U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology
Coordinating, Developing, and Delivering Highway Transportation Innovations
|This report is an archived publication and may contain dated technical, contact, and link information|
Publication Number: FHWA-RD-02-107
Li, L., Sagues, A. A., Metallurgical Effects on Chloride Ion Corrosion Threshold of Steel in Concrete. 2001, University of Florida: Tampa. p. 119.
Hausmann, D.A., Steel Corrosion in Concrete: How Does It Occur. Materials Performance, 1967. 6(19): p. 19-23.
Broomfield, J., Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: Understanding, Investigation, and Repair. 1 ed. 1997: E&FN Spon.
Daily, S.F., and Kendell, K., Cathodic Protection of New Reinforced Concrete Structures in Aggressive Environments. Materials Performance, 1998. 37(10): p. 19-25.
Kaushik, S.K., and Islam, S., Suitability of Sea Water for Mixing Structural Concrete Exposed to a Marine Environment. Cement & Concrete Composites, 1995. 17: p. 177-185.
Pettersson, K., Chloride Threshold Value and the Corrosion Rate in Reinforced Concrete. Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, 1992.
Page, C.L., Short, N. R., and Holden, W. R., The Influence of Different Cements on Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel. Cement and Concrete Research, 1986. 16(1): p. 79-86.
Odden, L., The Repassivation Effect of Electro-Chemical Realkalisation and Chloride Extraction. In International conference -- 1994 Jul: Sheffield. 1994. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press; 1994.
Rasheeduzzafar, H., S. E., and Al-Saadoun, S. S., Effect of Cement Composition on Chloride Binding and Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 1991. 21(5): p. 777-794.
Suryavanshi, A.K., Scantlebury, J. D., Lyon, S. B., and Nedwell, P. J., Pore Solution Analysis of Normal Portland Cement and Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement Mortars and Their Influence on Corrosion Behaviour of Embedded Steel. p. 482-490.
Andrade, C., and Page, C. L., Pore Solution Chemistry and Corrosion in Hydrated Cement Systems Containing Chloride Salts: A Study of Cation Specific Effects. Br. Corros. J., 1986. 21(1): p. 49-53.
Morrison, G.L., Virmani, Y. P., Stratton, F.W., and Gilliiland, W. J., Chloride Removal and Monomer Impregnation of Bridge Deck Concrete. 1976, Kansas Department of Transportation: Topeka.
Bennett, J., Thomas, J. S., Evaluation of NORCURE Process for Electrochemical Chloride Removal from Steel-Reinforced Concrete Bridge Components. 1993, National Academy of Sciences: Washington, D.C.
Chatterji, S., Simultaneous Chloride Removal and Realkalinization of Old Concrete Structures. Cement and Concrete Research, 1994. 24(6): p. 1051-1054.
Elsener, B., and Böhni, H., Electrochemical Chloride Removal Field Test. p. 1451-1462.In International conference -- 1994 Jul : Sheffield. 1994. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press; 1994.
Clemeña, G.G., and Jackson, D. R. Pilot Applications of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction on Concrete Bridge Decks in Virginia. In Paper submission to the Transportation Research Board, 76th Annual Meeting. 1997. Washington, D.C.
Electrolytic Restoration of Concrete, In US Patent & Trademark Office. 2000.
Elsener, B., Molina, M., and Böhni, H., The Electrochemical Removal of Chlorides from Reinforcing Concrete. Corrosion Science, 1993. 35(5-8): p. 1563-1570.
Removing Chloride Ions from Reinforced Concrete. Concrete Repair Digest, 1993: p. 11-14.
Manning, D.G., Pianca, F., Electrochemical Removal of Chloride Ions from Reinforced Concrete: Initial Evaluation of the Pier S19 Field Trial. 1990, The Research and Development Branch, Ontario Ministry of Transportation: Ontario, Canada.
Whitmore, D.W., Electrochemical Treatment of Concrete: A new Approach to Extend the Service Life of Chloride Contaminated, Carbonated, or Alkali Silica Reactive Concrete Structures. 1998.
