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Publication Number: FHWA-RD-98-155
Date: FEBRUARY 1999

Volume 1: Practical Guide, Final Report and Appendix A


Introduction

This document provides construction specifications for jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) that includes the measurement of several key acceptance quality characteristics (AQC's). Each of the AQC's (mean and standard deviation) is related to performance and, thus, to life-cycle costs (LCC's) over a chosen analysis period. The incentive/disincentive pay factors are computed based on expected future performance and costs.

The format and content of these Performance-Related Specifications (PRS) are based in part on the following American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guide Specifications for Highway Pavement Construction:

Table of Contents

DIVISION 100. GENERAL PROVISIONS

SECTION PRS–101. DEFINITIONS
SECTION PRS–110. QUALITY ASSURANCE
PRS–110.01 Samples, Tests, and Referenced Specifications
PRS–110.02 Qualified Testing Laboratory
PRS–110.03 Technician Certification
PRS–110.04 Quality Control
PRS–110.05 Acceptance
PRS–110.06 Quality Pay Adjustments
PRS–110.07 Dispute Resolution

DIVISION 500. RIGID PAVEMENT

SECTION PRS–501. JOINTED PLAIN PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT
PRS–501.01 Description
PRS–501.02 Materials
PRS–501.03 Construction Requirements
PRS–501.04 Methods of AQC Measurement

A. Lots
B. Sublots
C. Definition of Pavement Performance
D. Included Acceptance Quality Characteristics
E. Selection of AQC Target Values
F. Identification of AQC Limits for Acceptance
G. AQC Sampling and Testing Methods
1. Concrete Strength
a. Sampling of Concrete Strength
i. Beams
ii. Cylinders
iii. Cores
b. Timing of Concrete Strength Testing
c. Testing-Related Procedures (Conducted Prior to Specimen Testing)
i. Laboratory Maturity Calibration
ii. Laboratory-Developed Inter-Strength Relationships
iii. Measuring Maturity in the As-Constructed Pavement
d. Specific Concrete Strength Testing Procedures
i. Flexural Testing of Beams
ii. Compression Testing of Cylinders or Cores
iii. Split-Tensile Testing of Cylinders or Cores
e. Concrete Strength Acceptance
2. Slab Thickness
a. Sampling and Testing of Slab Thickness
b. Slab Thickness Acceptance
3. Entrained Air Content
a. Sampling and Testing of Entrained Air Content
i. Pressure Meter Tests of Plastic Concrete
ii. Linear Traverse Tests of Hardened Concrete Cores
b. Entrained Air Content Acceptance
4. Initial Smoothness
a. Sampling and Testing of Initial Smoothness
b. Initial Smoothness Acceptance
5. Percent Consolidation Around Dowels
a. Sampling and Testing of Percent Consolidation Around Dowels
b. Acceptance of Percent Consolidation Around Dowels
PRS–501.05 Methods of AQC Retesting
A. Concrete Strength
B. Slab Thickness
C. Entrained Air Content
D. Initial Smoothness
E. Percent Consolidation Around Dowels
PRS–501.06 Basis of Acceptance
A. Life-Cycle Costs
B. As-Designed Target Pavement
C. As-Constructed Pavement Lot
PRS–501.07 Basis of Payment
A. Level 1 Pay Adjustment
B. Level 2 Pay Adjustment

ATTACHMENT SERIES A —LABORATORY MATURITY CALIBRATION CURVES AND RESPECTIVE EQUATIONS
ATTACHMENT SERIES B —LABORATORY-DEVELOPED INTER-STRENGTH CURVES AND RESPECTIVE EQUATIONS
ATTACHMENT SERIES C —PROJECT-SPECIFIC CONSTANT VALUES
ATTACHMENT SERIES D —LEVEL 1 INDIVIDUAL AQC PAY FACTOR CHARTS AND EQUATIONS


DIVISION 100. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section PRS-101. Definitions

The following definitions are applicable to this Specification:

Level 1 Pay Adjustment—The Level 1 pay adjustment is computed using the determined Level 1 lot composite pay factor (CPF). The actual Level 1 lot pay adjustment is computed using the relationship presented in equation 101-1.
PAYLOT  = BID * (PFCOMPOSITE – 100) * LOTLENGTH                 (101-1)
  where
PAYLOT  = Adjusted payment paid to the contractor for the as-constructed lot, $.

BID  = Contractor bid price, $/km.

PFCOMPOSITE = The determined Level 1 lot CPF, percent (e.g., 101 percent is expressed as 101.0).

LOTLENGTH = Measured actual as-constructed lot length, km.
Level 2 Pay Adjustment—The Level 2 pay adjustment is computed using the determined Level 2 lot pay factor. The actual Level 2 lot pay adjustment is computed using the relationship presented in equation 101-2.
PAYLOT  = BID * (PFLOT – 100) * LOTLENGTH                 (101-2)
  where
PAYLOT  = Adjusted payment paid to the contractor for the as-constructed lot, $.

BID= Contractor bid price, $/km.

PFLOT = The determined Level 2 overall lot pay factor, percent (e.g., 101 percent is expressed as 101.0).

LOTLENGTH = Measured actual as-constructed lot length, km.
Basic Pay Factor Definition—The underlying equation used to compute a pay factor for a given lot (based on the comparison of LCC's) is presented as equation 101-3. This equation is used to compute the pay factor for each simulated lot.
PFLOT   = 100 * (BID + [LCCDES – LCCCON])/BID                 (101-3)
  where
PFLOT  = Overall pay factor for the as-constructed lot, percent.

BID  = Representative contractor's unit bid price for the lot, $/km.

LCCDES  = As-designed life-cycle unit cost for the lot (computed using target AQC's), PW$/km.

LCCCON = As-constructed life-cycle unit cost for the lot (computed using AQC test results from the as-constructed lot), PW$/km.
Level 1 Individual AQC Pay Factors—The pay factors (associated with the measured AQC's) computed using the developed Level 1 individual AQC pay factor equations. Each Level 1 AQC pay factor (expressed as a percentage) is a function of the measured as-constructed AQC lot mean and standard deviation. (Note: Level 1 individual AQC pay factor equations are based on data simulated using the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software.) The final Level 1 individual AQC pay factors may be limited to agency-chosen pay factor practical limits.

Level 1 Composite Pay Factor—The overall pay factor (expressed as a percentage) for an as-constructed lot computed using a Level 1 specification. This pay factor is determined using the agency-defined CPF equation (a simple mathematical function of the individual Level 1 AQC pay factors). The final Level 1 lot CPF (which may be limited to agency-chosen pay factor practical limits) is used to determine the contractor's Level 1 lot pay adjustment.

Level 2 Pay Factor—The overall pay factor (expressed as a percentage) for an as-constructed lot computed using a Level 2 specification. This pay factor is computed using equation 101-3 and may be limited to agency-chosen pay factor practical limits. The PaveSpec 2.0 computer software is used to simulate the required LCCDES based on SHA-defined AQC target values, and estimate the LCCCON based on the measured as-constructed AQC samples.
  0 – 1     Very poor.
1 – 2     Poor.
2 – 3     Fair.
3 – 4     Good.
4 – 5     Very good.

PWCOST  = C / (1 + i)T                 (101-4)
  where
PWCOST  = Present worth of yearly cost (C).

C  = M & R, or user cost incurred during year T.

T  = Year during which the observed cost (C) was incurred.

i  = Chosen discount rate.

MEANSAMPLES  = å(xi) /n                 (101-5)
  where
MEANSAMPLES = The computed mean of n random AQC samples.

xi = 1 to n random sample values.

n  = Total number of random samples.
SDSAMPLES  = ({[å(xi –MEANSAMPLES)2] /(n – 1)}/m)0.5 / CSD                 (101-6)
  where
SDSAMPLES  = The computed unbiased standard deviation of all of the random sample values.

MEANSAMPLES = The computed mean of all of the random sample values.

n  = Total number of random samples.

xi  = 1 to n sample values.

m  = The number of replicate specimen test results used to compute one sample value.

