Figure 5. Drawing.

Components of an inertial profiler. This figure shows a sketch of a van based inertial profiler. The height sensor is located on the vehicle body between the two axles of the vehicle. An accelerometer is located on top of the height sensor. The speed/distance pickup device is attached to the front wheel of the vehicle. A computer is located within the vehicle, and the height sensor, accelerometer, and the distance/pickup device are connected to the computer. The figure also shows the mathematical equation for obtaining the profile. This equation is: profile elevation is equal to the double integral of acceleration minus the height senor reading.

Figure 6. Drawing.

Example of an outlined trace. This drawing shows how outlining is performed on a trace. During outlining, a new profile line is drawn through the midpoint of the spikes. The figure shows how drawing a profile through the points can eliminate chatter in the profile, however the drawing indicates bumps on the profile should not be eliminated during outlining.

Figure 7. Drawing.

Determining PI from a profilograph trace. This drawing illustrates how the profile index (PI) is determined from a profilograph trace. A profilograph trace that represents a distance of 1 kilometer is shown in the figure. The trace is shown in two plots, with the second plot below the first plot. The start of the section is at the right hand side of the top plot, and there is a match line at the left hand side of this plot. There is a match line on the right hand side of the second plot that represents the continuation of the first plot. The profilograph trace shown in this figure has a scale placed on top of the profile trace. The scale has a 5-millimeter (0.2-inch)-wide opaque band at the center, which is shown in the figure in dark gray. On either side of the opaque band, there are horizontal lines scribed at 2-millimeter (0.08 inch) intervals. The figure indicates locations where the profilograph trace protrudes above or below the opaque band. In the top plot, there are two locations where the trace protrudes above the opaque band, and two locations where the trace protrudes below the opaque band. The magnitude of the protrusions above the band is 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) at both locations, with the values being 3 and 4 millimeters (0.12 and 0.16 inch) for the protrusions below the band. The plot shows the magnitude of the protrusion at each location, as well as the cumulative value. The cumulative values at the four locations where protrusions are noted in the top plot are 2, 5, 7, and 11 millimeters (0.08, 0.20, 0.28, and 0.43 inch). In the bottom plot, there are six locations where protrusions outside the opaque band are present. At four locations, the protrusions are above the band, while at two locations the protrusions are below the band. The magnitudes of the protrusions from the left side of the graph to the right side are 1 millimeter (0.04 inch) (above the band), 4 millimeters (0.16 inch) (below the band), 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) (above the band), 3 millimeters (0.12 inch) (below the band), 4 millimeters (0.16 inch) (above the band), and 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) (above the band). The cumulative values indicated at each location from the left to the right of the plot are 12, 16, 18, 21, 25, and 27 millimeters (0.47, 0.63, 0.71, 0.83, 0.98, and 1.06 inches).

Return to Figure 7

Figure 8. Diagram.

Illustration of computer algorithm used to compute IRI. This diagram presents a schematic view of the computer algorithm that is used to compute the International Roughness Index (IRI). The diagram shows how a quarter of a car is represented mathematically. The tire is represented by a spring, and it is in contact with the road, which is represented by a ragged line. The axle mass carried by the wheel is shown as a block, which is located on top of the spring. The suspension is represented by a spring and a dashpot, and both these rest on top of the block representing the axle mass. The body mass carried by the tire is shown as a block that rests on top of the spring and the dashpot. The diagram indicates when this quarter car traverses over the measured profile; the response of the quarter car to the profile represents the IRI.

Figure 9. Chart.

Response of IRI filter. This figure shows the response of the IRI quarter car filter to different wavelengths. The X-axis shows wavelength that ranges from 0.1 to 100 meters (0.3 to 328 feet), while the Y-axis shows gain for profile slope. The gain plot has two peaks at wavelengths of 2.4 meters (7.9 feet) and 15.4 meters (51 feet). The gain increases as the wavelength increases up to a wavelength of 2.4 meters (7.9 feet), which corresponds to a peak. Thereafter, there is a dip in the gain plot, followed by an increase in the gain up to a wavelength of 15.4 meters (51 feet), which corresponds to the second peak in the gain plot. Thereafter, the gain reduces with increasing wavelength. The gain shows a value of 0.5 for wavelengths of 1.2 meters (4 feet) and 30.5 meters (100 feet).

Figure 10. Chart.

Sensitivity of PI for a slope sinusoid. This figure shows the response of the PI that is computed in the Ride Number (RN) algorithm to different wavelengths. The X-axis shows wavelength that ranges from 0.1 to 100 meters (0.3 to 328 feet), while the Y-axis shows gain for profile slope. The gain plot has only one peak, which occurs at a wavelength of about 6.1 meters (20 feet). The gain gradually increases as the wavelength increases up to a value 6.1 meters (20 feet), which corresponds to the peak in the plot. Thereafter, the gain reduces with increasing wavelength. The gain plot has a value of 0.5 for wavelengths of 0.4 and 11 meters (1.3 and 36 feet).

Figure 11. Chart.

Percent of combined aggregate retained. This figure shows a plot of percent retained versus American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) sieve size. The X-axis of the plot shows the ASTM sieve size, while the Y-axis shows the percent retained. Two trapezoids are shown by dotted lines in the figure. The four points that define the first trapezoid are: sieve size 19 millimeters (0.75 inch) and percent retained 0, sieve size 12.5 millimeters (0.5 inch) and percent retained 8, sieve size number 30 and percent retained 8, sieve size 50 and percent retained 0. The four points that define the second trapezoid are: sieve size 25 millimeters (1 inch) and percent retained 0, sieve size 19 millimeters (0.75 inch) and percent retained 18, sieve size number 50 and percent retained 18, and sieve size number 100 and percent retained 0. There are two solid lines in the plot. One solid line falls inside the larger trapezoid, but is outside the smaller trapezoid, and is labeled as satisfactory. A portion of the other line falls inside the smaller trapezoid, and it is labeled as unsatisfactory.

Figure 12. Chart.

Workability factor versus coarseness factor chart. The X-axis of this figure shows coarseness factor that shows values between 0 and 100. The Y-axis shows workability factor that shows values between 45 and 100. Solid lines divide this chart into five regions, and these regions are numbered from 1 to 5. There is an unlabeled zone above zone 5.

Figure 13. Chart.

Aggregate gradation for a concrete project with poor performance. The Y-axis of the chart shows the percent retained, with values ranging from 0 to 20. The X-axis shows the sieve size, with values ranging from number 200 to one-and-one-half inch. Two gradation bands represented by two trapezoids are shown in the chart. The four points that define the first trapezoid are: sieve size number 50 and percent retained 0, sieve size number 30 and percent retained 8, sieve size one-half inch and percent retained 8, sieve size three-quarters inch and percent retained 0. The four points that define the second trapezoid are: sieve size number 200 and percent retained 0, sieve size number 100 and percent retained 18, sieve size 1 inch and percent retained 18, and sieve size one-and-one-half inch and percent retained 0. The values of percent retained for individual sieve sizes of a combined aggregate used for a portland cement concrete (PCC) mix is plotted on this figure, and straight lines connect the data points. Two of the straight lines, one connecting percent retained values for number 16 and number 8 sieves, and other connecting percent retained values for number 4 and number 8 sieves, fall within the smaller trapezoid.

Figure 14. Box Plot.

Example of a box plot. This figure shows a box plot of the distribution of the International Roughness Index (IRI) values obtained from a group of test sections. The Y-axis shows the IRI. There is a black colored box in the figure with a horizontal white line located in the interior of the box. The white line represents the median of the data set. The top and the bottom of the box respectively represent the 75th and the 25th percentile value of the data set. The 25th percentile, median and 75th percentile value for the data set is approximately 1.2, 1.4, and 1.5 meters per kilometer (76, 89, and 95 inches per mile) respectively. Vertical lines extend from the top and the bottom of the box, and these lines terminate at horizontal lines that have the same width as the box. These horizontal lines are referred to as whiskers, and they indicate the range of the data. In this box plot, the data range from approximately 0.85 to 1.85 meters per kilometer (54 to 117 inches per mile). There are three horizontal lines above the top whisker, and each of these lines represents an outlier in the data set. In this figure, the horizontal lines are at approximately 1.9, 2.1 and 2.2 meters per kilometer (120, 133, and 139 inches per mile).

Figure 15. Drawing.

Sign convention for slab curvature. This figure illustrates the sign convention that is used to denote slab curvature. This figure shows two diagrams. The top diagram shows a slab that has a concave shape, where the elevation at the two edges is higher than that at the center. This slab shape is indicated to have a positive curvature. The other diagram shows a slab that has a convex shape, where the two edges of the slab are at a lower elevation with respect to the center of the slab. This slab shape is indicated to have a negative curvature.

Figure 16. Chart.

Profile recorded by profiler. This figure shows a plot of a profile recorded by a profiler. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. The profile recorded over a distance of 152 meters (500 feet) is shown in this figure. The elevation values between these limits range from negative 5.5 to 7.9 millimeters (negative 0.22 to 0.31 inches).

Figure 17. Chart.

Profile after being subjected to a 5-meter (16-foot) high-pass filter. This figure shows the profile shown in figure 16 after it has been subjected to a 5-meter (16-foot) high-pass filter. The X-axis in the plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. The long wavelengths have been eliminated from the profile by the high-pass filter, and shorter wavelength details of the profile are seen in this figure. The profile elevations range from negative 1.50 to 1.82 millimeters (negative 0.06 to 0.07 inches).

Figure 18. Chart.

Profile after being subjected to a 10-meter (33-foot) low-pass filter. This figure shows the profile shown in figure 16 after it has been subjected to a 10-meter (33-foot) low-pass filter. The X-axis in the figure shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. Short wavelength profile features that are seen in figure 16 are not seen in this figure, as they have been eliminated by the application of the low pass filter. The profile elevations in this plot range from negative 3.4 to 6.2 millimeters (negative 0.13 to 0.24 inches).

