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Federal Highway Administration > Publications > Research > Structures > Electrochemical Chloride Extraction: Influence of Concrete Surface on Treatment

Publication Number: FHWA-RD-02-107
Date: September 2002

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Chapter 5. References

  1. Li, L., Sagues, A. A., Metallurgical Effects on Chloride Ion Corrosion Threshold of Steel in Concrete. 2001, University of Florida: Tampa. p. 119.

  2. Hausmann, D.A., Steel Corrosion in Concrete: How Does It Occur. Materials Performance, 1967. 6(19): p. 19-23.

  3. Broomfield, J., Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: Understanding, Investigation, and Repair. 1 ed. 1997: E&FN Spon.

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  5. Kaushik, S.K., and Islam, S., Suitability of Sea Water for Mixing Structural Concrete Exposed to a Marine Environment. Cement & Concrete Composites, 1995. 17: p. 177-185.

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  7. Page, C.L., Short, N. R., and Holden, W. R., The Influence of Different Cements on Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel. Cement and Concrete Research, 1986. 16(1): p. 79-86.

  8. Odden, L., The Repassivation Effect of Electro-Chemical Realkalisation and Chloride Extraction. In International conference -- 1994 Jul: Sheffield. 1994. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press; 1994.

  9. Rasheeduzzafar, H., S. E., and Al-Saadoun, S. S., Effect of Cement Composition on Chloride Binding and Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 1991. 21(5): p. 777-794.

  10. Suryavanshi, A.K., Scantlebury, J. D., Lyon, S. B., and Nedwell, P. J., Pore Solution Analysis of Normal Portland Cement and Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement Mortars and Their Influence on Corrosion Behaviour of Embedded Steel. p. 482-490.

  11. Diamond, S., Chloride Concentrations in Concrete Pore Solutions Resulting from Calcium and Sodium Chloride Admixtures. Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, 1986. 8(2): p. 97-102.
  12. Andrade, C., and Page, C. L., Pore Solution Chemistry and Corrosion in Hydrated Cement Systems Containing Chloride Salts: A Study of Cation Specific Effects. Br. Corros. J., 1986. 21(1): p. 49-53.

  13. Morrison, G.L., Virmani, Y. P., Stratton, F.W., and Gilliiland, W. J., Chloride Removal and Monomer Impregnation of Bridge Deck Concrete. 1976, Kansas Department of Transportation: Topeka.

  14. Bennett, J., Thomas, J. S., Evaluation of NORCURE Process for Electrochemical Chloride Removal from Steel-Reinforced Concrete Bridge Components. 1993, National Academy of Sciences: Washington, D.C.

  15. Chatterji, S., Simultaneous Chloride Removal and Realkalinization of Old Concrete Structures. Cement and Concrete Research, 1994. 24(6): p. 1051-1054.

  16. Elsener, B., and Böhni, H., Electrochemical Chloride Removal Field Test. p. 1451-1462.In International conference -- 1994 Jul : Sheffield. 1994. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press; 1994.

  17. Clemeña, G.G., and Jackson, D. R. Pilot Applications of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction on Concrete Bridge Decks in Virginia. In Paper submission to the Transportation Research Board, 76th Annual Meeting. 1997. Washington, D.C.

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  27. Mehta, P.K., Concrete Structure, Properties, and Materials. 1986, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

  28. Asaro, M.F., Gaynor, A. T., and Hettiarachchi, S., Electrochemical Chloride Removal and Protection of Concrete Bridge Components (Injection of Synergistic Corrosion Inhibitors). 1990, National Academy of Sciences: Washington, D.C.
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  31. Banfill, P.F. Features of the Mechanism of Re-Alkalisation and Desalination Treatments for Reinforced Concrete. In Proc. Int. Conf. Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Steel in Concrete. 1994. University of Sheffield, UK.

  32. Bennett, J., Schue, T. J., Clear, K. C., Lankard, D. L., Hartt, W. H., and Swiat, W. J., Electrochemical Chloride Removal and Protection of Concrete Bridge Components: Laboratory Studies. 1993, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council: Washington, D.C.

  33. Tritthart, J. Electrochemical Chloride Removal - A Case Study and Laboratory Tests. In Fourth International Symposium on Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete Construction. 1996. Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  34. Hope, B.B., Ihekwaba, N. M., and Hansson, C. M., Influence of Multiple Rebar Mats on Electrochemical Removal of Chloride from Concrete. Material Science Forum, 1995. 192-194: p. 883-890.