CSD  = Correction factor based on the total sample size, n, used to obtain unbiased estimates of the actual lot sample standard deviation, s. Appropriate CSD values are determined using table PRS-101-01.

Table PRS-101-01. Correction factors used to obtain unbiased estimates of the actual standard deviation.

Number of Sample Values, n

Correction Factor, CSD

2

0.7979

3

0.8862

4

0.9213

5

0.9399

6

0.9515

7

0.9594

8

0.9650

9

0.9693

10

0.9726

30

0.9915

50

0.9949

Section PRS-110. Quality Assurance

PRS–110.01 Samples, Tests, and Referenced Specifications. The contractor shall be responsible for the quality of the construction and materials incorporated into the contract. The contractor shall perform all necessary QC inspection, sampling, and testing. All materials will be approved for acceptance through the agency's acceptance procedures. The agency is responsible for determining the acceptability of the construction and materials incorporated therein. The agency may use the results of the contractor's inspection, sampling, and testing as a part of its acceptance procedures, provided the contractor has an approved QC program.

PRS–110.02 Qualified Testing Laboratory. The agency central laboratory shall be accredited by the AASHTO Accreditation Program (AAP). All testing laboratories (agency, contractor, consultant, or vendor) shall be approved by the agency.

The contractor's QC laboratory shall be furnished and maintained with adequate ventilation, heat, light, water, sink and drainage, electrical or gas outlets (or both), work tables, shelves, and supply cabinets. The laboratory shall be supplied with equipment and materials necessary to perform all tests required by these specifications and shall be maintained in such condition that the equipment will meet the applicable requirements of the agency. (The agency may want to list the specific equipment that is deemed necessary to satisfy the QC testing requirements of the applicable specifications.)

PRS–110.03 Technician Certification. The agency shall require that individuals who perform one or more of the actual sampling, testing, and inspection functions for the agency, contractor, vendor, or private laboratories be certified.

Certified sampling and testing personnel provide added assurances that the sampling and testing will be performed correctly and that the results will be valid. The certification program recognized by the agency should be one or more of the following:

For additional information concerning technician certification, see the "Sampling and Testing Personnel" section of the 1996 AASHTO Implementation Manual for Quality Assurance.(28)

PRS–110.04 Quality Control. The contractor shall provide and maintain a QC system that will assure all materials and products submitted to the agency for acceptance will conform to the contract requirements, whether manufactured or processed by the contractor or procured from suppliers, subcontractors, or vendors. The contractor shall perform, or have performed, the inspections and tests required to substantiate product conformance to contract document requirements. The contractor shall also perform, or have performed, all inspections and tests otherwise required by the contract. The contractor's QC inspections and tests shall be documented and provided to the agency. The contractor shall maintain adequate records of all inspections and tests. The records shall include the nature, number, and type of deficiencies found; the quantities rejected by the contractor; and the nature of corrective action taken, as appropriate. The contractor shall maintain standard equipment and qualified personnel as required by the specifications to assure conformance to contract requirements. Procedures will be subject to approval by the agency before the work is started.

The contractor shall prepare a QC plan detailing the type and frequency of inspection, sampling, and testing deemed necessary to measure and control the various properties of materials and construction governed by the specifications. The QC plan shall be submitted in writing to the agency at the preconstruction conference. This plan shall include the following:

    1. Inspection and test records.
    2. Temperature measurements.
    3. Accuracy, calibration, or recalibration checks performed on production or testing equipment.
    4. Control charts.

The plan shall identify the personnel responsible for the contractor's QC. This should include the name of the company official who will act as a liaison with agency personnel and the names of the certified technicians who will ULect and conduct the inspection program. When required in these specifications, the contractor shall provide a testing facility or laboratory.

Note: The agency should publish, as a separate document, the minimum content of an acceptable QC plan. Examples of minimum content of an acceptable QC plan are provided in the following publications:

PRS–110.05 Acceptance. The agency is responsible for determining the acceptability of the material produced. Acceptance of the material is based on the inspection of the construction, monitoring of the contractor's QC program, and acceptance test results.

  1. Sampling and Testing. The acceptance sampling and testing is the responsibility of the agency. The contractor must provide the necessary materials for testing.

    The agency may use the contractor's QC test results as a part of the acceptance procedures, provided:

    1. The agency's inspection and monitoring activities indicate the contractor has followed the approved QC plan, and

    2. The results from the contractor's QC sampling and testing compare favorably with the agency's results in accordance with Section PRS–110.05 (B).
  2. Validation Procedures for QC Test Results. If the agency is to use the contractor's QC test data, the contractor's test results shall be validated in accordance with appendix F or appendix G of the 1996 AASHTO Implementation Manual for Quality Assurance.(28) The appropriate level of significance is left to the agency's discretion.

PRS–110.06 Quality Pay Adjustments. The lot pay adjustment provisions shall be developed based on the quality of those AQC's chosen by the agency for acceptance under the specifications. The agency will determine lot pay adjustments based on the measured AQC sample and testing results, in accordance with the developed pay adjustment provisions. The contractor shall be paid the amount of the computed adjusted pay on a lot-by-lot basis.

PRS–110.07 Dispute Resolution. When there are significant discrepancies between the agency's and contractor's test results, dispute resolution procedures will be used.

  1. Procedures for Resolving Differences. The contractor and agency must agree upon the test methods to be used. If the test method is not in question, then the agency and contractor should look for differences in procedures and correct the inappropriate procedure before moving to third-party resolution.

  2. Third Party Resolution. The agency's central laboratory or an independent laboratory will be used to determine material quality results. Whichever laboratory is used, it should be AAP accredited and the results shall be binding.

DIVISION 500. RIGID PAVEMENT

Section PRS–501. Jointed Plain Cement Concrete Pavement

PRS–501.01 Description. This work shall consist of constructing a JPCP on a prepared subgrade or base course, in accordance with these specifications. These specifications apply only to the PCC pavement slab placed in the traffic lanes, and specifically address the following: materials, construction requirements, method of measurement, basis of acceptance, and basis of payment. Pavement shoulders are not addressed under these specifications and shall be accepted using conventional acceptance procedures.

The pavement project is divided into one or more lots for acceptance purposes. Each defined lot will be accepted independently based on AQC sampling and testing conducted by the agency. The contractor shall receive 100 percent of the bid price for a lot if the quality of construction exactly equals that of the target as-designed pavement parameters (AQC target means and standard deviations). If the quality of construction for a lot exceeds or is below the target as-designed AQC's, the contractor shall receive a pay adjustment for the lot (incentive or disincentive). The amount of the pay adjustment is determined based on a comparison of the estimated post-construction LCC's determined independently for both the as-designed and as-constructed pavements. All calculations for the LCC-based pay adjustments shall be performed using the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software.

PRS–501.02 Materials. Materials shall meet the provisions of the following subsections included in the 1993 AASHTO Guide Specifications for Highway Construction.(29)

Portland cement    701.01
Fine aggregate    703.01
Coarse aggregate    703.01
Joint filler    707.01
Reinforcing steel    711.01
Curing materials    713.01
Air-entraining admixtures    713.02
Chemical admixtures    713.03
Water    714.01
Fly ash (optional)    714.11
Ground granulated blast-furnace slag     714.12

PRS–501.03 Construction Requirements. Agency specifications for construction requirements, including contractor process control, shall be placed here.

PRS–501.04 Methods of AQC Measurement.

  1. Lots. Each discrete quantity of pavement representing an as-constructed lot shall be accepted independently by the agency. The length of each lot shall be defined as equal to one day's production or less. It is recommended that a lot length always be set equal to the entire day's production unless a significant within-day change occurs in the paving operation (e.g., change in aggregate source, stoppage of the paving operations for a significant amount of time). When applicable, the entire width of a widened traffic lane is to be considered part of the mainline paving.Pavement shoulders are not included as part of a lot.

  2. Sublots. The agency shall attempt to divide each as-constructed lot into sublots with lengths equal to the target sublot length. The target sublot length shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The length of the last paved sublot within a lot shall be determined in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The total number of sublots observed in an as-constructed lot shall be used as the representative number of sublots per lot for the given lot. The width of a sublot is defined by the width of the lot in which the sublot is observed.