Figure 19. Chart.

Profile after being subjected to a band-pass filter. This figure shows the profile shown in figure 16 after it has been subjected to a band-pass filter that only kept wavelengths between 5 and 10 meters (16 and 33 feet). The X-axis in the figure shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. The profile elevations shown in this figure range from negative 0.31 to 0.35 millimeters (negative 0.012 to 0.014 inches).

Figure 20. Chart.

Roughness of a roadway expressed in 10-meter (33-foot) segment lengths. This figure shows a bar chart with the X-axis showing the segment number and the Y-axis showing the IRI. The IRI of 10 segments, with the IRI of each segment represented by a bar, is shown in the figure. The IRI of segments 1 through 10 are 1.42, 1.16, 1.07, 1.29, 1.18, 1.32, 1.33, 1.18, 1.01, and 1.34 meters per kilometer (90, 74, 68, 82, 75, 84, 84, 75, 64, and 85 inches per mile), respectively.

Figure 21. Chart.

Example of a roughness profile. This figure shows a graph with distance as the X-axis and the IRI as the Y-axis. The distance shown in the graph varies from 0 to 100 meters (0 to 328 feet). The graph, which is the roughness profile, shows IRI variations between 5 and 95 meters (16 and 312 feet). The IRI between these limits varies from a low of 0.78 meters per kilometer (49 inches per mile) that occurs at 42 meters (138 feet), to a high of 1.63 meters per kilometer (103 inches per mile) that occurs at 50 meters (164 feet).

Figure 22. Chart.

Example of a PSD plot. The X-axis in the plot shows the wavenumber, while the Y-axis shows the PSD of left profile slope. [Please describe what is happening in the graph.]

Figure 23. Drawing.

Environmental zones in the LTPP program. This figure shows a map of the United States, and indicates the areas that fall into the following four environmental zones: wet no-freeze, wet-freeze, dry no-freeze, and dry-freeze. The States that fall into each of these environmental zones are: (1) wet-freeze: Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia; (2) wet no-freeze: Alabama, Arkansas, northwest coastal areas of California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, coastal area of Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, eastern part of Texas, and Washington; (3) dry-freeze: northern area of Arizona, California except for the coastal areas and the southern part, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, northwest part of New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington except for the coastal areas, and Wyoming; (4) dry no freeze: Arizona except for the northern area, coastal area of California except for northwest part and southern part, New Mexico except for the northwest part of the state, and the western part of Texas.

Return to Figure 23

Figure 24. Chart.

Roughness progression of nondoweled sections, rate of change of IRI less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year. In this figure, the X-axis shows the pavement age, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The plot shows the roughness progression of test sections that have a rate of change of IRI less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year). The IRI of a test section each time it was monitored is shown by a point in the plot. These points for a section are connected by straight lines to show how the IRI changed with pavement age. As very little change in IRI occurred over time for these sections, the roughness progression plots for all sections are essentially horizontal.

Figure 25. Chart.

Roughness progression of nondoweled sections, rate of change of IRI between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year. In this figure, the X-axis shows the pavement age, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. This plot is similar to that in figure 24 for sections showing a rate of change of IRI between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 to 2.54 inches per mile per year). The roughness progression plots for these test sections show a slight positive slope.

Figure 26. Chart.

Roughness progression of nondoweled sections, rate of change of IRI greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year. In this figure, the X-axis shows the pavement age, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. This plot is similar to that in figure 24 for sections showing a rate of change of IRI more than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year). The roughness progression plots for these sections show a much steeper slope, indicating a high rate of increase of roughness.

Figure 27. Chart.

Roughness progression of doweled sections, rate of change of IRI less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year. In this figure, the X-axis shows the pavement age, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. This plot shows the roughness progression of test sections that have a rate of change of IRI less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year). The IRI of a test section each time it was monitored is shown by a point in the plot. These points for a section are connected by straight lines to show how the IRI changed with pavement age. As very little change in IRI occurred over time for these sections, the roughness progression plots for all sections are essentially horizontal.

Figure 28. Chart.

Roughness progression of doweled sections, rate of change of IRI between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year. In this figure, the X-axis shows the pavement age, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. This plot is similar to that of figure 27 for sections showing a rate of change of IRI between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year). The roughness progression plots for test sections showing a rate of increase of IRI between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year) show a slight positive slope.

Figure 29. Chart.

Roughness progression of doweled sections, rate of change of IRI greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year. In this figure, the X-axis shows the pavement age, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. This plot is similar to that of figure 27 for sections showing a rate of change of IRI of more than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year). The roughness progression plots for these sections show a much steeper slope than that of figures 27 and 28, indicating a high rate of increase of roughness.

Figure 30. Chart.

Relationship between IRI and faulting for nondoweled pavements. The X-axis of this plot shows the total faulting for the 152.4-meter (500-foot)-long section. The Y-axis shows the IRI. Separate notations are used in the plot to show sections that have roughness progression rates of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year), and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year). The total faulting at the sections is less than about 160 millimeters (6.3 inches) for all sections except for one, which has a total faulting of 312 millimeters (12.3 inches). A trend of higher IRI with increasing faulting is seen in this plot.

Figure 31. Chart.

Relationship between IRI and faulting for doweled pavements. The X-axis of the plot shows the total faulting for the 152.4-meter (500-foot)-long section, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. Separate notations are used in the plot to show sections that have roughness progression rates of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year), and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year). The total faulting at the sections is less than 40 millimeters (1.6 inches) for all sections except for two, which have a total faulting of 65 and 109 millimeters (2.6 and 4.3 inches). No relationship between the IRI and total faulting is seen in this figure.

Figure 32. Chart.

Theoretically generated slab profiles. The X-axis of this plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows elevation. A series of slabs that have a similar upward curled shape is shown in this figure. The slabs have a joint spacing of 4.9 meters (16 feet), and the elevation of a slab ranges from 0 at the center of the slab to 4.9 millimeters (0.2 inch) at a joint.

Figure 33. Chart.

Relationship between curvature and IRI from theoretical analysis. The X-axis of this plot shows curvature, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The relationship between IRI and curvature is shown in this plot for slab lengths of 4.9, 6.1, and 7.3 meters (16, 20, and 24 feet). For each case, the relationship between curvature and IRI is linear. Higher IRI values are obtained for a specific curvature value as the slab length increases. For slabs with a 7.3 meters (24 feet) joint spacing, as the curvature increase from 0 to 1.0, the IRI increases from 0 to 1.94 meters per kilometer (0 to 123 inches per mile). For slabs with a 6.1-meter (20-foot) joint spacing, as the curvature increase from 0 to 1.0, the IRI increases from 0 to 1.56 meters per kilometer (0 to 99 inches per mile). For slabs with a 4.9-meter (16-foot) joint spacing, as the curvature increase from 0 to 1.0, the IRI increases from 0 to 1.32 meters per kilometer (0 to 84 inches per mile).

Figure 34. Box Plot.

Distribution of CI at last profile date for nondoweled pavements. This figure contains box plots that show the distribution of CI at last profile date for the nondoweled pavements, with separate box plots being shown for data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year), and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median CI values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 0.055 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.127 times 10 to the negative 3, and 0.822 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (0.017 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.039 times 10 to the negative 3, and 0.251 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The 25th percentile CI values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are negative 0.037 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.009 times 10 to the negative 3, and 0.411 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.011 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.003 times 10 to the negative three, and 0.125 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The 75th percentile CI values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 0.173 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.273 times 10 to the negative 3, and 0.962 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (0.053 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.083 times 10 to the negative 3, and 0.293 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of all data for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are negative 0.234 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.234 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.071 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.071 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), negative 0.432 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.675 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.132 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.206 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), and negative 0.358 times 10 to the negative 3 to 1.383 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.109 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.422 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. Data set 1 has one data point at 0.560 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (0.171 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) that is designated as an outlier.

Return to Figure 34

Figure 35. Box Plot.

Distribution of CI for nondoweled data set 1. This figure contains two box plots that show the distribution of CI of nondoweled pavements in data set 1 at the first and the last profile dates. The median CI values for the first and last profile dates are 0.048 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.066 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (0.015 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.020 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI between the 25th and 75th percentile values for the first and last profile dates are negative 0.007 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.141 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.002 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.043 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and negative 0.037 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.173 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.011 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.053 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI values for all data for the first and the last profile dates are negative 0.071 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.236 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.022 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.072 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and negative 0.234 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.234 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.071 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.071 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively.

Return to Figure 35

Figure 36. Box Plot.

Distribution of CI for nondoweled data set 2. This figure contains two box plots that show the distribution of CI of nondoweled pavements in data set 2 at the first and the last profile dates. The median CI values for the first and last profile dates are 0.030 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.127 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (0.009 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.039 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI between the 25th and 75th percentile values for the first and last profile dates are negative 0.047 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.135 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.014 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.041 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and 0.009 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.273 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (0.003 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.083 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI values for all data for the first and the last profile dates are negative 0.362 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.337 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.110 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.103 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and negative 0.432 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.676 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.132 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.206 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively.

Return to Figure 36

Figure 37. Box Plot.

Distribution of CI for nondoweled data set 3. This figure contains two box plots that show the distribution of CI of nondoweled pavements in data set 3 at the first and the last profile dates. The median CI values for the first and last profile dates are 0.287 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.822 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (0.088 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.251 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI between the 25th and 75th percentile values for the first and last profile dates are 0.005 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.433 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (0.002 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.132 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and 0.411 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.962 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (0.125 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.293 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI values for all data for the first and the last profile dates are negative 0.083 times 10 to the negative 3 to 1.078 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.025 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.329 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and negative 0.358 times 10 to the negative 3 to 1.383 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.109 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.422 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively.

