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This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-117
Date: December 2006

References

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  1. The Road Information Program. The Road Information Program, 2004, Washington, DC, http://www.tripnet.org.
  2. Korhonen, C., "New developments in cold-weather concreting," Proceedings, The 11th International Conference of Cold Regions Engineering, ASCE, Anchorage, AK, 2002, pp. 531–537.
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  4. Powers, T.C., with discussion by Willis, T.F., “The Air Requirement of Frost Resistant Concrete,” Proceedings, Highway Research Board, vol. 29, 1949, pp. 184–211; Bulletin No. 33, Research and Developments Laboratories of the Portland Cement Association.
  5. Klieger, P., “Effect of Entrained Air on the Strength and Durability of Concretes Made with Various Maximum Sizes of Aggregate,” Proceedings, Highway Research Board, vol. 31, October, 1952; pp. 177–201; Bulletin no. 40, Research and Developments Laboratories of the Portland Cement Association.
  6. Cordon, W.A. and Merrill, D., “Requirements for Freezing and Thawing Durability for Concrete,” Proceedings, ASTM vol. 63, 1963, pp. 1026–1036.
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  8. ACI Committee 211, Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete (ACI 211.1-91), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, (Reapproved 2002) 38 pp.
  9. ACI Committee 201, Guide to Durable Concrete (ACI 201.2R-01), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2001, 41 pp.
  10. ASTM C 94/C94M-04, Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, February 2004.
  11. ACI Committee 301, Specifications for Structural Concrete ACI 301-99, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1999, 49 pp.
  12. ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, ACI 318-02, and Commentary, ACI 318R-02, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2002, 443 pp.
  13. TRB Circular 494, Durability of Concrete, Transportation Research Board, Section on Concrete (A2E00), December 1999, 63 pp.
  14. ASTM C231-04, Standard Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, July 2004.
  15. AASHTO T 152, Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method, AASHTO, Washington, DC, 2005.
  16. ASTM C173/C173M-01e1, Standard Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric Method, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, March 2001.
  17. AASHTO T 196M/T 196, Standard Method of Test For Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric Method, AASHTO, Washington, DC, January 2005.
  18. ASTM C 457, Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of Parameters of the Air-Void Content and Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hardened Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 1998.
  19. Powers, T.C., “Void Spacing as a Basis for Producing Air-Entraining Concrete,” J. American Concrete Institute, May 1954; Proceedings, vol. 50, pp. 741–760, Bulletin no. 49, Research and Developments Laboratories of the Portland Cement Association.
  20. AASHTO T 161, Standard Method of Test for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing, AASHTO, Washington, DC, 2000.
  21. ASTM C666/C666M-03, Standard Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003.
  22. ASTM C 215, Standard Test Method for Fundamental Transverse, Longitudinal, and Torsional Frequencies of Concrete Specimens, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, December 2002.
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  25. Mielenz, R.C., Wolkodoff, V.E., Backstrom, J.E., and Flack, H.I., “Origin, Evolution, and Effects of the Air Void System in Concrete. Part 1—Entrained Air in Unhardened Concrete,” Journal, American Concrete Institute, July 1958; Proceedings, vol. 55; “Part 2—Influence of Type and Amount of Air-Entraining Agent,” Journal, American Concrete Institute, August 1958; Proceedings, vol. 55; “Part 3—Influence of Water-Cement Ratio and Compaction,” Journal, American Concrete Institute, October 1958; Proceedings, vol. 55.
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  27. Powers, T.C., “A Working Hypothesis for Further Studies of Frost resistance of Concrete,” ACI Journal, Proceedings, vol. 41, no. 4, February 1945, pp. 245–272.
  28. Powers, T.C., and Willis, T.F., Discussion of the “The Air Requirement of Frost Resistant Concrete,” Proceedings of the Highway Research Board, vol. 29, 1949, pp. 184–211.
  29. Simon, M., Computer Applications in Air Void System Evaluation. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 1989, 184 pp.
  30. ASTM C 138, Standard Test Method for Density (Unit Weight), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2001.
  31. AASHTO T 121M/T 121-05, Standard Method of Test for Density (Unit Weight), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete, AASHTO, Washington, DC, 2005.
  32. Powers, T.C., “Basic Considerations Pertaining to Freezing-and-Thawing Tests,” Proceedings, ASTM, Vol. 55, 1955, pp. 1132–1155.
  33. Janssen, D., and Snyder, M., Resistance of Concrete to Freezing and Thawing, SHRP-C-391, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1994.
  34. Tan, A.C., Paterson, G., Mathew, J. and Dunbabin, M., “Visualisation of Vibration Mode Shapes to Assist Students in the Learning of Mechanical Vibrations,” World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, UICEE, vol. 1, no.1, 2002, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
  35. Clarke, S.L. Improved Method for Nondestructive Testing of Concrete Prisms, MS Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 1991.
  36. ASTM C 150, Standard Specification for Portland Cement, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003.
  37. ASTM C 33-03. Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, June, 2003.
  38. ASTM C 260, Standard Specification for Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2001.
  39. AASHTO M154, Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete, AASHTO, Washington, DC, 2000.
  40. ASTM C 192, Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2002.
  41. ASTM C 143/C143M-03, Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, July 2003.
  42. ASTM C 494, Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 1999.
  43. ASTM C 39, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003.
  44. Dubovoy, V.S., Gebler, S.H., and Klieger, P. “Cement-Alkali Level as it Affects Air-Void Stability, Freeze-Thaw Resistance, and Deicer Scaling Resistance of Concrete,” Research and Development Bulletin RD128, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL, 2002.

 

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The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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