    If the final total lot length is less than the agency-chosen target sublot length, the lot may be accepted by the engineer upon a visual inspection of the section and a review of process control results. The agency also has the option to add this material to that of the preceding or succeeding lot.

  3. Definition of Pavement Performance. The agency shall define future pavement performance in terms of any or all of the following distress indicators:

    • Transverse Joint Spalling.
    • Transverse Joint Faulting.
    • Transverse Slab Cracking.
    • Pavement Smoothness Over Time (expressed in terms of PSR or IRI).

    The definition of pavement performance shall be made in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

  4. Included Acceptance Quality Characteristics. The agency shall base the acceptance of an as-constructed pavement lot on any or all of the following AQC's:

    • Concrete strength.
    • Slab thickness.
    • Entrained air content.
    • Initial smoothness.
    • Percent consolidation around dowels.

    The selection of included AQC's shall be accomplished in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

  5. Selection of AQC Target Values. The agency shall define the desired AQC lot quality in terms of AQC means and standard deviations (target values). Target values shall be identified for each of the AQC's chosen to be included in the specifications. The specific chosen target values are also dependent on the chosen AQC sampling and testing methods. The selection of AQC target values shall be accomplished in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

  6. Identification of AQC Limits for Acceptance. The agency shall define practical maximum and minimum quality limits to be applied to each measured specimen sample value. The maximum limit shall be referred to as the Maximum Quality Limit (MQL), and the minimum limit shall be referred to as the Rejectable Quality Limit (RQL). If the specimen sample value is measured to be of poorer quality than the defined RQL, then retesting procedures shall be applied. If the specimen sample value is measured to be of greater quality than the defined MQL, the representative specimen sample value (used in the acceptance procedures) shall be set equal to the defined MQL (i.e., the contractor shall not receive credit for quality provided in excess of the MQL). The selection of AQC limits (RQL and MQL) shall be accomplished in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

  7. AQC Sampling and Testing Methods. Acceptance of an as-constructed pavement lot is based on the sampling and testing of key AQC's. Only those AQC's selected by the agency for inclusion in the specifications are to be sampled. AQC samples shall be taken from every sublot within a given lot using agency-defined sampling frequencies (the number of samples per sublot may differ for each included AQC). The number of AQC sampling locations per sublot, and their corresponding random sampling locations within each sublot, shall be determined in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

    The acceptance sampling and testing for each included AQC shall be conducted using one of the agency preapproved methods that follow. All AQC acceptance sampling shall be performed in accordance with the following standard specifications:

    • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing, Part II Tests.(19)

    • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Section 4, Construction, Road and Paving Materials.(20)

All AQC acceptance and testing shall be conducted in accordance with the guidelines set forth in section PRS–110.05, Acceptance.

  1. Concrete Strength. The 28-day flexural strength (third-point loading—28-day modulus of rupture [M R ]) is required for the acceptance of concrete strength. Specific 28-day MR values representing each sublot sample location shall be determined using the concrete strength sampling and testing procedures defined below.

    1. Sampling of Concrete Strength. Samples used in the determination of the 28-day M R shall consist of one of three methods. [The agency shall select one of the following.]

      1. Beams. Beam specimens (with agency-specified dimensions) are to be molded, handled, and cured in accordance with AASHTO T-23, Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field.(19) Beam specimens for each sublot shall be made with plastic concrete taken from in front of the paver at predetermined random longitudinal sampling locations. Random longitudinal sampling locations shall be identified in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The number of beam specimens per sampling location (replicate specimens) and the number of sampling locations per sublot shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

      2. Cylinders. Cylinder specimens shall be molded, handled, and cured in accordance with AASHTO T-23, Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field.(19) All cylinder specimens shall be cast in molds with a nominal length-to-diameter ratio of 2. An appropriate cylinder specimen diameter shall be determined based on the following:

        • A minimum 102-mm cylinder diameter shall be used when the maximum aggregate size is 32 mm or less.

        • A minimum 152-mm cylinder diameter shall be used when the maximum aggregate size is greater than 32 mm.

        Cylinder specimens for each sublot shall be made with plastic concrete taken from in front of the paver at predetermined random longitudinal sampling locations. Random longitudinal sampling locations shall be determined in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The number of cylinder specimens per sampling location (replicate specimens) and the number of sampling locations per sublot shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

      3. Cores. Core specimens shall be extracted from the hardened pavement slab between 48 and 72 hours after placement, in accordance with AASHTO T-24, Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete. (19) Core specimens shall be extracted from the hardened concrete slab at predetermined random sampling locations. Random core locations shall be determined in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The number of core specimens per sublot shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

        An appropriate core specimen diameter shall be determined based on the following:

        • A minimum 102-mm diameter shall be used when the maximum aggregate size is 32 mm or less.

        • A minimum 152-mm diameter shall be used when the maximum aggregate size is greater than 32 mm.


        Prior to testing, all core specimens shall be trimmed to a nominal length-to-diameter ratio of 2. A correction factor shall be applied (in accordance with AASHTO T-24, Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete) to cores having a length-to-diameter ratio of less than 1.94, whereas cores having a length-to-diameter ratio between 1.94 and 2.10 require no such correction.(19) Cores with a length-to-diameter ratio exceeding 2.10 shall be reduced in length to fall within the ratio limits of 1.94 to 2.10.

    2. Timing of Concrete Strength Testing. The agency shall define the timing of the concrete strength specimen testing to be used in estimating the 28-day (equivalent 28-day laboratory maturity) flexural strength (third-point loading) of the as-constructed pavement. Each specimen (molded beam, molded cylinder, or extracted core) shall be tested independently and translated (if necessary) into an M R at an equivalent 28-day laboratory maturity.

      The timing of concrete strength specimen testing shall be defined by the agency and expressed in terms of an equivalent laboratory maturity. The agency-chosen timing of concrete strength specimen testing shall meet the following requirements:

      • Testing shall not be conducted until the specimen achieves a maturity of at least 72 hours (3 days) of the equivalent laboratory curing condition maturity.

      • Testing must be conducted at or before the point when the specimen achieves a maturity equal to 672 hours (28 days) of the equivalent laboratory curing condition maturity.

    3. Testing-Related Procedures (Conducted Prior to Specimen Testing). The agency shall perform the following testing-related laboratory and field procedures (as required) in preparation for concrete strength specimen testing.

      1. Laboratory Maturity Calibration. Prior to the placement of any as-constructed concrete pavement, the agency shall develop required mix-specific maturity curves in the laboratory. The representative maturity curves (expressed as flexural, compressive, or split-tensile strength versus maturity) shall be determined using the Arrhenius maturity method, and in accordance with ASTM C-1074, Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method, and the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.(20)The required developed maturity curves (and corresponding equations) shall be included as Series A attachments to these specifications. This laboratory maturity calibration is only required if sample testing is conducted when the equivalent laboratory maturity is less than 28 days.

      2. Laboratory-Developed Inter-Strength Relationships. Prior to the placement of any as-constructed pavement, the agency shall develop required mix-specific inter-strength relationships (i.e., compressive strength to flexural strength, or split-tensile to flexural strength relationships) in the laboratory. These relationships (curves and respective equations) shall be developed in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The required inter-strength relationships (curves and equations) shall be included as Series B attachments to these specifications.

      3. Measuring Maturity in the As-Constructed Pavement. If the agency selects core specimens as the sampling type, the maturity of the as-constructed pavement shall be monitored for each sublot. Temperatures shall be measured at one central location per sublot using a thermocouple placed at mid-depth of the pavement slab (the thermocouple shall be embedded into the pavement using an agency-approved method). The thermocouple shall be connected to an agency-approved maturity meter. The maturity meter shall begin recording pavement temperatures at the time when the thermocouple becomes completely covered with concrete. Temperatures shall be measured for a given sublot until all of the cores representing the sublot are extracted from the as-constructed pavement.

    4. Specific Concrete Strength Testing Procedures. Representative flexural strength (third-point loading) values, at a 28-day equivalent laboratory maturity, shall be determined for each specimen using one of three specific testing procedures. [The agency shall select one of the following.]