Return to Figure 37

Figure 38. Chart.

Change in IRI and CI at last profile date for nondoweled sections. The Y-axis shows the change in IRI, while the X-axis shows the curvature index at the last profile date. Different notations are used to show data points for data sets 1, 2, and 3. This plot shows 73 percent of the sections have a positive curvature at the last profile date. Sections with a higher CI (either positive or negative) are generally associated with high changes in IRI.

Figure 39. Box Plot.

Distribution of CI at last profile date for doweled pavements. This figure contains box plots that show the distribution of CI at last profile date for the doweled pavements, with separate box plots shown for data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year), and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer/year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median CI values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are negative 0.020 times 10 to the negative 3, negative 0.043 times 10 to the negative 3, and negative 0.402 x10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.006 times 10 to the negative 3, negative 0.013 times 10 to the negative 3, and negative 0.122 x10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The 25th percentile CI values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are negative 0.126 times 10 to the negative 3, negative 0.181 times 10 to the negative 3, and negative 0.465 times 10 to the negative 31 over meter (negative 0.038 times 10 to the negative 3, negative 0.055 times 10 to the negative 3, and negative 0.142 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The 75th percentile CI values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 0.045 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.247 times 10 to the negative 3, and negative 0.253 times 10 to the negative 31 over meter (0.014 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.075 times 10 to the negative 3, and negative 0.077 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of all data for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are negative 0.400 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.273 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.122 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.083 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), negative 0.427 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.563 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.130 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.172 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), and negative 0.483 times 10 to the negative 3 to negative 0.043 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.147 times 10 to the negative 3 to negative 0.013 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. Data set 1 has three data points that are designated as outliers, with the CI values for the these data points being negative 0.475 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.313 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.500 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.145 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.095 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.152 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot). Data set 3 has one outlier that has a CI value of negative 1.642 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.5 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot).

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Figure 40. Box Plot.

Distribution of CI for doweled data set 1. This figure contains two box plots that show the distribution of CI of doweled pavements in data set 1 at the first and last profile dates. The median CI values for the first and last profile dates are negative 0.045 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.020 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.014 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.006 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI between the 25th and 75th percentile values for the first and last profile dates are negative 0.104 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.003 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.032 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.0009 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and negative 0.126 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.045 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.038 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.014 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI values for all data for the first and the last profile dates excluding outliers are negative 0.240 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.127 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.073 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.034 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and negative 0.400 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.273 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.122 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.083 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. Three data points for the last profile date are designated as outliers, with the CI values for these points being negative 0.475 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.313 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.500 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.145 times 10 to the negative 3, 0.095 times 10 to the negative 3 and 0.152 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot). There are no outliers in the first profile date data set.

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Figure 41. Box Plot.

Distribution of CI for doweled data set 2. This figure contains two box plots that show the distribution of CI of nondoweled pavements in data set 2 at the first and the last profile dates. The median CI values for the first and last profile dates are negative 0.033 times 10 to the negative 3 and negative 0.043 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.010 times 10 to the negative 3 and negative 0.013 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI between the 25th and 75th percentile values for the first and last profile dates are negative 0.062 times 10 to the negative 3 to negative 0.011 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.019 times 10 to the negative 3 to negative 0.003 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and negative 0.181 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.247 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.055 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.075 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI values of all data for the first and last profile dates are negative 0.142 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.039 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.043 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.012 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and negative 0.427 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.563 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.130 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.172 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively.

Return to Figure 41

Figure 42. Box Plot.

Distribution of CI for doweled data set 3. This figure contains two box plots that show the distribution of CI of nondoweled pavements in data set 3 at the first and the last profile dates. The median CI values for the first and last profile dates are negative 0.073 times 10 to the negative 3 and negative 0.420 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.022 times 10 to the negative 3 and negative 0.128 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI between the 25th and 75th percentile values for the first and last profile dates are negative 0.080 times 10 to the negative 3 to negative 0.021 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.024 times 10 to the negative 3 to negative 0.006 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and negative 0.465 times 10 to the negative 3 to negative 0.253 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (and negative 0.142 times 10 to the negative 3 to negative 0.077 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively. The range of CI values of all data for the first and last profile dates are negative 0.005 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.080 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.002 times 10 to the negative 3 to 0.024 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot) and negative 0.043 times 10 to the negative 3 to negative 0.482 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over meter (negative 0.013 times 10 to the negative 3 to negative 0.1476 times 10 to the negative 3 1 over foot), respectively.

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Figure 43. Chart.

Change in IRI and CI at last profile date for doweled sections. The Y-axis shows the change in IRI, while the X-axis shows the curvature index at the last profile date. Different notations are used to show data points for data sets 1, 2, and 3. In this plot, 63 percent of the sections have a negative curvature. There is no clear relationship between CI at last profile date and change in IRI.

Figure 44. Box Plot.

Distribution of PCC slab thickness for nondoweled pavements. Box plots that show the distribution of PCC slab thickness for nondoweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year), and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median PCC slab thickness for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 244, 254, and 245 millimeters (9.6, 10, and 9.6 inches), respectively. The range of PCC slab thickness between the 25th and 75th percentile values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 230 to 285 millimeters (9.1 to 11.2 inches), 243 to 259 millimeters (9.6 to 10.2 inches), and 236 to 249 millimeters (9.3 to 9.8 inches), respectively. The range of the entire data set excluding outliers for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 208 to 303 millimeters (8.2 to 11.9 inches), 213 to 284 millimeters (8.4 to 11.2 inches), and 236 to 259 millimeters (9.3 to 10.2 inches), respectively. Outliers were present only in data set 3, with PCC slab thickness of 203, 211 and 302 millimeters (8.0, 8.3, and 11.9 inches) being indicated as outliers.

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Figure 45. Box Plot.

Distribution of PCC slab thickness for doweled pavements. Two box plots that show the distribution of PCC slab thickness for doweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in groups 1 and 2, that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median PCC slab thickness for groups 1 and 2 are 237 and 236 millimeters (9.33 and 9.29 inches), respectively. The range of PCC slab thickness between the 25th and 75th percentile values for groups 1 and 2 are 234 to 254 millimeters (9.2 to 10.0 inches) and 203 to 246 millimeters (8.0 to 9.7 inches), respectively. The range of the entire data set excluding outliers for groups 1 and 2 are 218 to 257 millimeters (8.6 to 10.1 inches) and 193 to 305 millimeters (7.6 to 12.0 inches), respectively. The outliers in group 1 have thickness values of 163, 180, 201, 300 and 323 millimeters (6.4, 7.1, 7.9, 11.8, and 12.7 inches). There is only one outlier in group 2, and it has a value of 338 millimeters (13.3 inches).

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Figure 46. Box Plot.

Distribution of joint spacing for nondoweled pavements. Box plots that show the distribution of joint spacing for nondoweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year), and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median joint spacing for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 4.57, 4.27, and 4.66 meters (15, 14, and 15.3 feet), respectively. The range of joint spacing between the 25th and 75th percentile values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 4.11 to 4.72 meters (13.5 to 15.5 feet), 3.81 to 4.72 meters (12.5 to 15.5 feet), and 4.57 to 4.72 meters (15 to 15.5 feet). The range of the entire data set excluding outliers for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 3.51 to 4.72 meters (11.5 to 15.5 feet), 3.51 to 4.72 meters (11.5 to 15.5 feet), and 4.21 to 4.72 meters (13.8 to 15.5 feet). Outliers were present only in data set 3, which had one outlier, with the value of this data point being 4.21 meters (13.8 feet).

Return to Figure 46

Figure 47. Box Plot.

Distribution of joint spacing for doweled pavements. Two box plots that show the distribution of joint spacing for doweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in groups 1 and 2 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median joint spacing for groups 1 and 2 are 4.8 and 5.3 meters (15.7 and 17.4 feet), respectively. The range of joint spacing between the 25th and 75th percentile values for both groups is 4.6 to 6.1 meters (15 to 20 feet). The range of the entire data set for groups 1 and 2 are 4.1 to 6.6 meters (13.4 to 21.6 feet) and 4.0 to 6.5 meters (13.1 to 21.3 feet), respectively. There are no outliers in either data set.

Figure 48. Chart.

Slab thickness versus cumulative traffic for nondoweled pavements. This figure shows the relationship between PCC slab thickness and cumulative traffic expressed in 1000s of equivalent single axle loads (ESALs). The X-axis shows the cumulative traffic, while the Y-axis shows the PCC slab thickness. Different notations are used to represent data points corresponding to data sets 1, 2, and 3. The PCC slab thickness range between 250 and 350 millimeters (9.8 and 13.8 inches), except for one section that has a thickness of 360 millimeters (14.2 inches). No relationship between PCC slab thickness and cumulative traffic is noticed in this figure. This figure also shows sections having a high rate of increase of roughness have not necessarily been subjected to very high traffic volumes.

Figure 49. Chart.

Slab thickness versus cumulative traffic for doweled pavements. This figure shows the relationship between PCC slab thickness and cumulative traffic expressed in 1000s of ESALs. The X-axis shows the cumulative traffic, while the Y-axis shows the PCC slab thickness. Different notations are used to represent data points corresponding to group 1 and 2 pavements. The PCC slab thickness range between 150 and 350 millimeters (5.9 and 13.8 inches). No relationship between PCC slab thickness and cumulative traffic is noticed in this figure. This figure also shows sections having a high rate of increase of roughness have not necessarily been subjected to very high traffic volumes.

Figure 50. Box Plot.

