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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-05-063
Date: May 2007

Evaluation of LS-DYNA Concrete Material Model 159

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References

  1. Hargrave, M.W. and D. Smith, “Using the Computer and dyna3d to Save Lives,” Public Roads Magazine, January/February 2001.
  2. Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC), ls-dyna Keyword Users Manual (Nonlinear Dynamic Analyses of Structures in Three Dimensions), Version 960, Volume 1, 2001.
  3. Murray, Y.D., “Modeling Rate Effects in Rock and Concrete,” Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Interaction of the Effects of Munitions with Structures, Volume IA, Defense Special Weapons Agency, April 1997.
  4. Murray, Y.D. and B.A. Lewis, Numerical Simulation of Damage in Concrete, aptek technical report to the Defense Nuclear Agency, Contract No. DNA001-91-C-0075, Report No. DNA-TR-94-190, November 1995.
  5. Schwer, L.E. and Y.D. Murray, “A Three-Invariant Smooth Cap Model with Mixed Hardening,” International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics,  Vol. 18, pp. 657–688, 1994
  6. Murray, Y.D., “Users Manual for LS-DYNA Concrete Material Model 159,” Report No. FHWA-HRT-05-062, Federal Highway Administration, 2007.
  7. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, Comité Euro-International du Béton, Thomas Telford House, 1993.
  8. D.C. Alberson, W.F. Williams, W.L. Menges, and R.R. Haug. Testing and Evaluation of the Florida Jersey Safety Shaped Bridge Rail, Research Report 9-8132-1. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX, February 2004.
  9. Bazant, Z.P. and J. Planas, Fracture and Size Effect in Concrete and Other Quasi-brittle Materials, CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-8284-X, 1998.
  10. Oldani, E., F. Orengo, C.A. Plaxico, and M.H. Ray, Drop Tower Testing of Concrete Beams, Worcester Polytechnic Institute Report submitted to APTEK, Inc., July 2003.
  11. Bielenberg, B.W., R.K. Faller, J.D. Reid, J.C. Holloway, J.R. Rohde, and D.L. Sicking, “Impact Analysis of Three Reinforced Concrete Beam Specimens,” Midwest Roadside Safety Facility, University of Nebraska, Report #TRP-03-130-03, submitted to APTEK, Inc., March 2003.
  12. Buth, E., NCHRP 350 Pendulum Test and Transition Connection Project, Letter Report for Project 408930, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX, August 2002.
  13. Zimmer, R.A. and A.G. Arnold, Calibration of the TTI 820 KG Pendulum, Texas Transportation Institute Report 270687, College Station, TX, June 1997.

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