      1. Flexural Testing of Beams—If the concrete strength of the as-constructed pavement is to be evaluated using beam specimens tested in flexural strength (third-point loading), then the following procedure shall apply.

        • Each beam specimen shall be tested (at an agency-defined equivalent laboratory maturity) for flexural strength (third-point loading) in accordance with AASHTO T-97, Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam With Third-Point Loading).(19)

        • Each testing result shall be translated to a 28-day flexural strength (28-day equivalent laboratory maturity) using the attached mix-specific flexural strength (third-point loading) versus maturity curve and equation, in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.; The required maturity curve shall be included as a Series A attachment to these specifications. No maturity translations need be applied if beam specimens are tested directly at a 28-day equivalent laboratory maturity.

      2. Compression Testing of Cylinders or Cores—If the concrete strength of the as-constructed pavement is to be estimated using cylinder or core specimens tested in compression strength, then the following procedure shall apply.

        • Each core specimen shall be tested (at an agency-defined equivalent laboratory maturity) for compressive strength in accordance with AASHTO T-24, Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete.(19) Each cylinder specimen shall be tested (at an agency-defined equivalent laboratory maturity) for compressive strength in accordance with AASHTO T-22, Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.(19)

        • Each testing result shall be translated to a 28-day compressive strength (28-day equivalent laboratory maturity) using the attached mix-specific compressive strength versus maturity curve and equation, in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The required maturity curve shall be included as a Series A attachment to these specifications. No maturity translations need be applied if cylinder or core specimens are tested directly at a 28-day equivalent laboratory maturity.

        • Each estimated core or cylinder compressive strength (at a 28-day equivalent laboratory maturity) shall be translated into a representative 28-day flexural strength using the attached mix-specific compressive strength to flexural strength inter-strength relationship (curve and corresponding equation). The required inter-strength relationship shall be included as a Series B attachment to these specifications.

      3. Split-Tensile Testing of Cylinders or Cores—If the concrete strength of the as-constructed pavement is to be estimated using cylinder or core specimens tested in split-tensile strength, then the following procedures shall apply.

        • Each core specimen shall be tested (at an agency-defined equivalent laboratory maturity) for split-tensile strength in accordance with AASHTO T-24, Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete.(19) Each cylinder specimen shall be tested (at an agency-defined equivalent laboratory maturity) for split-tensile strength in accordance with AASHTO T-198, Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.(19)

        • Each testing result shall be translated to a 28-day split-tensile strength (28-day equivalent laboratory maturity) using the attached mix-specific split-tensile strength versus maturity curve and equation, in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The required maturity curve shall be included as a Series A attachment to these specifications. No maturity translations need be applied if cylinder or core specimens are tested directly at a 28-day equivalent laboratory maturity.

        • Each estimated core or cylinder split-tensile strength result (at a 28-day equivalent laboratory maturity) shall be translated into a representative 28-day flexural strength using the attached mix-specific split-tensile strength to flexural strength inter-strength relationship (curve and corresponding equation). The required inter-strength relationship shall be included as a Series B attachment to these specifications.

    5. Concrete Strength Acceptance. The contractor shall furnish paving equipment and employ methods that give the contractor the ability to produce concrete strengths that meet, or better, the agency-defined target concrete strength quality. The agency-desired target concrete strength quality is defined as the mean and standard deviation of the representative concrete strength values computed for a given lot. Representative concrete strength values are determined for each sample location within each sublot (average of replicates within a sampling location). The agency-defined target concrete strength shall be defined in table PRS-501-01 of these specifications. An as-constructed lot with a concrete strength quality that differs from the target concrete strength quality shall be accepted with price adjustments (incentive or disincentive).

      View Table PRS-501-01. Agency-Chosen AQC Sampling and Testing Methods, and Target Values.

      Representative 28-day flexural strength values shall be determined for each specimen using one of the methods described above. The agency shall define AQC limits (RQL and MQL) to be applied to each specimen value within a sublot. The following procedure shall apply:

      • If a specimen strength value is less than the defined RQL, the agency shall begin retesting procedures. Concrete strength retesting procedures are specified in section PRS–501.05, Methods of AQC Retesting.

      • If a specimen strength value is greater than the defined MQL, the measured specimen strength value shall be reduced to be equal to the chosen MQL. The reduced specimen strength value shall be used for acceptance.

      • All specimen strength values greater than or equal to the RQL, and less than or equal to the MQL, shall be used directly for acceptance.

      The specimen strength values (including any adjustments) are then averaged within each sampling location to give strength values representative of each sampling location. These sampling location strength values (averages of replicate specimens) are then used in the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software for the acceptance of concrete strength. (Note: The strength value typically referred to as a sample per sublot is actually the average value of all of the replicate specimen values at that particular location).

  2. Slab Thickness

    1. Sampling and Testing of Slab Thickness. The thickness of the as-constructed slab shall be determined by measurements taken on cores extracted from each sublot making up an as-constructed pavement lot. Core specimens shall be extracted from the hardened concrete slab between 48 and 72 hours after placement, in accordance with AASHTO T-24, Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete.(19) All cores used for the acceptance of slab thickness shall have a minimum diameter of 102 mm.

      Slab thickness shall be measured on all cores extracted for the evaluation of concrete strength; these measured values shall be used in lieu of extracting additional slab thickness cores. When required, randomly selected slab thickness core locations (independent of any cores taken for the evaluation of concrete strength) shall be determined in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The number of slab thickness core specimens per sublot shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

      The representative thickness of each core shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO T-148, Measuring Length of Drilled Concrete Cores.(19)

    2. Slab Thickness Acceptance. The contractor shall furnish paving equipment and employ methods that give the contractor the ability to produce slab thickness that meet, or better, the agency-defined target slab thickness quality. The agency-desired target slab thickness quality is defined as the mean and standard deviation of the slab thickness values measured for a given lot. The agency-defined target slab thickness shall be defined in table PRS-501-01 of these specifications. An as-constructed lot with a slab thickness quality that differs from the target slab thickness quality shall be accepted with price adjustments (incentive or disincentive).

      The agency shall define AQC limits (RQL and MQL) to be applied to each specimen value within a sublot. The following procedure shall apply:

      • If a specimen slab thickness value is less than the defined RQL, the agency shall begin retesting procedures. Slab thickness retesting procedures are specified in section PRS–501.05, Methods of AQC Retesting.

      • If a specimen slab thickness value is greater than the defined MQL, the measured specimen slab thickness value shall be reduced to be equal to the chosen MQL. The reduced specimen slab thickness value shall be used for acceptance.

      • All specimen slab thickness values greater than or equal to the RQL, and less than or equal to the MQL, shall be used directly for acceptance.

        The specimen slab thickness values (including any adjustments) are then used in the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software for the acceptance of slab thickness.

  3. Entrained Air Content

    1. Sampling and Testing of Entrained Air Content. The entrained air content of the as-constructed pavement shall be determined using one of two agency-approved sampling and testing methods. [The agency shall select one of the following.]

      1. Pressure Meter Tests of Plastic Concrete. Plastic concrete shall be taken in front of or behind the paver at predetermined random longitudinal sampling locations. Random longitudinal sampling locations shall be identified in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. If beam or cylinder specimens are required for the estimation of concrete strength, entrained air content pressure meter tests may be conducted at the same longitudinal locations used for the strength investigation. If behind-the-paver samples are chosen, material shall be removed from the slab using an agency-approved method.

        The plastic concrete removed in front of or behind the paver shall be tested with an agency-approved air pressure meter in accordance with AASHTO T-152, Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method.(19) The number of pressure meter tests per sampling location (replicate specimens), and the number of sampling locations per sublot, shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

      2. Linear Traverse Tests of Hardened Concrete Cores. Core specimens shall be extracted from the hardened concrete slab at predetermined random sampling locations. Random sampling core locations shall be determined in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. Core specimens shall be extracted between 48 and 72 hours after placement, in accordance with AASHTO T-24, Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete.(19) All cores used for the acceptance of entrained air content shall have a minimum diameter of 152 mm. The number of core specimens per sublot shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

        Linear traverse testing shall be performed on each extracted hardened concrete core specimen in accordance with ASTM C-457, Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hardened Concrete.(20) Testing may occur at any time after the extraction of the core specimen. The measured entrained air content (expressed as a percentage) for each extracted core is used as the representative entrained air content value for that sampling location.