Distribution of annual precipitation for nondoweled pavements. Box plots that show the distribution of annual precipitation for nondoweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median annual precipitation for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 530, 469, and 530 millimeters (20.9, 18.5, and 20.9 inches), respectively. The range of annual precipitation between the 25th and 75th percentile values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 302 to 774 millimeters (11.9 to 30.5 inches), 271 to 856 millimeters (10.7 to 33.7 inches), and 142 to 672 millimeters (5.6 to 26.5 inches). The range of the entire data set for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 230 to 1128 millimeters (9.1 to 44.4 inches), 222 to 1022 millimeters (8.7 to 40.2 inches), and 141 to 999 millimeters (5.6 to 39.3 inches), respectively. There are no outliers in any of the data sets.

Figure 51. Box Plot.

Distribution of annual precipitation for doweled pavements. Two box plots that show the distribution of annual precipitation for doweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in group 1 and 2, that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median annual precipitation for groups 1 and 2 are 1130 and 1034 millimeters (44.5 and 40.7 inches), respectively. The range of annual precipitation between the 25th and 75th percentile values for groups 1 and 2 is 949 to 1248 millimeters (37.3 to 49.1 inches) and 787 to 1261 millimeters (31.0 to 49.6 inches), respectively. The range of the entire data set for groups 1 and 2 excluding outliers are 480 to 1485 millimeters (18.9 to 58.5 inches) and 246 to 1541 millimeters (9.7 to 60.7 inches), respectively. There is one outlier in group 1 while there are no outliers in group 2. The value of the outlier in group 1 is 414 millimeters (16.3 inches).

Figure 52. Box Plot.

Distribution of mean annual temperature for nondoweled pavements. Box plots that show the distribution of mean annual temperature for nondoweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year), and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median mean annual temperature for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 11.0, 9.5 and 7.6 degrees Celsius (52, 49, and 46 degrees Fahrenheit), respectively. The range of mean annual temperature between the 25th and 75th percentile values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 10.3 to 16.6 degrees Celsius (51 to 62 degrees Fahrenheit), 7.4 to 11.6 degrees Celsius (45 to 53 degrees Fahrenheit), and 6.3 to 10.2 degrees Celsius (43 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit), respectively. The range of the entire data set for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 6.9 to 22.7 degrees Celsius (44 to 73 degrees Fahrenheit), 4.4 to 18.4 degrees Celsius (40 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit), and 2.5 to 12.9 degrees Celsius (37 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit), respectively. There are no outliers in any of the data sets.

Figure 53. Box Plot.

Distribution of mean annual temperature for doweled pavements. Two box plots that show the distribution of mean annual temperature for doweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in groups 1 and 2 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median mean annual temperature for groups 1 and 2 are 14.3 and 12.8 degrees Celsius (58 and 55 degrees Fahrenheit), respectively. The range of mean annual temperature between the 25th and 75th percentile values for groups 1 and 2 are 10.6 to 16.5 degrees Celsius (51 to 62 degrees Fahrenheit) and 9.7 to 15.4 degrees Celsius (49 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit), respectively. The range of the entire data set for groups 1 and 2 are 4.3 to 21.7 degrees Celsius (40 to 71 degrees Fahrenheit) and 4.4 to 22.8 degrees Celsius (40 to 73 degrees Fahrenheit), respectively. There are no outliers in either data set.

Figure 54. Box Plot.

Distribution of freezing index for nondoweled pavements. Box plots that show the distribution of freezing index for nondoweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year), and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median freezing index for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 278, 270, and 581 degrees Celsius days (500, 486, and 1,046 degrees Fahrenheit days), respectively. The range of freeze index between the 25th and 75th percentile values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 44 to 477 degrees Celsius days (79 to 859 degrees Fahrenheit days), 205 to 766 degrees Celsius days (369 to 1,379 degrees Fahrenheit days), and 404 to 887 degrees Celsius days (727 to 1,597 degrees Fahrenheit days), respectively. The range of the entire data set for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 0 to 751 degrees Celsius days (0 to 1,352 degrees Fahrenheit days), 0 to 1,441 degrees Celsius days (0 to 2,594 degrees Fahrenheit days), and 260 to 1,863 degrees Celsius days (468 to 3,353 degrees Fahrenheit days), respectively. There are no outliers in any of the data sets.

Figure 55. Box Plot.

Distribution of freezing index for doweled pavements. Two box plots that show the distribution of freeze index for doweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in groups 1 and 2 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median freezing index for groups 1 and 2 are 99 and 179 degrees Celsius days (178 and 322 °F days), respectively. The range of freezing index between the 25th and 75th percentile values for groups 1 and 2 are 25 to 305 degrees Celsius days (45 to 549 degrees Fahrenheit days) and 31 to 457 degrees Celsius days (56 to 823 degrees Fahrenheit days), respectively. The range of the entire data set for groups 1 and 2 excluding outliers are 0 to 740 degrees Celsius days (0 to 1,332 degrees Fahrenheit days) and 0 to 920 degrees Celsius (0 to 1,656 degrees Fahrenheit days), respectively. There is one outlier in each data set, with the value of the outlier in groups 1 and 2 being 1,245 and 1,228 degrees Celsius days (2,241 and 2,210 degrees Fahrenheit days), respectively.

Figure 56. Box Plot.

Distribution of PCC split tensile strength for nondoweled pavements. Box plots that show the distribution of PCC split tensile strength for nondoweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year), and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median split tensile strength for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 4.19, 4.30, and 4.14 megapascals (608, 624, and 600 poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of split tensile strength between the 25th and 75th percentile values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 3.92 to 4.88 megapascals (568 to 708 poundforce per square inch), 3.83 to 4.80 megapascals (555 to 696 poundforce per square inch), and 3.86 to 4.39 megapascals (560 to 637 poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range for the entire data set for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 3.58 to 5.46 megapascals (519 to 792 poundforce per square inch), 3.28 to 6.20 megapascals (476 to 899 poundforce per square inch), and 3.55 to 5.10 megapascals (515 to 739 poundforce per square inch), respectively. There are no outliers in any of the data sets.

Figure 57. Box Plot.

Distribution of PCC split tensile strength for doweled pavements. Two box plots that show the distribution of split tensile strength of PCC for doweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in groups 1 and 2 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median split tensile strength for groups 1 and 2 are 4.07 and 3.83 megapascals (590 and 555 poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of split tensile strength between the 25th and 75th percentile values for groups 1 and 2 are 3.88 to 4.29 megapascals (563 to 622 poundforce per square inch) and 3.54 to 4.39 megapascals (513 to 637 poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of the entire data set for groups 1 and 2 excluding outliers are 3.21 to 5.00 megapascals (465 to 725 poundforce per square inch) and 3.32 to 5.05 megapascals (481 to 732 poundforce per square inch), respectively. There is one outlier in group 1, while group 2 does not have any outliers. The value of the data point in group 1 that is an outlier is 5.08 megapascals (737 poundforce per square inch).

Figure 58. Box Plot.

Distribution of PCC elastic modulus for nondoweled pavements. Box plots that show the distribution of PCC elastic modulus nondoweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median PCC elastic modulus for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 29,627, 30,488, and 32,555 megapascals (4.29, 4.42, and 4.72 million poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of elastic modulus between the 25th and 75th percentile values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 is 27,904 to 32,469 megapascals (4.04 to 4.70 million poundforce per square inch), 29,971 to 34,363 megapascals (4.35 to 4.98 million poundforce per square inch), and 30,488 to 37,378 megapascals (4.42 to 5.42 million poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of the entire data set for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 3.58 to 5.46 megapascals (519 to 792 poundforce per square inch), 3.28 to 6.20 megapascals (476 to 899 poundforce per square inch), and 3.55 to 5.10 megapascals (515 to 740 poundforce per square inch), respectively. There are no outliers in any of the data sets.

Figure 59. Box Plot.

Distribution of PCC elastic modulus for doweled pavements. Two box plots that show the distribution of PCC elastic modulus for doweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in groups 1 and 2 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median PCC elastic modulus for groups 1 and 2 are 29,627 and 29,454 megapascals (4.30 and 4.27 million poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of PCC elastic modulus between the 25th and 75th percentile values for groups 1 and 2 are 27,344 to 34,880 megapascals (3.96 and 5.06 million poundforce per square inch) and 27,663 to 31,177 megapascals (4.01 and 4.52 million poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of the entire data set for groups 1 and 2 excluding outliers are 23,081 to 43,407 megapascals (3.35 to 6.29 million poundforce per square inch) and 25,837 to 34,622 megapascals (3.74 and 5.02 million poundforce per square inch), respectively. There is one outlier in group 2, while group 1 does not have any outliers. The value of the data point in group 2 that is an outlier is 37,551 megapascals (5.44 million poundforce per square inch).

Figure 60. Box Plot.

Distribution of ratio between PCC elastic modulus and split tensile strength for nondoweled pavements. Box plots that show the distribution of the ratio between PCC elastic modulus and split tensile strength for nondoweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median value of this ratio for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 6,989, 8,024, and 8,187 respectively. The range of this ratio between the 25th and 75th percentile values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 6,094 to 7,235, 6,641 to 8,239, and 6,565 to 9,105, respectively. The range of this ratio for data sets 1, 2, and 3 excluding outliers are 5,076 to 8,318, 4,448 to 9,086, and 5,743 to 10,223, respectively. There are no outliers in data sets 2 and 3, but there is one in data set 1 that has a value of 9,471.

Figure 61. Box Plot.

Distribution of the ratio between PCC elastic modulus and split tensile strength for doweled pavements. Two box plots that show the distribution of the ratio between PCC elastic modulus and split tensile strength of PCC for doweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in groups 1 and 2 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median value of this ratio for groups 1 and 2 are 8,002 and 7,049, respectively. The range of this ratio between the 25th and 75th percentile values for groups 1 and 2 are 6,889 to 8,324 and 7,449 to 8,237, respectively. The range of the entire data set for groups 1 and 2 are 4,844 to 9,036 and 5,998 to 9,124, respectively. There are no outliers in either data group.