  35. Hassanein, A.M., Glass, G. K., and Buenfeld, N. R., A Mathematical Model for Electrochemical Removal of Chloride from Concrete Structures. Corrosion, 1998. 54(4): p. 323-332.

  36. Yu, S.W., and Page, C. L., Computer simulation of ionic migration during electrochemical chloride extraction from hardened concrete. British Corrosion Journal, 1996. 31(1): p. 73-75.

  37. Hassanein, A.M., Glass, G. K., and Buenfeld, N. R., Chloride Removal by Intermittent Cathodic Protection Applied to Reinforced Concrete in the Tidal Zone. Corrosion, 1999. 55(9): p. 840-850.

  38. Ihekwaba, N.M., Hope, B. B., and Hansson, C. M., Structural Shape Effect on Rehabilitation of Vertical Concrete Structures by ECE Technique. Cement and Concrete Research, 1996. 26(1): p. 165-175.

  39. Hansson, I.L., and Hanson, C. M., Electrochemical Extraction of Chlorides from Concrete Part 1 - A Qualitative Model of the Process. Cement and Concrete Research, 1993. 23(5): p. 1141-1152.

  40. Ihekwaba, N.M., Hope, B. B., and Hansson, C. M., Carbonation and Electrochemical Chloride Extraction from Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 1996. 26(7): p. 1095-1107.

  41. Arya, C., Sa'id-Shawqi, Q., and Vassie, P. R., Factors Influencing Electrochemical Removal of Chloride from Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 1996. 26(6): p. 851-860.

  42. Castellote, M., Andrade, C., and Alonso, C., Electrochemical Chloride Extraction: Influence of Testing Conditions and Mathematical Modeling. Advances in Cement Research, 1999. 11(2).

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  44. Whitmore, D.W. Electrochemical Chloride Extraction: Extending the Service Life of Chloride Contaminated Concrete Bridges. In International Conference on Corrosion and Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Structures. 1998. Orlando, Florida.

  45. Norcure Project Reference List. 2002, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/refer.htm.

  46. Alberta NORCURE Electrochemical Chloride Removal Project Alberta Transportation and Utilities Highway #2 and Grandin Avenue Overpass, Morinville. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/alberta.htm.

  47. Bridge Deck Chloride Extraction St. Adolphe, Manitoba. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/StAdolph.htm.

  48. Substructure Chloride Extraction Council Bluffs, Iowa. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/CouncilBluffs.htm.

  49. Chloride Extraction of Omaha Substructure. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/Omaha'98.htm.

  50. Chloride Extraction by Traffic Bearing System on Starbuck. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/Starbuck97.htm.

  51. Chloride Extraction Field Trial on Burlington Skyway. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/Burlington89.htm.

  52. Saskatchewan NORCURE Electrochemical Chloride Removal Project Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation Bridge Substructure Highways #11 & 16, Saskatoon, SK. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/sask.htm.

  53. Regina North NORCURE Electrochemical Chloride Removal Project Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation Bridge Substructure Highways #11 & 6, Regina, SK. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/regina.htm.

  54. Arlington NORCURE Electrochemical Chloride Removal Project Virginia Department of Transportation/Virginia Transportation Research Council 34th Street over I-395 Bridge Deck, Arlington, VA. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/arling.htm.

  55. Clemeña, G.G., and Jackson, D. R., Trial Application of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction on Concrete Bridge Components in Virginia. 2000, Virginia Transportation Research Council: Charlottesville.

  56. Bennett, J.E., Fong, K.F., and Schue, T.J., Electrochemical Chloride Removal and Protection of Concrete Bridge Components. 1993, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council: Washington, D. C.

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  58. Whiting, D., In Situ Measurement of the Permeability of Concrete to Chloride Ions. American Concrete Institute, Special Publications, SP 82-25.

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  67. Thompson, N.G., and Payer, J. H., DC Electrochemical Test Methods. 1 ed. 1998, Houston, Texas: NACE International.

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  72. Clemeña, G.G., Virginia Transpotation Research Council. 1996, Unpublished Photographs: Charlottesville, Virginia.

  73.  

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