    2. Entrained Air Content Acceptance. The contractor shall furnish paving equipment and employ methods that give the contractor the ability to produce entrained air contents that meet, or better, the agency-defined target entrained air content quality. The agency-desired target entrained air content quality is defined as the mean and standard deviation of the representative entrained air content values computed for a given lot. Representative entrained air content values are determined for each sample location within each sublot (average of replicates within a sampling location). The agency-defined target entrained air content shall be defined in table PRS-501-01 of these specifications. An as-constructed lot with an entrained air content quality that differs from the target entrained air content quality shall be accepted with price adjustments (incentive or disincentive).

      The agency shall define AQC limits (RQL and MQL) to be applied to each specimen value within a sublot. Note: Replicate specimens may exist at a sampling location if entrained air content is measured with a pressure meter. The following procedure shall apply:

      • If a specimen entrained air content value is less than the defined RQL, the agency shall begin retesting procedures. Entrained air content retesting procedures are specified in section PRS–501.05, Methods of AQC Retesting.

      • If a specimen entrained air content value is greater than the defined MQL, the measured specimen entrained air content value shall be reduced to be equal to the chosen MQL. The reduced specimen entrained air content value shall be used for acceptance.

      • All specimen entrained air content values greater than or equal to the RQL, and less than or equal to the MQL, shall be used directly for acceptance.

      If entrained air content is measured using an air pressure meter, replicate samples shall be averaged to give representative entrained air content values at each sample location. If entrained air content is measured using linear traverse, the representative values are the entrained air content values measured from each core directly. Regardless of the sample type chosen, the representative values are used in the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software for the acceptance of entrained air content.

  4. Initial Smoothness

    1. Sampling and Testing of Initial Smoothness. The initial smoothness of the pavement shall be quantified in terms of a profile index (PI), which will be determined using a California-type profilograph. The profilogram is to be recorded on a scale of 2.54 cm or full-scale, vertically. Motive power may be manual or by propulsion unit attached to the assembly. The profilograph shall be moved longitudinally along the pavement at a speed no greater than 4.8 km/h to minimize bounce. The results of the profilograph test will be evaluated as outlined in the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) specification CA-526. All profile indices are to be determined using a 0.0- or 5.1-mm blanking band.

      A minimum of two pavement profiles (one in each wheelpath) shall be determined for each lane within each defined sublot. The total number of required pavement profiles per sublot shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The location of a wheelpath shall be 0.92 m from a longitudinal joint or longitudinal pavement edge and parallel to the centerline of the mainline paving. For widened slabs, the outer wheelpath shall be 0.92 m from the pavement edge paint stripe, rather than the outer pavement edge. Each profile shall terminate 4.5 m from each bridge approach pavement or existing pavement that is joined by the new pavement. The PI determined for each profile shall be converted to a standard unit of mm/km.

      During the initial paving operations, or after a long shutdown period, the pavement surface shall be tested with the profilograph when the concrete has cured sufficiently to allow testing. Membrane curing damaged during the testing operation shall be repaired by the contractor and at the contractor's expense. If the initial pavement smoothness, paving methods, and paving equipment are acceptable, paving operations may proceed.; After initial testing, profiles of each day's paving will be run prior to continuing paving operations.

      If an average PI of _____ mm/km (limit to be inserted by the agency) is exceeded in any daily paving operation, the paving operation will be suspended and not resume until corrective action is taken.

      Within each sublot, all areas represented by high points having deviations in excess of _____ mm (limit to be inserted by the agency—10 mm is recommended) in 7.6 m or less shall be corrected at the contractor's expense. Corrections shall be made using an approved profiling device or by removing and replacing the pavement, as directed by the engineer. Bush hammers or other impact devices shall not be used. Where corrections are made, the surface texture shall be re-established to provide a uniform texture equal to the surrounding uncorrected pavement by the contractor and at the contractor's expense. Corrective work shall be completed prior to determining pavement thickness.

    2. Initial Smoothness Acceptance. The contractor shall furnish paving equipment and employ methods that give the contractor the ability to produce a riding surface that meets, or betters, the agency-defined target initial smoothness quality. The agency-desired target initial smoothness quality is defined as the mean and standard deviation of the representative profile indices computed for a given lot. Representative PI values are determined for each sample location within each sublot (average of replicates within a sampling location). The agency-defined target initial smoothness shall be defined in table PRS-501-01 of these specifications. An as-constructed lot with an initial smoothness quality that differs from the target smoothness quality shall be accepted with price adjustments (incentive or disincentive).

      The agency shall define AQC limits (RQL and MQL) to be applied to each specimen PI value within a sublot. For PI, the RQL will be greater than the MQL due to the nature of the measurement (the lower the PI, the better the quality). The following procedures shall apply:

      • If a specimen PI value is greater than the defined RQL, the agency shall begin retesting procedures. Initial smoothness retesting procedures are specified in section PRS–501.05, Methods of AQC Retesting.

      • If a specimen PI value is less than the defined MQL, the measured specimen PI value shall be increased to be equal to the chosen MQL. The increased specimen PI value shall be used for acceptance.

      • All specimen PI values less than or equal to the RQL, and greater than or equal to the MQL, shall be used directly for acceptance.

      The specimen PI values (including any adjustments) are then averaged within each profile location to give PI values representative of each profile sampling location. These PI values (averages of replicate profile indices) are then used in the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software for the acceptance of initial smoothness. The initial smoothness value, typically referred to as a sample per sublot, is actually the average value of all of the replicate specimen values at that particular profile location.

      Price adjustments (if any) are based on the as-placed pavement before any retesting or corrective actions are completed.

  5. Percent Consolidation Around Dowels

    1. Sampling and Testing of Percent Consolidation Around Dowels. The percent consolidation around dowels representing the as-constructed pavement shall be determined within each sublot using an agency-approved sampling and testing method. The approved sampling and testing method shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.

      The representative percent consolidation around one randomly selected dowel bar in a sublot shall be determined based on a comparison of the density of two selected cores extracted from the hardened concrete slab. Core specimens shall be extracted from the hardened pavement slab between 48 and 72 hours after placement, in accordance with AASHTO T-24, Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete.(19) All cores used for the acceptance of percent consolidation around dowels shall have a minimum diameter of 102 mm.

      The first of the two required cores shall be taken through a predetermined randomly selected dowel bar in a randomly selected transverse joint (random selection of a dowel shall be determined in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume). The outside edge of the core through the randomly selected dowel bar shall not be within 0.6 m of a defined wheelpath or pavement edge, 10 cm of a predicted vibrator path, or 5 cm of a transverse joint. The dowel bar piece shall be separated from the concrete core material by an agency-approved method. The density of this concrete material shall be measured in a saturated surface dried condition in accordance with ASTM C-642, Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete and labeled as DEN THROUGH-DOWEL(n) .(20)

      The second of the two required cores shall be taken at a location along a line passing through the first core (through the dowel bar) and parallel to the centerline of the pavement unit. The specific longitudinal location of this second core shall be assumed to be at midslab of the leave slab (the slab away from the joint in the direction of traffic) adjacent to the randomly selected transverse joint. The density of this concrete material shall be measured in a saturated surface dried condition in accordance with ASTM C-642, Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity, Absorption, and Voids in Hardened Concrete and labeled as DEN MID-SLAB(n) .(20)

      The number of samples per sublot (e.g., pairs of cores) shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The maximum of all of the midslab core densities measured within the given lot (MAX-DEN MID-SLAB) shall be determined and assumed to represent the density of a core with 100-percent consolidation. The representative percent consolidation for each sampling location (set of cores) is, therefore, determined by the following equation:

      % Consolidation  = (DEN THROUGH-DOWEL(n) / MAX-DEN MID-SLAB) * 100.                 (501-1)

    2. Acceptance of Percent Consolidation Around Dowels. The contractor shall furnish paving equipment and employ methods that give the contractor the ability to produce a percent consolidation around dowels that meets, or betters, the agency-defined target percent consolidation quality. The agency-desired target percent consolidation quality is defined as the mean and standard deviation of the percent consolidation values computed for a given lot. The agency-defined target percent consolidation around dowels shall be defined in table PRS-501-01 of these specifications. An as-constructed lot with a percent consolidation quality that differs from the target percent consolidation quality shall be accepted with price adjustments (incentive or disincentive).