Figure 62. Box Plot.

Distribution of compressive strength for nondoweled pavements. Box plots that show the distribution of compressive strength of PCC for nondoweled sections are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in data sets 1, 2, and 3 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), between 0.02 and 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 and 2.54 inches per mile per year), and greater than 0.04 meters per kilometer per year (2.54 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median compressive strength for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 49, 49, and 55 megapascals (7,105, 7,105, and 7,975 poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of compressive strength between the 25th and 75th percentile values for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 48 to 57 megapascals (6,960 to 8,265 poundforce per square inch), 46 to 53 megapascals (6,670 to 7,685 poundforce per square inch), and 53 to 58 megapascals (7,685 to 8,410 poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of the entire data set for data sets 1, 2, and 3 are 41 to 65 megapascals (5,945 to 9,425 poundforce per square inch), 44 to 64 megapascals (6,380 to 9,280 poundforce per square inch), and 49 to 62 megapascals (7,105 to 8,990 poundforce per square inch), respectively. There are no outliers in any of the data sets.

Figure 63. Box Plot.

Distribution of compressive strength for doweled pavements. Two box plots that show the distribution of compressive strength of PCC for doweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in groups 1 and 2 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median value of the compressive strength for groups 1 and 2 are 54 and 52 megapascals (7,830 and 7,540 poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of compressive strength values between the 25th and 75th percentile values for groups 1 and 2 are 50 to 60 megapascals (7,250 to 8,700 poundforce per square inch) and 46 to 57 megapascals (6,670 to 8,265 poundforce per square inch), respectively. The range of the entire data set excluding outliers for groups 1 and 2 are 37 to 67 megapascals (5,365 to 9,715 poundforce per square inch) and 38 to 61 megapascals (5,510 to 8,845 poundforce per square inch), respectively. There is one outlier in group 1, while there are no outliers in group 2. The value of the outlier in group 1 is 33 megapascals (4,785 poundforce per square inch).

Figure 64. Box Plot.

Distribution of coarse-to-fine aggregate ratio for doweled pavements. Two box plots that show the distribution of the coarse to fine aggregate ratio for doweled pavements are shown in this figure. Separate box plots are shown for pavements in groups 1 and 2 that have a rate of change of IRI of less than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year) and greater than 0.02 meters per kilometer per year (1.27 inches per mile per year), respectively. The median value of this ratio for groups 1 and 2 are 1.55 and 1.45, respectively. The range of this ratio between the 25th and 75th percentile values for groups 1 and 2 are 1.47 to 1.69 and 1.32 to 1.53, respectively. The range of the entire data set excluding outliers for groups 1 and 2 are 1.22 to 1.82 and 1.15 to 1.81, respectively. There are two outliers in each data group. The values of the outliers in group 1 are 0.25 and 2.17, while those in group 2 are 2.01 and 2.20.

Figure 65. Chart.

Profile data from 1990 and 2002—section 203060. This figure shows the left wheel path profile plots for section 203060 that were collected in 1990 and 2002. The profile data have been subjected to an 8-meter (26-foot) high-pass filter. The X-axis of the plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. The two profile plots have been offset for clarity. The profile plots show that 2002 data have a higher degree of downward curvature when compared to the 1990 data.

Figure 66. Chart.

Profile data from 1990 and 2001—section 313018. This figure shows the left wheel path profile plots for section 313018 that were collected in 1990 and 2001. The profile data have been subjected to an 8-meter (26-foot) high-pass filter. The X-axis of the plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. The two profile plots have been offset for clarity. The profile plots show that 2001 data have a higher amount of upward slab curvature when compared to the 1990 data.

Figure 67. Chart.

Profile data from 1990 and 2001—section 383005. This figure shows the left wheel path profile plots for section 383005 that were collected in 1990 and 2001. The profile data have been subjected to an 8-meter (26-foot) high-pass filter. The X-axis of the plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. The two profile plots have been offset for clarity. The figure shows the PCC slabs are curled upwards on both profile dates, with the 2001 data showing a greater amount of curling.

Figure 68. Chart.

Profile data from 1989 and 2001—section 493001. This figure shows the left wheel path profile plots for section 493001 that were collected in 1989 and 2001. The profile data have been subjected to an 8-meter (26-foot) high-pass filter. The X-axis of the plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. The two profile plots have been offset for clarity. A significant increase in downward slab curvature is seen in the 2001 data when compared to the 1989 data.

Figure 69. Chart.

Profile data from 1989 and 2001—section 163017. This figure shows the left wheel path profile plots for section 163017 that were collected in 1989 and 2001. The profile data have been subjected to an 8-meter (26-foot) high-pass filter. The X-axis of the plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. The two profile plots have been offset for clarity. The figure shows the downward curvature of the concrete slabs has increased significantly between the 1989 and 2001.

Figure 70. Chart.

Profile data from 1990 and 2001—section 273003. This figure shows the left wheel path profile plots for section 273003 that were collected in 1990 and 2001. The profile data have been subjected to an 8-meter (26-foot) high-pass filter. The X-axis of the plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. The two profile plots have been offset for clarity. The figure shows this section had a significant downward curvature at the first profile date, and the plot shows the downward curvature has increased from 1990 to 2001.

Figure 71. Chart.

IRI values for different test sequences—S.R. 6220. This chart shows three sets of bar charts. Each set of bar charts shows the IRI values along the inside lane left wheel path, inside lane right wheel path, and outside lane right wheel path for eight test sequences. The test sequences are: 1-day PM, 3-day AM, 7-day AM, 7-day PM, 1-month AM, 1-month PM, 3.5-month AM, and 3.5-month PM. The IRI values obtained along the inside lane left wheel path for the eight test sequences starting with the first are: 1.32, 1.27, 1.27,1.27, 1.30, 1.31, 1.21, and 1.21 meters per kilometer (84, 81, 81, 81, 82, 83, 77, and 77 inches per mile). The IRI values obtained along the inside lane right wheel path for the eight test sequences starting with the first are: 1.21, 1.24, 1.18, 1.20, 1.22, 1.18, 1.13, and 1.10 meters per kilometer (77, 79, 75, 76, 77, 75, 72, and 70 inches per mile). The IRI values obtained along the outside lane left wheel path for the eight test sequences starting with the first are: 0.96, 1.10, 0.96, 0.98, 0.97, 0.94, 0.94, and 0.94 meters per kilometer (61, 70, 61, 62, 61, 60, 60, and 60 inches per mile).

Figure 72. Chart.

RN values for different test sequences—S.R. 6220. This chart shows three sets of bar charts. Each set of bar charts shows the RN values along the inside lane left wheel path, inside lane right wheel path, and outside lane right wheel path for eight test sequences. The test sequences are: 1-day PM, 3-day AM, 7-day AM, 7-day PM, 1-month AM, 1-month PM, 3.5-month AM, and 3.5-month PM. The RN values obtained along the inside lane left wheel path for the eight test sequences starting with the first are: 3.59, 3.59, 3.45, 3.44, 3.37, 3.68, 3.69, and 3.67. The RN values obtained along the inside lane right wheel path for the eight test sequences starting with the first are: 3.71, 3.66, 3.51, 3.55, 3.26, 3.81, 3.78, and 3.80. The RN values obtained along the outside lane left wheel path for the eight test sequences starting with the first are: 3.84, 3.80, 3.62, 3.62, 3.40, 3.95, 3.95 and 3.97.

Figure 73. Chart.

IRI values for repeat runs—S.R. 6220. This figure presents a bar chart that shows IRI values that were obtained for 11 segments, each 15 meters (49 feet) long, for three repeat runs of the profiler. The three repeat runs shown in this figure were obtained along the left wheel path of the outside lane during the 1-month afternoon profiling. The following IRI values that are presented in ascending order of runs were obtained for each segment: segment 1: 1.30, 1.29, and 1.34 meters per kilometer (82, 82, and 85 inches per mile); segment 2: 0.75, 0.72, and 0.74 meters per kilometer (48, 46, and 47 inches per mile); segment 3: 0.84, 0.75, and 0.78 meters per kilometer (53, 48, and 50 inches per mile); segment 4: 1.06, 1.05, and 0.92 meters per kilometer (67, 67, and 58 inches per mile); segment 5: 0.94, 1.05, and 1.09 meters per kilometer (60, 67, and 69 inches per mile); segment 6: 1.08, 1.16, and 1.13 meters per kilometer (69, 74, and 72 inches per mile); segment 7: 1.05, 1.12, and 1.11 meters per kilometer (67, 71, and 70 inches per mile); segment 8: 0.92, 0.78, and 0.71 meters per kilometer (58, 50, and 45 inches per mile); segment 9: 0.75, 0.64, and 0.68 meters per kilometer (48, 41, and 43 inches per mile); segment 10: 0.86, 0.82, and 0.83 meters per kilometer (55, 52, and 53 inches per mile); and segment 11: 0.91, 0.86, and 0.93 meters per kilometer (58, 55, and 59 inches per mile).

Figure 74. Chart.

Measurements at a joint, initial sawcut, 1-day—S.R. 6220. This figure consists of profile data collected over a joint 1-day after paving with the initial sawcut present on the pavement. The X-axis shows distance, while the Y-axis shows elevation. Data collected between 30 and 31 meters (98.4 and 101.7 feet) are shown. The plot shows data collected when the initial sawcut was present on the pavement. In this plot, the joint appears in the profile as a small depression that is spread over a distance of about 220 millimeters (8.7 inches) with a maximum depth about of 1.5 millimeters (0.06 inches).

Figure 75. Chart.