Velivasakis, E.E., Henriksen, S. K., and Whitmore, D. W., Halting Corrosion by Chloride Extraction and Realkalization. Concrete International, 1997. 19(12): p. 39-45.
Elsener, B., Zimmermann, L., and Böhni, H. Repair of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Electrochemical Techniques - Field Experience. In International Conference on Corrosion and Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Structures.
Hudson, D., Current Development and Related Techniques, In Cathodic Protection of Steel in Concrete. 1998, E & FN Spon: New York, NY.
McGovern, M.S., Current' Technologies Curb Rebar Corrosion. Concrete Repair Digest, 1996 (August).
Mehta, P.K., Concrete Structure, Properties, and Materials. 1986, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Christensen, B.J., Jennings, H. M., and Mason, T. O., Influence of Silica Fume on the Early Hydration of Portland Cements Using Impedance Spectroscopy. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 1992. 72(4): p. 2789-2804.
Banfill, P.F. Features of the Mechanism of Re-Alkalisation and Desalination Treatments for Reinforced Concrete. In Proc. Int. Conf. Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Steel in Concrete. 1994. University of Sheffield, UK.
Bennett, J., Schue, T. J., Clear, K. C., Lankard, D. L., Hartt, W. H., and Swiat, W. J., Electrochemical Chloride Removal and Protection of Concrete Bridge Components: Laboratory Studies. 1993, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council: Washington, D.C.
Tritthart, J. Electrochemical Chloride Removal - A Case Study and Laboratory Tests. In Fourth International Symposium on Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete Construction. 1996. Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Hope, B.B., Ihekwaba, N. M., and Hansson, C. M., Influence of Multiple Rebar Mats on Electrochemical Removal of Chloride from Concrete. Material Science Forum, 1995. 192-194: p. 883-890.
Hassanein, A.M., Glass, G. K., and Buenfeld, N. R., A Mathematical Model for Electrochemical Removal of Chloride from Concrete Structures. Corrosion, 1998. 54(4): p. 323-332.
Yu, S.W., and Page, C. L., Computer simulation of ionic migration during electrochemical chloride extraction from hardened concrete. British Corrosion Journal, 1996. 31(1): p. 73-75.
Hassanein, A.M., Glass, G. K., and Buenfeld, N. R., Chloride Removal by Intermittent Cathodic Protection Applied to Reinforced Concrete in the Tidal Zone. Corrosion, 1999. 55(9): p. 840-850.
Ihekwaba, N.M., Hope, B. B., and Hansson, C. M., Structural Shape Effect on Rehabilitation of Vertical Concrete Structures by ECE Technique. Cement and Concrete Research, 1996. 26(1): p. 165-175.
Hansson, I.L., and Hanson, C. M., Electrochemical Extraction of Chlorides from Concrete Part 1 - A Qualitative Model of the Process. Cement and Concrete Research, 1993. 23(5): p. 1141-1152.
Ihekwaba, N.M., Hope, B. B., and Hansson, C. M., Carbonation and Electrochemical Chloride Extraction from Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 1996. 26(7): p. 1095-1107.
Arya, C., Sa'id-Shawqi, Q., and Vassie, P. R., Factors Influencing Electrochemical Removal of Chloride from Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 1996. 26(6): p. 851-860.
Castellote, M., Andrade, C., and Alonso, C., Electrochemical Chloride Extraction: Influence of Testing Conditions and Mathematical Modeling. Advances in Cement Research, 1999. 11(2).
Slater, J.E., Lankard, D. R., and Moreland, P. J., Electrochemical Removal of Chlorides from Concrete Bridge Decks. Materials Performance, 1976: p. 21-26.
Whitmore, D.W. Electrochemical Chloride Extraction: Extending the Service Life of Chloride Contaminated Concrete Bridges. In International Conference on Corrosion and Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Structures. 1998. Orlando, Florida.
Norcure Project Reference List. 2002, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/refer.htm.
Alberta NORCURE Electrochemical Chloride Removal Project Alberta Transportation and Utilities Highway #2 and Grandin Avenue Overpass, Morinville. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/alberta.htm.
Bridge Deck Chloride Extraction St. Adolphe, Manitoba. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/StAdolph.htm.