      The agency shall define AQC limits (RQL and MQL) to be applied to each representative percent consolidation value within a sublot. (Note: A representative percent consolidation value is defined as the computed percent consolidation value representative of one sample location.) The following procedures shall apply:

      • If a representative percent consolidation sample value is less than the defined RQL, the agency shall begin retesting procedures. Percent consolidation retesting procedures are specified in section PRS–501.05, Methods of AQC Retesting.

      • If a representative percent consolidation sample value is greater than the defined MQL, the measured representative sample value shall be reduced to be equal to the chosen MQL. The reduced representative percent consolidation sample value shall be used for acceptance.

      • All representative percent consolidation sample values greater than or equal to the RQL, and less than or equal to the MQL, shall be used directly for acceptance.

      The representative percent consolidation sample values (including any adjustments) are then used in the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software for the acceptance of percent consolidation around dowels.

PRS–501.05 Methods of AQC Retesting.

Additional sampling and testing for any of the AQC's for acceptance testing may be requested at any time by the contractor or by the agency. The agency shall conduct all of the sampling and testing for any retesting activities.

The following specific conditions shall be applied for determining whether the agency or contractor is responsible for the cost of the retesting:

Insert agency-defined conditions used to define retesting cost responsibility.

The pavement shall be retested only once in accordance with the retesting methods described in this section. Retesting procedures shall be initiated when any measured AQC specimen value fails to meet or exceed the respective agency-defined RQL. The purpose of retesting is to determine if the AQC quality provided by the contractor is truly less than the quality defined by the RQL.

If retesting procedures determine conclusively that an identified area of pavement is deficient in quality (having lesser quality than the respective agency-defined RQL), the result shall be the removal and replacement of the identified area. AQC sampling and testing values from the replaced material shall then be used in place of the original sampling and testing results for that sampling location. However, the measured AQC samples are subjected to MQL's equal to the respective AQC target values (i.e., the contractor may not get credit for AQC quality better than the target values when material has been removed and replaced).

If retesting procedures determine conclusively that an identified area of pavement is not deficient in quality (having greater quality than the respective agency-defined RQL), the additional AQC samples taken for retesting shall be added to the original AQC sample value set (if no testing error occurred). The average of all the AQC sampling and testing results (original and retesting) representing a sampling location shall then be used as the representative AQC value for that sampling location.

The retesting procedures for each AQC are described separately below.

  1. Concrete Strength. If a concrete strength specimen sample is found to be less than the agency-defined concrete strength RQL, the following procedure shall apply:

    Insert agency-defined concrete strength retesting procedures here.

  2. Slab Thickness. If a slab thickness specimen sample is found to be less than the agency-defined slab thickness RQL, the following procedure shall apply:

    Insert agency-defined slab thickness retesting procedures here.

  3. Entrained Air Content. If an entrained air content specimen sample is found to be less than the agency-defined entrained air content RQL, the following procedure shall apply:

    Insert agency-defined entrained air content retesting procedures here.

  4. Initial Smoothness. If an initial PI specimen sample is found to be less than the agency-defined initial PI RQL, the following procedure shall apply:

    Insert agency-defined initial smoothness retesting procedures here.

  5. Percent Consolidation Around Dowels If a percent consolidation around dowels specimen sample is found to be less than the agency-defined percent consolidation RQL, the following procedure shall apply:

    Insert agency-defined percent consolidation around dowels retesting procedures here.

PRS–501.06 Basis of Acceptance

  1. Life-Cycle Costs. The agency-chosen AQC's are combined into a single characteristic representing the pavement quality, the post-construction LCC of the pavement expected to be incurred over the designated analysis period. The post-construction LCC quality characteristic relates directly to the future performance of the pavement. The post-construction LCC shall be used as the single overall characteristic representing a pavement lot's quality for acceptance.

  2. As-Designed Target Pavement. The target as-designed pavement is defined as the desired construction quality for which the agency will pay 100 percent of the contractor bid price. It includes target means and standard deviations for each of the AQC's considered in the agency-chosen acceptance plan. The target AQC standard deviations are representative of acceptable AQC variability. These standard deviations are point-to-point variations (including materials and testing variations) for concrete strength, slab thickness, and entrained air content in the slab; variations between longitudinal profiles for initial smoothness; and dowel-to-dowel variations for percent consolidation of concrete.

    The as-designed target lot mean LCC (LCC DES ) is determined by simulating an agency-defined number of lots with the AQC means and standard deviations set at the agency-defined target values. (The number of lots used for the simulation shall be defined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume.) This simulation of LCC DES shall be accomplished using the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software. The project-specific constant values required for the simulation of LCC's shall be defined by the agency and included as Series C attachments to these specifications. Appropriate values for the constant values shall be selected by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume. The agency-defined AQC target values (means and standard deviations), and the respective acceptance sampling and testing procedures, are defined in table PRS-501-01.

  3. As-Constructed Pavement Lot. The acceptance of the as-constructed pavement lot is based on the representative AQC testing values measured in accordance with the agency-defined sampling and testing plan summarized in table PRS-501-01. The AQC representative sample values are summarized differently according to the chosen pay adjustment method.

PRS–501.07 Basis of Payment

The agency shall determine contractor pay adjustments using Level 1 or Level 2 pay adjustment methods. The specific procedures for each are described below.

  1. Level 1 Pay Adjustment. [Recommended for initial implementation of PRS.]

    1. Simulation of the Target As-Designed Lot LCC. Prior to the placement of any mainline PCC, the agency must determine the one LCC value representing the target as-designed LCC (LCC DES ). This LCC DES is determined from simulation procedures (using the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software) and is based on the agency-defined AQC target values (summarized in table PRS-501-01). The LCC DES shall be used as the one overall characteristic representing the quality of the as-designed target pavement.

    2. Development of Individual AQC Pay Factor Charts and Equations. Prior to the placement of any mainline PCC, individual pay factor charts (and respective equations) shall be developed for each of the AQC's selected by the agency for inclusion in the specification (see section PRS–501.04, Method of Measurement, Definition of Pavement Performance). These individual AQC pay factor charts and equations are based on the LCC DES simulated in step 1 and shall be developed using the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software. The required pay factor charts and equations shall be included as Series D attachments to these specifications.

    3. Development of a Lot Composite Pay Factor Equation. Prior to the placement of any mainline PCC, an appropriate lot composite pay factor (CPF) equation shall be determined by the agency in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 6 of this volume. Only those AQC's chosen by the agency for acceptance shall be considered in the CPF equation.

    4. Summary of Representative Lot AQC Sample Values. When using the Level 1 pay adjustment procedure, all of the representative sample values shall be statistically summarized into representative AQC lot means and standard deviations. (Note: If more than one sample is taken from a single sampling location, the mean of the replicate samples is used as the representative sample value for that location.) These computed AQC lot means and standard deviations are used to define the quality of the as-constructed lot and shall be used as the basis of computed pay adjustments. Specific definitions of sample means and sample standard deviations are contained in the list of definitions included in section PRS–101 of this specification.

    5. Determination of Individual AQC Lot Pay Factors. Individual lot pay factors shall be determined (for each AQC chosen for acceptance) based on the computed AQC lot means and standard deviations. Individual lot AQC pay factors are determined using the computed lot AQC means and standard deviations in the individual AQC pay factor curves and equations (included as Series D attachments to these specifications). Individual AQC pay factor calculations shall be completed in accordance with the procedure set forth in chapter 8 of this volume.