Measurements at a joint, reservoir widened, 1-month morning—S.R. 6220. This figure consists of profile data collected during 1-month morning profiling when the joint reservoir had been sawed. The X-axis shows distance, while the Y-axis shows elevation. Data collected between 30 and 31 meters (98.4 and 101.7 feet) are shown. This plot shows profile data collected when the joint reservoir was widened. In this plot, the joint appears as a small depression that is spread over a distance of about 220 millimeters (8.7 inches), with a maximum depth of about 3.5 millimeters (0.14 inches).

Figure 76. Chart.

Measurements at a joint, joint sealed, 1-month afternoon—S.R. 6220. This figure consists of profile data collected during 1-month afternoon profiling after the joint had been sealed. The X-axis shows distance, while the Y-axis shows elevation. Data collected between 30 and 31 meters (98.4 and 101.7 feet) are shown. This plot shows data collected after the joint was sealed. In this plot, the joint appears as a small depression that is spread over a distance of about 220 millimeters (8.7 inches), with a maximum depth of about 1.5 millimeters (0.06 inches).

Figure 77. Chart.

Roughness profiles for outside lane, left wheel path—S.R. 6220. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of the outside lane along the left wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 163 meters (10 to 534 feet) is shown in each plot. The left wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.45 and 1.30 meters per kilometer (29 and 82 inches per mile) for most of the section. Values outside these limits are noted between the following limits: (1) between 6 and 9 meters (20 and 30 feet) where the IRI is 1.50 meters per kilometer (95 inches per mile), (2) between 152.4 and 155.5 meters (500 and 520 feet) where the IRI has a maximum value of 1.60 meters per kilometer (101 inches per mile), and (3) at 27 meters (89 feet) where the IRI has a minimum value of 0.40 meters per kilometer (25 inches per mile).

Figure 78. Chart.

Roughness profiles for outside lane, right wheel path—S.R. 6220. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of the outside lane along the right wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 163 meters (10 to 534 feet) is shown. The right wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.45 and 1.30 meters per kilometer (29 and 82 inches per mile) for most of the section. Values outside these limits are seen between the following limits: (1) 6 and 9 meters (20 and 30 feet) where the IRI has a maximum value of 1.7 meters per kilometer (108 inches per mile), and (2) at 55 meters (180 feet) where the IRI has a value of 1.4 meters per kilometer (89 inches per mile).

Figure 79. Chart.

Roughness profiles for outside lane, left and right wheel path—S.R. 6220. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of both the left and the right wheel path of the outside lane, with different line patterns used for the two wheel paths. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 163 meters (10 to 534 feet) is shown. This plot shows that the left wheel path has higher IRI than the right wheel path between 55 and 100 meters (180 and 328 feet), while the right wheel path has higher IRI than the left between 120 and 145 meters (394 and 476 feet).

Figure 80. Chart.

Roughness profiles for inside lane, left wheel path—S.R. 6220. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of the inside lane along the left wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 163 meters (10 to 535 feet) also is shown. The left wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.5 and 2.0 meters per kilometer (32 and 127 inches per mile), except between 3 and 14 meters (10 and 46 feet) where the IRI has a peak value of 2.9 meters per kilometer (184 inches per mile).

Figure 81. Chart.

Roughness profiles for inside lane, right wheel path—S.R. 6220. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of the inside lane along the right wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 163 meters (10 to 535 feet) also is shown. The right wheel path roughness profile varies between approximately 0.75 and 1.75 meters per kilometer (48 and 111 inches per mile), except between 3 and 14 meters (10 and 46 feet), where the IRI has a peak value of 2.20 meters per kilometer (139 inches per mile).

Figure 82. Chart.

Roughness profiles for inside lane, left and right wheel path—S.R. 6220. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profiles of both the left and the right wheel path of the inside lane, with different line patterns used for the two wheel paths. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 163 meters (10 to 535 feet) also is shown. This plot shows that the two roughness profiles exhibit reasonable agreement with each other, except between 3 and 14 meters (10 and 46 feet). Within these limits, the left wheel path has a higher IRI.

Figure 83. Photo.

Paver in operation. This figure shows a photograph of the front view of slipform paver that is paving a PCC pavement. The photograph shows dowel baskets that are placed on the base in front of the paver.

Figure 84. Chart.

IRI values for different test sequences—U.S. 20. This figure includes two sets of bar charts that show the IRI values along the left and the right wheel paths. Each set of bar charts show IRI values for the following six test sequences: 1-day PM, 3-day AM, 8-day PM, 9-day AM, 3-month AM, and 3-month PM. The IRI values obtained along the left wheel path for these six test sequences starting with the first are: 1.18, 1.24, 1.20, 1.17, 1.20, and 1.20 meters per kilometer (75, 79, 76, 74, 76, and 76 inches per mile). The IRI values obtained along the right wheel path for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 1.65, 1.64, 1.60, 1.62, 1.48, and 1.50 meters per kilometer (105, 104, 101, 103, 94, and 95 inches per mile).

Figure 85. Chart.

RN values for different test sequences to U.S. 20. This figure includes two sets of bar charts that show the RN values along the left and the right wheel paths. Each set of bar charts show the RN values for the following six test sequences: 1-day PM, 3-day AM, 8-day PM, 9-day AM, 3-month AM, and 3-month PM. The RN values obtained along the left wheel path for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 3.63, 3.59, 3.69, 3.72, 3.71, and 3.74. The RN values obtained along the right wheel path for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 3.28, 3.27, 3.36, 3.34, 3.44, and 3.45.

Figure 86. Chart.

IRI values for repeat runs—U.S. 20. This figure presents a bar chart that shows IRI values that were obtained for 12 segments, each 15 meters (49 feet) long, for three repeat runs of the profiler. The three repeat runs were performed along the left wheel path during the 1-day testing. The following IRI values that are presented in ascending order of runs were obtained for each segment: segment 1: 1.82, 1.45, and 1.49 meters per kilometer (115, 92, and 94 inches per mile); segment 2: 1.75, 1.43, and 1.38 meters per kilometer (111, 91, and 87 inches per mile); segment 3: 2.03, 1.89, and 2.05 meters per kilometer (129, 120, and 130 inches per mile); segment 4: 1.91, 2.08, and 1.95 meters per kilometer (121, 132, and 124 inches per mile); segment 5: 1.50, 1.38, and 1.65 meters per kilometer (95, 87, and 105 inches per mile); segment 6: 2.30, 2.28, and 2.33 meters per kilometer (146, 145, and 148 inches per mile); segment 7: 1.42, 1.43, and 1.42 meters per kilometer (90, 91, and 90 inches per mile); segment 8: 2.19, 1.71, and 1.59 meters per kilometer (139, 108, and 101 inches per mile); segment 9: 1.15, 1.46, and 1.56 meters per kilometer (73, 93, and 99 inches per mile); segment 10: 1.45, 1.68, and 1.59 meters per kilometer (92, 107, and 101 inches per mile); segment 11: 1.28, 1.62, and 1.77 meters per kilometer (81, 103, and 112 inches per mile); and segment 12: 1.08, 1.12, and 1.17 meters per kilometer (68, 71, and 74 inches per mile).

Figure 87. Chart.

Measurements at a joint, unsealed—U.S. 20. This figure is a companion figure to figure 88 and contains a plot of profile data that was collected over a joint when the joint was unsealed. The X-axis shows distance, while the Y-axis shows elevation. Data collected between 47.5 and 49 meters (156 and 161 ft) are shown, and the joint is approximately at a distance of 48 meters (157 feet). In this figure, the joint appears in the profile as a feature that is spread over a distance of approximately 300 millimeters (11.8 inches). The profile plot shows the depth of the joint to be about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) for the unsealed condition.

Figure 88. Chart.

Measurements at a joint, sealed—U.S. 20. This figure is a companion figure to figure 87 and contains a plot of profile data that was collected over a joint when the joint was sealed. The X-axis shows distance, while the Y-axis shows elevation. Data collected between 47.5 and 49 meters (156 and 161 ft) are shown, and the joint is approximately at a distance of 48 meters (157 feet). In this figure, the joint appears in the profile as a feature that is spread over a distance of approximately 300 millimeters (11.8 inches). The profile plot shows the depth of the joint to be about 1 millimeter (0.04 inch) for the sealed condition.

Figure 89. Chart.

Roughness profiles for U.S. 20, left wheel path. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of the left wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 6 to 176 meters (20 to 577 feet) also is shown. The IRI of the left wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.7 and 1.8 meters per kilometer (44 and 114 inches per mile).

Figure 90. Chart.

Roughness profiles for U.S. 20, right wheel path. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of the right wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 6 to 176 meters (20 to 577 feet) also is shown. The IRI of the right wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.85 and 2.65 meters per kilometer (54 and 168 inches per mile).

Figure 91. Chart.

Roughness profiles for U.S. 20, left and right wheel path. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of both the left and the right wheel paths, with different line patterns used for the two wheel paths. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 6 to 176 meters (20 to 577 feet) also is shown. The roughness profile shows that the right wheel path has a higher IRI than the left wheel path, up to a distance of 128 meters (420 feet). After that, the roughness profiles for the two wheel paths show better agreement with each other.

Figure 92. Chart.

Band-pass filtered elevation profile. This figure shows plots of band-pass filtered elevation profiles along the left and the right wheel paths. The X-axis of the plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. The two profiles are offset for clarity. The right wheel path plot shows more waviness than the left wheel path plot.

Figure 93. Chart.

PSD plots of profiles. This figure shows PSD plots of the left and right wheel path data. The X-axis of the plot shows wavenumber, while the Y-axis shows the PSD of profile slope. The plot for the right wheel path shows higher spectral content between wave numbers of 0.29 and 2.05 cycles per meter (0.088 to 0.625 cycles per foot) when compared to the left wheel path. The right wheel path PSD plot shows a peak at a wavenumber of 0.65 cycles per meter (0.2 cycles per foot).

Figure 94. Photo.