Substructure Chloride Extraction Council Bluffs, Iowa. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/CouncilBluffs.htm.
Chloride Extraction of Omaha Substructure. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/Omaha'98.htm.
Chloride Extraction by Traffic Bearing System on Starbuck. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/Starbuck97.htm.
Chloride Extraction Field Trial on Burlington Skyway. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/Burlington89.htm.
Saskatchewan NORCURE Electrochemical Chloride Removal Project Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation Bridge Substructure Highways #11 & 16, Saskatoon, SK. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/sask.htm.
Regina North NORCURE Electrochemical Chloride Removal Project Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation Bridge Substructure Highways #11 & 6, Regina, SK. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/regina.htm.
Arlington NORCURE Electrochemical Chloride Removal Project Virginia Department of Transportation/Virginia Transportation Research Council 34th Street over I-395 Bridge Deck, Arlington, VA. 2000, Norcure. http:www.norcure.com/arling.htm.
Clemeña, G.G., and Jackson, D. R., Trial Application of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction on Concrete Bridge Components in Virginia. 2000, Virginia Transportation Research Council: Charlottesville.
Bennett, J.E., Fong, K.F., and Schue, T.J., Electrochemical Chloride Removal and Protection of Concrete Bridge Components. 1993, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council: Washington, D. C.
Enevoldsen, J.N., Hansson, C. M., and Hope, B. B., Binding of Chloride in Mortar Containing Admixed or Penetrated Chlorides. Cement and Concrete Research, 1994. 24(8): p. 1523-1533.
Whiting, D., In Situ Measurement of the Permeability of Concrete to Chloride Ions. American Concrete Institute, Special Publications, SP 82-25.
Bertolini, L., Yu, S. W., and Page, C. L., Effects of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction on Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Hydrated Cement Paste. 1996. 8(31): p. 93-100.
Altria, K.D., and Campi, F., Another 10 Ways to Spoil a CE Separation. LC GC, 1999. 17(9): p. 828-832.
Ihekwaba, N.M., and Hope, B. B., Mechanical Properties of Anodic and Cathodic Regions of ECE Treated Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 1996. 26(5): p. 771-780.
Andrade, C., Castellote, M., Sarria, J., Alonso, C., and Menedez, E. Effect of Electrochemical Rehabilitation Techniques in the Porous Microstructure of Concrete. In International Conference on Corrosion and Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Structures. 1998.
Marcotte, T.D., Hansson, C. M., and Hope, B. B., The Effect of the Electrochemical Chloride Extraction Treatment on Steel-Reinforced Mortar Part 2: Microstrucural Characterization. Cement and Concrete Research, 1999. 29: p. 1561-1568.
Gileadi, E., Electrode Kinetics for Chemists, Engineers, and Materials Scientists. 1993, New York: Wiley-VCH, Inc.
Scully, J., Lecture by Prof. John Scully, University of Virginia, Material Science and Engineering 771. 1999: Charlottesville, VA.
Jones, D.A., Principles & Prevention of Corrosion. 2 ed. 1996, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Thompson, N.G., and Payer, J. H., DC Electrochemical Test Methods. 1 ed. 1998, Houston, Texas: NACE International.
Standard Test Method for Field Measurement of Soil Resistivity Using the Wenner Four-Electrode Method: G57-95a, In Annual Book of ASTM Standards - Construction, ASTM: Philadelphia, PA. p. 214-218.
Bungey, J.H., and Millard, S. G., Testing of Concrete Structures. 3 ed. 1996, New York: Blackie Academic & Professional.
Clemeña, G.G., Virginia Transpotation Research Council. 1996, Unpublished Photographs: Charlottesville, Virginia.
Topics: research, infrastructure, structures
Keywords: research, structures, Cathodic protection, chloride ions, electrochemical chloride extraction, rehabilitation of concrete bridges, reinforced concrete, removal of chloride, steel corrosion in concrete
TRT Terms: research, infrastructure, Facilities, Structures, Bridges, Concrete--Foundations and piers, Reinforced concrete--Electrochemical chloride extraction, Reinforced concrete--Corrosion, Cathodic protection, Chlorides, Electrochemical processes, Reinforced concrete bridges