      If the agency chooses to apply pay factor limits to any or all of the individual AQC lot pay factors, they must be selected and applied in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 6 of this volume.

    6. Calculation of the Overall Lot CPF. The CPF for the as-constructed lot shall be computed using the agency-defined CPF equation. The resulting composite lot pay factor (PF COMPOSITE ) shall be used to determine the actual contractor pay adjustment. If the agency chooses to apply limits (minimum or maximum) to the overall lot CPF, the following shall apply [the agency shall insert appropriate values into the provided blanks]:

      • If PF COMPOSITE is determined to be less than ______ percent, the agency shall make a determination if the work can remain in place. If allowed to remain in place, the agency shall accept the non-specification work using an adjusted CPF of PF COMPOSITE = ______ percent.

      • If PF COMPOSITE is determined to be greater than ______ percent, the agency shall accept the lot using an adjusted CPF of PF COMPOSITE = ______ percent.
      Agency-chosen limits to the overall composite lot pay factor shall be applied in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 6 of this volume.

    7. Adjustment of Contractor Bid Price. The total payment to the contractor for the as-constructed lot shall be determined using the following equation:


    PAY LOT   = BID * (PF COMPOSITE / 100) * LOT LENGTH                 (501-02)

        where

    PAY LOT   = Adjusted payment paid to the contractor for the as-constructed lot, $.

    BID  = Contractor bid price, $/km.

    PF COMPOSITE   = The determined Level 1 lot CPF, percent (e.g., 101 percent is expressed as 101.0).

    LOT LENGTH   = Measured actual as-constructed lot length, km.
  2. Level 2 Pay Adjustment

    1. Simulation of the Target As-Designed Lot LCC. Prior to the placement of any mainline PCC, the agency must determine the one LCC value representing the target as-designed LCC (LCC DES ). This LCC DES is determined from simulation procedures (using the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software) and is based on the agency-defined AQC target values (summarized in table PRS-501-01). The LCC DES shall be used as the one overall characteristic representing the quality of the as-designed target pavement.

    2. Summary of Representative Sublot AQC Sample Values. When using the Level 2 pay adjustment procedure, all of the representative sample values (representing each sampling location—including adjusted sample values) within each sublot shall be statistically summarized into specific sublot means for each AQC. (Note: These values are computed in the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software.) These computed AQC sublot means are used to define the quality of each respective as-constructed sublot and shall be used as the basis for computed pay adjustments for the as-constructed lot.

    3. Simulation of the As-Constructed Lot LCC. The computed AQC sublot means are used to simulate the one LCC used to represent the actual as-constructed lot (LCC CON ). The respective LCC CON shall be computed using the PaveSpec 2.0 computer software. The LCC CON shall be used as the one overall characteristic representing the quality of the actual as-constructed pavement.

    4. Calculation of the Overall Lot Pay Factor.The overall lot pay factor for the as-constructed lot shall be computed using the following equation:

      PF LOT   = 100 * (BID + [LCC DES – LCC CON ]) / BID                 (501-03)
        where

      PF LOT   =  Overall pay factor for the as-constructed lot, percent.

      BID  =  Contractor bid price, $/km.

      LCC DES   =  Simulated representative as-designed target lot LCC (based on target AQC lot means and standard deviations), $/km.

      LCC CON   =  Simulated representative as-constructed lot LCC (based on measured AQC sublot means), $/km.

      The resulting overall lot pay factor (PF LOT ) shall be used to determine the actual contractor pay adjustment.  If the agency chooses to apply limits (minimum or maximum) to the overall lot pay factor, the following shall apply  (Note: The agency shall insert appropriate values into the provided blanks.):

      • If PF LOT is determined to be less than ______ percent, the agency will make a determination if the work can remain in place.  If allowed to remain in place, the agency shall accept the non-specification work using an adjusted lot pay factor of PF LOT = ______ percent.


      • If PF LOT is determined to be greater than ______ percent, the agency shall accept the lot using an adjusted lot pay factor of PF LOT = ______ percent.

      Agency-chosen limits to the overall lot pay factor shall be applied in accordance with the guidelines outlined in chapter 6 of this volume.

    1. Adjustment of Contractor Bid Price.  The total payment to the contractor for the as-constructed lot may be determined by one of the following equations:

    PAY LOT   =  (LCC DES – LCC CON ) * LOT LENGTH                 (501-04)

      or

    PAY LOT   =  BID * (PF LOT / 100) * LOT LENGTH                 (501-05)

      where

    PAY LOT   =  Adjusted payment paid to the contractor for the as-constructed lot, $.

    LCC DES   =  Simulated representative as-designed target lot LCC (based on target AQC lot means and standard deviations), PW$/km.

    LCC DES   =  Simulated representative as-constructed lot LCC (based on measured AQC sublot means), PW$/km.

    BID  =  Contractor bid price, $/km.

    PF LOT   =  The determined Level 2 overall pay factor for the as-constructed lot, percent (e.g., 101 percent is expressed as 101.0).

    LOT LENGTH   =  Measured actual as-constructed lot length, km.

Attachment Series A—Laboratory Maturity Calibration Curves and Respective Equations

Attachment Series A may contain any or all of the following laboratory-developed concrete strength versus maturity curves (as so required by section PRS–501.04–G.1.c.i, Laboratory Maturity Calibration of these PRS specifications):

Each required curve is developed using the Arrhenius maturity method. The resulting strength versus maturity regression equations, determined in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume, are presented in table PRS–A–1.

(if applicable, insert flexural strength (third-point loading) versus maturity chart here)

Figure PRS–A–1. Laboratory-developed flexural strength (third-point loading) versus maturity chart.

 

(if applicable, insert compressive strength versus maturity chart here)

Figure PRS–A–2. Laboratory-developed compressive strength versus maturity chart.

 

(if applicable, insert split-tensile strength versus maturity chart here)

Figure PRS–A–3. Laboratory-developed split-tensile strength versus maturity chart.

 

Table PRS–A–1. Strength versus maturity regression equations
(if applicable).

Maturity Curve

Regression Equation1

Flexural Strength (third-point loading)2

MR = f(AMAT)

Compressive Strength3

f’c = f(AMAT)

Split-Tensile Strength4

ST = f(AMAT)

1Regression equations are functions of Arrhenius maturity (AMAT), expressed as an Equivalent Age (hours).
2 Flexural (third-point loading) strengths are expressed as MR.
3 Compressive strengths are expressed as f’c.
4 Split-tensile strengths are expressed as ST.

Attachment Series B–Laboratory-Developed Inter-Strength Curves and Respective Equations

Attachment Series B may contain one or both of the following laboratory-developed inter-strength relationship curves (as so required by section PRS–501.04–G.1.c.ii, Laboratory-Developed Inter-Strength Relationships of these specifications):

Inter-strength relationships are determined by conducting different strength testing on specimens at the same equivalent maturities. The resulting equations giving the relationships between 28-day (equivalent laboratory maturity) compressive or split-tensile strength and 28-day flexural strength (third-point loading), determined in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 5 of this volume, are presented in table PRS–B–1.

(if applicable, insert compressive versus flexural strength [third-point loading] inter-strength chart here)

Figure PRS–B–1. Laboratory-developed compressive strength versus flexural strength (third-point loading) chart. Each point on the chart represents a comparison of strengths at equivalent maturities.


(if applicable, insert split-tensile versus flexural strength [third-point loading] inter-strength chart here)

Figure PRS–B–2. Laboratory-developed split-tensile strength versus flexural strength (third-point loading) chart. Each point on the chart represents a comparison of strengths at equivalent maturities.

 

Table PRS–B–1. Inter-strength relationships at an equivalent laboratory maturity of 28 days (if applicable).

28-day Inter-Strength Relationship

Equation

Compressive1 to Flexural Strength3

28-day MR = f(28-day f’c)

Split-Tensile2 to Flexural Strength3

28-day MR = f(28-day ST)

1Compressive strengths at an equivalent laboratory maturity of 28 days are expressed as 28-day f’c.
2Split-tensile strengths at an equivalent laboratory maturity of 28 days are expressed as 28-day ST.
3 Flexural (third-point loading) strengths at an equivalent laboratory maturity of 28 days are expressed as 28-day MR.