Overall view of the paving train. This figure shows a photograph of a spreader, which is followed by a slipform paver.

Figure 95. Photo.

Slipform paver used for paving. This figure shows a photograph of the front view of the slipform paver, which is paving a PCC pavement.

Figure 96. Chart.

IRI values for different test sequences for entire test section—I-80. This figure shows two sets of bar charts that show the IRI values along the left and the right wheel path. Each set of bar charts show the IRI values for the following five test sequences: 2-day AM, 3-day AM 7-day AM, 7-day PM, and 1 month PM. The IRI values for the left wheel path for these five test sequences starting with the first are: 1.04, 1.03, 1.14, 1.12, and 1.11 meters per kilometer (66, 65, 72, 71, and 70 inches per mile). The IRI values along the right wheel path for the five test sequences starting with the first are: 0.88, 0.88, 0.94, 0.94, and 0.93 meters per kilometer (56, 56, 60, 60, and 59 inches per mile).

Figure 97. Chart.

RN values for different test sequences for entire test section—I-80. This figure shows two sets of bar charts that show the RN values along the left and the right wheel path. Each set of bar charts show the RN values for the following five test sequences: 2-day AM, 3-day AM, 7-day AM, 7-day PM, and 1 month PM. The RN values for the left wheel path for the five test sequences starting with the first are: 3.79, 3.88, 3.74, 3.78, and 3.78. The RN values for the right wheel path for the five test sequences starting with the first are: 3.94, 4.02, 3.96, 3.95, and 3.96.

Figure 98. Chart.

IRI values from repeat runs—I-80. This figure contains bar charts that show the IRI values obtained for 20 segments, each 15 meters (49 feet) long, for three repeat runs of the profiler. The following IRI values that are presented in ascending order of runs were obtained for each segment. Segment 1: 0.99, 0.87, and 0.96 meters per kilometer (63, 55, and 61 inches per mile); segment 2: 0.91, 0.75, and 0.95 meters per kilometer (58, 48, and 60 inches per mile); segment 3: 1.07, 0.98, and 0.89 meters per kilometer (68, 62, and 56 inches per mile); segment 4: 1.04, 1.04, and 1.20 meters per kilometer (66, 66, and 76 inches per mile); segment 5: 0.81, 0.97, and 0.75 meters per kilometer (51, 61, and 48 inches per mile); segment 6: 0.94, 1.09, and 1.06 meters per kilometer (60, 69, and 67 inches per mile); segment 7: 1.29, 1.18, and 1.21 meters per kilometer (82, 75, and 77 inches per mile); segment 8: 0.87, 0.90, and 0.82 meters per kilometer (55, 75, and 52 inches per mile); segment 9: 0.93, 0.85, and 0.93 meters per kilometer (59, 60, and 59 inches per mile); segment 10: 0.70, 0.94, and 0.67 meters per kilometer (44, 60, and 42 inches per mile); segment 11: 0.90, 0.66, and 0.86 meters per kilometer (57, 42, and 55 inches per mile); segment 12: 0.93, 0.83, and 0.87 meters per kilometer (59, 53, and 55 inches per mile); segment 13: 0.71, 0.64, and 0.54 meters per kilometer (45, 41, and 34 inches per mile); segment 14: 0.90, 0.80, and 0.78 meters per kilometer (57, 51, and 49 inches per mile); segment 15: 0.70, 0.69, and 0.59 meters per kilometer (44, 44, and 37 inches per mile); segment 16: 0.95, 0.88, and 0.91 meters per kilometer ( 60, 56, and 58 inches per mile); segment 17: 0.67, 0.56, and 0.53 meters per kilometer (42, 36, and 34 inches per mile); segment 18: 1.08, 1.03, and 1.15 meters per kilometer (68, 65, and 73 inches per mile); segment 19: 1.00, 1.03, and 0.94 meters per kilometer (63, 65, and 60 inches per mile); and segment 20: 0.80, 0.72, and 0.82 meters per kilometer (51, 46, and 52 inches per mile).

Return to Figure 98

Figure 99. Chart.

Roughness profiles for I-80, left wheel path. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile along the left wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 9 to 305 meters (30 to 1000 feet) also is shown. The IRI of the left wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.37 and 1.70 meters per kilometer (23 to 108 inches per mile).

Figure 100. Chart.

Roughness profiles for I-80, right wheel path. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile along the right wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 9 to 305 meters (30 to 1000 feet) also is shown. The IRI of the right wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.35 and 1.50 meters per kilometer (22 to 95 inches per mile).

Figure 101. Chart.

Roughness profiles for I-80, left and right wheel path. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of both the left and the right wheel paths, with different line patterns used for the two wheel paths. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 9 to 305 meters (30 to 1000 feet) also is shown. This plot shows there is generally good agreement between the roughness profiles along the two wheel paths, except for some localized locations. The left wheel path shows higher IRI than the right between 63 and 94 meters (207 and 308 feet), and 179 and 197 meters (587 and 646 feet). The right wheel path shows higher IRI than the left between 39 and 51 meters (128 and 167 feet), and 234 and 252 meters (768 and 827 feet).

Figure 102. Photo.

Tie bars and dowel basket placed on base. This photograph shows tie bars and dowel baskets that have been placed on the base before paving.

Figure 103. Photo.

View of the paving train. This photograph shows the paving train used in this project. The paving train consists of a spreader, a slip form paver, and the texture/curing unit.

Figure 104. Photo.

Profile data collection using a lightweight inertial profiler. A photograph of a lightweight profiler that is collecting data on a new PCC pavement is shown.

Figure 105. Photo.

High-speed inertial profiler. A photograph of a high-speed inertial profiler is shown.

Figure 106. Chart.

IRI values for different test sequences—U.S. 23. This figure shows four sets of bar charts that show the IRI values along the following paths: left wheel path of inside lane, right wheel path of inside lane, left wheel path of outside lane, and right wheel path of outside lane. Each set of bar charts shows IRI values for the following six test sequences: 1-day AM, 5-day AM, 9-day AM, 10-day AM, 10-day PM, and 1-year PM. The IRI values along the left wheel path of the inside lane for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 1.11, 1.01, 1.03, 0.89, 0.90, and 0.74 meters per kilometer (70, 64, 65, 56, 57, and 47 inches per mile). The IRI values of the right wheel path of the inside lane for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 0.99, 0.83, 0.99, 0.79, 0.81, and 0.74 meters per kilometer (63, 53, 63, 50, 51, and 47 inches per mile). The IRI values of the left wheel path of the outside lane for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 1.07, 0.81, 1.10, 0.84, 0.85, and 0.70 meters per kilometer (68, 51, 70, 53, 54, and 44 inches per mile). The IRI values for he right wheel path of the outside lane for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 0.85, 0.79, 0.84, 0.70, 0.72, and 0.73 meters per kilometer (54, 50, 53, 44, 46, and 46 inches per mile).

Figure 107. Chart.

RN values for different test sequences—U.S. 23. This figure shows four sets of bar charts that show the RN values along the following paths: left wheel path of inside lane, right wheel path of inside lane, left wheel path of outside lane, and right wheel path of outside lane. Each set of bar charts shows RN values for the following six test sequences: 1-day AM, 5-day PM, 9-day AM, 10-day AM, 10-day PM, and 1-year PM. The RN values for the left wheel path of the inside lane for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 3.81, 3.86, 3.00, 3.75, 3.81, and 3.90. The RN values for the right wheel path of the inside lane for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 3.84, 3.93, 2.86, 3.70, 3.69, and 3.91. The RN values for the left wheel path of the outside lane for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 3.83, 4.06, 2.88, 3.79, 3.77, and 3.94. The RN values for the right wheel path of the outside lane for the six test sequences starting with the first are: 3.72, 3.87, 3.10, 3.87, 3.84, and 3.99.

Figure 108. Chart.

Repeatability of IRI values—U.S. 23. This figure contains bar charts that show IRI values obtained for 10 segments, each 15 meters (49 feet) long, for three repeat runs of the profiler. These repeat runs were obtained along the left wheel path during the day-10 morning profiling. The following IRI values, which are presented in ascending order of runs, were obtained for each segment: segment 1: 0.81, 0.94, and 1.06 meters per kilometer (51, 60, and 67 inches per mile); segment 2: 0.82, 0.75, and 0.73 meters per kilometer (52, 48, and 46 inches per mile); segment 3: 0.92, 0.87, and 0.87 meters per kilometer (58, 55, and 55 inches per mile); segment 4: 0.93, 0.89, and 0.89 meters per kilometer (59, 56, and 56 inches per mile); segment 5: 0.59, 0.70, and 0.63 meters per kilometer (37, 44, and 40 inches per mile); segment 6: 0.82, 0.78, and 0.83 meters per kilometer (52, 49, and 53 inches per mile); segment 7: 0.64, 0.79, and 0.65 meters per kilometer (41, 50, and 41 inches per mile); segment 8: 0.80, 0.70, and 0.69 meters per kilometer (51, 44, and 44 inches per mile); segment 9: 0.74, 0.68, and 0.71 meters per kilometer (47, 43, and 45 inches per mile); and segment 10:0.78, 0.81, and 0.83 meters per kilometer (49, 51, and 53 inches per mile).

Figure 109. Chart.

Measurement at a joint, initial sawcut—U.S. 23. This figure contains a plot that presents profile data collected over a joint when the initial sawcut was present on the pavement. The X-axis shows distance, while the Y-axis shows elevation. Data collected between 34.5 and 36 meters (113 and 118 feet) are shown. The plot shows data collected when initial sawcut was present on the pavement. The joint location cannot be detected in this profile data plot.

Figure 110. Chart.

Measurement at a joint, joint reservoir widened—U.S. 23. This figure contains a plot that presents profile data collected over a joint when the joint reservoir had been sawed, but not sealed. The X-axis shows distance, while the Y-axis shows elevation. Data collected between 34.5 and 36 meters (113 and 118 feet) are shown. In this plot, the joint appears as a feature that is spread over a distance of about 450 millimeters (17.7 inches), with a depth of about 4 millimeters (0.16 inches).

Figure 111. Chart.

Measurement at a joint, joint sealed—U.S. 23. This figure contains a plot that presents profile data collected over a joint after the joint had been sealed. The X-axis shows distance, while the Y-axis shows elevation. Data collected between 34.5 and 36 meters (113 and 118 feet) are shown. In this plot, the joint appears as a feature that is spread over about 450 millimeters (17.7 inches), with a depth of 1.25 millimeters (0.05 inches).

Figure 112. Chart.

Data collected over a joint by the high-speed profiler. This figure shows a plot of the data collected by the high-speed profiler over a joint. The X-axis of the plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows the elevation. Data collected between 3.3 and 3.8 meters (10.8 and 12.5 feet) are shown in the plot. The joint is located between 3.5 and 3.6 meters (11.5 and 11.8 feet). The joint appears in the plot as a feature that is 75 millimeters (3 inches) wide and about 3.75 millimeters (0.15 inch) deep.

Figure 113. Chart.

Roughness profiles for inside lane, left wheel path—U.S. 23. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of the inside lane along the left wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 152 meters (10 to 500 feet) is shown. The IRI of the left wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.46 and 1.51 meters per kilometer (21 and 96 inches per mile).

Figure 114. Chart.

Roughness profiles for inside lane, right wheel path—U.S. 23. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of the inside lane along the right wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 152 meters (10 to 500 feet) is shown. The IRI of the right wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.46 and 1.34 meters per kilometer (29 and 85 inches per mile).

Figure 115. Chart.

Roughness profiles for inside lane, left and right wheel path—U.S. 23. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profiles of both the left and the right wheel path of the inside lane, with different line patterns used for the two wheel paths. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 152 meters (10 to 500 feet) is shown. The plot that contains roughness profiles for both the left and the right wheel path shows the left wheel path has a higher IRI than the right for most of the section.

Figure 116. Chart.

Roughness profiles for outside lane, left wheel path—U.S. 23. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of the outside lane along the left wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 152 meters (10 to 500 feet) is shown. The IRI of the left wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.43 and 1.20 meters per kilometer (27 and 76 inches per mile), except from 3 to 16 meters (10 to 52 feet). Within these limits, the IRI has a peak value of 1.90 meters per kilometer (120 inches per mile).

Figure 117. Chart.

Roughness profiles for outside lane, right wheel path—U.S. 23. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile of the outside lane along the right wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 152 meters (10 to 500 feet) is shown. The IRI of the right wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.43 and 1.01 meters per kilometer (27 and 64 inches per mile).

Figure 118. Chart.

Roughness profiles for outside lane, left and right wheel path—U.S. 23. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profiles of both the left and the right wheel path of the outside lane, with different line patterns used for the two wheel paths. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 3 to 152 meters (10 to 500 feet) is shown. This plot shows there is a major difference in the roughness profiles between 3 and 16 meters (10 and 52 feet). Within these limits, the left wheel path has significantly higher IRI than the right. For the rest of the section, the two roughness profiles show a similar patter, although differences in IRI are noted between the two wheel paths at localized locations.

Figure 119. Chart.

Humps in profile for 1-day profile data. This figure shows a plot of the profile data obtained from the 1-day profiling. The X-axis of the plot shows distance, while the Y-axis shows elevation. Profile data between 85 and 113 meters (279 and 371 feet) are shown in the plot. The plots show slight humps appearing in the profile at 4.6-meter (15-foot) intervals.

Figure 120. Photo.

Residue from joint sawing operation adjacent to a joint. A photograph of the area adjacent to a transverse joint in a PCC slab is shown. The area adjacent to the transverse joint contains residue from the joint sawing operation.

Figure 121. Photo.

View from the front of the paver. This photograph shows a front view of the slipform paver that is paving a PCC pavement.

Figure 122. Photo.

Finishing process behind the paver. This photograph shows finishing operations being performed on the PCC pavement with straightedges after the pavement was placed by the slipform paver.

Figure 123. Chart.

IRI values for different test sequences—I-69. This figure shows two sets of bar charts that show the IRI values along the left and the right wheel paths for five test sequences. Each set of bar charts show the IRI values for the following five test sequences: 1-day AM, 5-day AM, 10-day AM, 10-day PM, and 4.5 months. PM The IRI values for the left wheel path for the five test sequences starting with the first are: 1.15, 1.05, 1.09, 1.29, and 1.25 meters per kilometer (73, 67, 69, 82, and 79 inches per mile). The IRI values for the right wheel path for the five test sequences starting with the first are: 1.17, 1.12, 1.04, 1.48, and 1.43 meters per kilometer (74, 71, 66, 94, and 91 inches per mile).

Figure 124. Chart.

RN values for different test sequences—I-69. This figure shows two sets of bar charts that show the RN values along the left and the right wheel paths for five test sequences. Each bar chart shows RN values for the following five test sequences: 1-day AM, 5-day AM, 10-day AM, 10-day PM, and 4.5 months PM. The RN values of the left wheel path for the five test sequences starting with the first are: 3.66, 3.73, 3.81, 2.87, and 3.50. The RN values of the right wheel path for the five test sequences starting with the first are: 3.66, 3.74, 3.91, 2.58, and 3.45.

Figure 125. Chart.

Repeatability of IRI values—I-69. This figure contains bar charts that show the IRI values obtained for nine segments, each 15 meters (49 feet) long, for three repeat runs of the profiler. These repeat runs were obtained along the right wheel path during the day-9 morning profiling. The following IRI values, which are presented in ascending order of runs, were obtained for each segment: segment 1: 1.09, 1.33, and 1.30 meters per kilometer (69, 84, and 82 inches per mile); segment 2: 1.08, 0.96, and 1.09 meters per kilometer (68, 61, and 69 inches per mile); segment 3: 0.97, 0.91, and 0.93 meters per kilometer (61, 58, and 59 inches per mile); segment 4: 1.03, 1.01, and 0.95 meters per kilometer (65, 64, and 60 inches per mile); segment 5: 0.96, 0.99, and 0.90 meters per kilometer (61, 63, and 57 inches per mile); segment 6: 0.82, 0.88, and 0.82 meters per kilometer (52, 56, and 52 inches per mile); segment 7: 1.22, 1.19, and 1.27 meters per kilometer (77, 75, and 81 inches per mile); segment 8: 1.29, 1.27, and 1.45 meters per kilometer (82, 81, and 92 inches per mile); and segment 9: 0.95, 0.90, and 1.01 meters per kilometer (60, 57, and 64 inches per mile).

Figure 126. Chart.

Roughness profiles for I-69, left wheel path. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile along the left wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 7 to 146 meters (23 to 479 feet) is shown. The IRI of the left wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.42 and 1.90 meters per kilometer (27 to 120 inches per mile).

Figure 127. Chart.

Roughness profiles for I-69, right wheel path. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profile along the right wheel path. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 7 to 146 meters (23 to 479 feet) is shown. The IRI of the right wheel path roughness profile varies between 0.52 and 1.68 meters per kilometer (33 to 107 inches per mile).

Figure 128. Chart.

Roughness profiles for I-69, left and right wheel path. This figure contains a plot that shows the roughness profiles of both the left and the right wheel paths, with different line patterns used for the two wheel paths. The X-axis shows the distance, while the Y-axis shows the IRI. The roughness profile from 7 to 146 meters (23 to 479 feet) is shown. The plot shows differences between the roughness profiles of the left and right wheel paths along the section. The difference in IRI between the two roughness profiles varies from 0.02 to 0.82 meters per kilometer (1 to 52 inches per mile).

Figure 129. Equation.

Kappa. Kappa equals the second derivative of Z over X, [X squared?] divided by the sum of one plus second derivative of Z over X with the sum raised to the 1.5 power.

Figure 130. Equation.

Curvature. Curvature equals Kappa and is approximately equal to the second derivative of Z over X. [X squared?]

Figure 131.

M subscript X. M subscript times is equal to E multiplied by H raised to the power 3, then divided by 12 times the sum of one minus Mu squared. This quotient then is multiplied by the second derivative of Z over X.

Figure 132. Equation.

Sigma. Sigma is equal to M multiplied by Y and divided by I.

Figure 133. Equation.

The negative second derivative of Z over X. The negative second derivative of Z over X [X squared?] is equal to M subscript X minus Mu multiplied by M subscript Y; then the remainder is then multiplied by the quotient of 12 divided by E multiplied by H to the third power. This value is then added to A, B, C, and D.

Figure 134. Equation.

Negative second derivative of Z over Y. The negative second derivative of Z over Y [Y squared?] is equal to M subscript Y minus Mu multiplied by M subscript X; the remainder is then multiplied by the quotient of 12 divided by E multiplied by H to the third power. This value is then added to A, B, C, and D. [In the text, there is a symbol in place of the “d” that normally designates “derivative” – should this be changed?]

Figure 135. Equation.

Kappa subscript total. Kappa subscript total is equal to Kappa subscript stress plus Kappa subscript temperature plus Kappa subscript moisture plus Kappa subscript construction plus Kappa subscript creep.

Figure 136. Equation.

First derivative of Z over X. First derivative of Z over X is equal to slope subscript N, which is equal to the quotient of Z subscript N plus 1 minus Z subscript N divided by X subscript N plus 1 minus X subscript N.

Figure 137. Equation.

Second derivative of Z over X. Second derivative of Z over X [X squared?] is approximately equal to curvature subscript N, which is equal to the quotient of slope subscript N plus 1 minus slope subscript N divided by X subscript N plus 1 minus X subscript n.

 


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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