Attachment Series C-Project-Specific Constant Values

Attachment Series C consists of a table containing all of the project-specific constant values required to define the as-designed and as-constructed pavements (as stated in section PRS–501.06–B, As-Designed Target Pavement of these specifications).

Table PRS–C–1. Table of project-specific constant values.

(insert table of project-specific constant values here)

Attachment Series D–Level 1 Individual AQC Pay Factor Charts and Equations

Attachment Series D shall contain individual pay factor charts (and respective pay factor equations) for all of the AQC’s chosen for inclusion in these specifications under section PRS–501.04–D, Included Acceptance Quality Characteristics. Each AQC pay factor chart is developed in accordance with the guidelines set forth in chapter 7 of this volume. The resulting pay factor regression equations (developed for specific agency-selected AQC standard deviations in accordance with chapter 7 of this volume) are presented in table PRS–D–1.

(if applicable, insert Level 1 concrete strength pay factor chart here)

Figure PRS–D–1. Level 1 concrete strength pay factor chart.

 

(if applicable, insert Level 1 slab thickness pay factor chart here)

Figure PRS–D–2. Level 1 slab thickness pay factor chart.

 

(if applicable, insert Level 1 entrained air content pay factor chart here)

Figure PRS–D–3. Level 1 entrained air content pay factor chart.

 

(if applicable, insert Level 1 initial smoothness pay factor chart here)

Figure PRS–D–4. Level 1 initial smoothness pay factor chart.

 

(if applicable, insert Level 1 percent consolidation around dowels pay factor chart here)

Figure PRS–D–5. Level 1 percent consolidation around dowels
pay factor chart.

 

Table PRS–D–1. Level 1 AQC pay factor regression equations (if applicable).

Acceptance Quality Characteristic

As-Constructed Standard Deviation (s)1

Pay-Factor Regression Equation2

Concrete Strength

STR–s1

PFSTR(1) = f(strength mean)

·

·

·

·

·

·

STR–si

PFSTR(i) = f(strength mean)

Slab Thickness

THK–s1

PFTHK(1) = f(slab thickness mean)

·

·

·

·

·

·

THK–sj

PFTHK(j) = f(slab thickness mean)

Entrained Air Content

AIR–s1

PFAIR(1) = f(entrained air content mean)

·

·

·

·

·

·

AIR–sk

PFAIR(k) = f(entrained air content mean)

Initial Smoothness

SM–s1

PFSM(1) = f(initial smoothness mean)

·

·

·

·

·

·

SM–sl

PFSM(l) = f(initial smoothness mean)

Percent Consolidation Around Dowels

CON–s1

PFCON(1) = f(percent consolidation mean)

·

·

·

·

·

·

CON–sm

PFCON(m) = f(percent consolidation mean)

1Specific standard deviations are chosen by the agency. Regression equations are typically developed for three to five different agency-chosen standard deviations for each AQC.

2Regression equations are functions of the respective AQC measured mean.

References

  1. Darter, M.I., M. Abdelrahman, P.A. Okamoto, and K.D. Smith. Performance-Related Specifications for Concrete Pavements: Volume I—Development of a Prototype Performance-Related Specification. FHWA-RD-93-042. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 1993.

  2. Darter, M.I., M. Abdelrahman, T. Hoerner, M. Phillips, K.D. Smith, and P.A. Okamoto. Performance-Related Specifications for Concrete Pavements: Volume II—Appendix A, B, and C. FHWA-RD-93-043. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 1993.

  3. Okamoto, P.A., C.L. Wu, S.M. Tarr, M.I. Darter, and K.D. Smith. Performance-Related Specifications for Concrete Pavements: Volume III—Appendix D and E. FHWA-RD-93-044. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 1993.

  4. Glossary of Highway Quality Assurance Terms. Transportation Research Circular 457. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.

  5. Performance-Related Specifications (PRS): A Cooperative Effort to Improve Pavement Quality. FHWA-SA-97-008. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 1997.

  6. Afferton, K.C., J. Freidenrich, and R.M. Weed. "Managing Quality: Time for a National Policy." Transportation Research Record 1340. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996, pp. 3-39.

  7. Weed, R.M. Statistical Specification Development. FHWA/NJ-88-017. Trenton: New Jersey Department of Transportation, 1989.

  8. Darter, M.I., T.E. Hoerner, K.D. Smith, P.A. Okamoto, and P.A. Kopac. "Development of a Prototype Performance-Related Specification for Concrete Pavements." Transportation Research Record 1544. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996, pp. 81-90.

  9. AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Construction. Quality Assurance Guide Specification. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1996.

  10. "Review of Life-Cycle Costing Analysis Procedures." Interim report prepared by ERES Consultants, Inc., Brent Rauhut Engineering, Inc., and the ADI Group for the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, 1997.

  11. ERES Consultants, Inc. Techniques for Pavement Rehabilitation: Participant's Manual. 5th ed. Champaign, IL: ERES, 1993.

  12. ERES Consultants, Inc. "Long Term Pavement Performance Data Analysis, Volume III: Design and Construction of PCC Pavements—Improved PCC Performance Models." Preliminary Draft Final Report prepared for the Federal Highway Administration, 1997.

  13. McFarland, W.F. Benefit Analysis for Pavement Design Systems. Report 123-13. Austin: Texas Highway Department, 1972.

  14. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures. Washington, DC: AASHTO, 1993.

  15. Chamberlin, W.P. Performance-Related Specifications for Highway Construction and Rehabilitation. NCHRP Synthesis 212. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995.

  16. Darter, M.I. Design of Zero-Maintenance Plain Jointed Concrete Pavement, Volume I: Development of Design Procedures. FHWA-RD-77-111. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 1977.

  17. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Engineering and Design, Pavement Design for Frost Conditions. EM-1110-345-306.

  18. Weed, R.M. Quality Assurance Software for the Personal Computer. FHWA-SA-96-026. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 1996.

  19. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing, Part II: Tests. 17th ed. Washington, DC: AASHTO, 1995.

  20. American Society for Testing and Materials. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 04.03: Road and Paving Materials; Pavement Management Technologies. Philadelphia: ASTM, 1992.

  21. Smith, K.L., K.D. Smith, L.D. Evans, T.E. Hoerner, M.I. Darter, and J.H. Woodstrom. "Smoothness Specifications for Pavements." Final report prepared for the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, 1997.

  22. Walker, R.S., and H.T. Lin. Profilograph Correlation Study With Present Serviceability Index (PSI). FHWA-DP-88-072-002. Austin: Texas State Department of Highways and Public Transportation, 1988.

  23. Uddin, W., W.R. Hudson, and G. Elkins. "Surface-Smoothness Evaluation and Specifications for Flexible Pavements." ASTM STP 1031, Surface Characteristics of Roadways: International Research and Technologies. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1990.

  24. Kombe, E.M., and S.A. Kalevela. Development and Evaluation of Initial Pavement Smoothness for Construction Specifications. FHWA-AZ-SP9201. Arizona Department of Transportation.

  25. Goulias, D.G., T. Dossey, and W.R. Hudson. End-Result Smoothness Specifications for Rigid and Flexible Pavements in Texas. FHWA/TX-93+1167-2F. Austin: Texas State Department of Highways and Public Transportation, 1992.

  26. Kulakowski, B.T., and J.C. Wambold. Development of Procedures for the Calibration of Profilographs. FHWA-RD-89-110. McLean, VA: Federal Highway Administration, 1989.

  27. Kleskovic, P.Z. A Discussion of Discount Rates for Economic Analysis of Pavements. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 1990.

  28. AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Construction. Implementation Manual for Quality Assurance. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1996.

  29. AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Construction. Guide Specifications for Highway Construction. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1993.

 


The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with field offices across the United States. is a major agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Provide leadership and technology for the delivery of long life pavements that meet our customers needs and are safe, cost effective, and can be effectively maintained. Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) R&T Web site portal, which provides access to or information about the Agency’s R&T program, projects, partnerships, publications, and results.
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