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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-06-103
Date: August 2006

Material Property Characterization of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

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FOREWORD

Advances in the knowledge and understanding of the behaviors of concrete on the microstructural level have led to the development of the next generation of concrete, namely ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). This report characterizes the material behaviors of one UHPC in terms of accepted concrete testing methodologies. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has been investigating the optimal use of UHPC in highway bridges, and this report presents results from the first phase of this research program. Of primary importance, the results contained herein provide a starting point for bridge owners interested in advancing the state of bridge engineering through the use of extremely high strength and high durability concretes. This report presents both what can be achieved today through the use of a commercially available concrete as well as the types of advancements that can be achieved by reevaluating the traditional components and proportions normally present in cementitious structural materials.

Gary Henderson

Director, Office of Infrastructure

Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-06-103

2. Government Accession No. 3 Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Material Property Characterization of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

5. Report Date

August 2006

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

Benjamin A. Graybeal

8. Performing Organization Report No.

 

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

PSI, Inc.
2930 Eskridge Road
Fairfax, VA 22031

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Infrastructure Research and Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final Report, October 2002–December 2005

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

 

15. Supplementary Notes

Additional FHWA Contacts—Joseph Hartmann (Technical Advisor), William Wright (COTR)

16. Abstract

In the past decade significant advances have been made in the field of high performance concretes (HPC). The next generation of concrete, ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), exhibits exceptional strength and durability characteristics that make it well suited for use in highway bridge structures. This material can exhibit compressive strength of 193 megapascals (MPa) (28 kilopounds per square inch (ksi)), tensile strength of 9.0 MPa (1.3 ksi), significant tensile toughness, elastic modulus of 52.4 gigapascals (GPa) (7,600 ksi), and minimal long-term creep or shrinkage. It can also resist freeze-thaw and scaling conditions with virtually no damage and is nearly impermeable to chloride ions.

This report presents the results from a large suite of material characterization tests that were completed in order to quantify the behaviors of a commercially available UHPC. The characteristics of this UHPC under four different curing regimes were captured. This study focused on strength-based behaviors (e.g., compressive and tensile strength), long-term stability behaviors (e.g., creep and shrinkage), and durability behaviors (e.g., chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw).

17. Key Words

UHPC, ultra-high performance concrete, fiberreinforced, durability, material characterization, tensile behavior, compressive behavior

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classification
(of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classification
(of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

186

22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 Reproduction of completed page authorized

SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors


TABLE OF CONTENTS

3. UHPC MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION

     3.1 RESEARCH PLAN

          3.1.1 Batch and Specimen Nomenclature

          3.1.2 Test Matrix

     3.2 BATCHING, CASTING, AND CURING OF UHPC

     3.3 COMPRESSION TESTING

          3.3.1 Strength

          3.3.2 Strength, Modulus of Elasticity, and Strain Capacity With Time

          3.3.3 Linearity of UHPC Compressive Response

          3.3.4 Compression Specimen Geometry

          3.3.5 Demolding Age Effect on Compressive Strength

          3.3.6 Long-Term Delayed Steam Effect on Compressive Strength

          3.3.7 Fiber Effect on Compression Failure

          3.3.8 Load Rate Effect on Compression Testing Results

     3.4 TENSION TESTING

          3.4.1 Flexural Prism

          3.4.2 Split Cylinder

          3.4.3 Mortar Briquette

          3.4.4 Direct Tension

     3.5 FRACTURE TESTING

     3.6 PENETRATION RESISTANCE TESTING

     3.7 SHRINKAGE TESTING

          3.7.1 Long-Term Shrinkage Testing

          3.7.2 Early Age Shrinkage Testing

     3.8 CREEP TESTING

          3.8.1 Long-Term Creep Testing

          3.8.2 Early Age High-Stress Creep Testing

     3.9 COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION

     3.10 HEAT OF HYDRATION

     3.11 AIR VOID ANALYSIS

     3.12 STEEL FIBER DISPERSION TESTING

     3.13 DURABILITY TESTING

          3.13.1 Rapid Chloride Ion Penetrability Testing

          3.13.2 Chloride Penetration

          3.13.3 Scaling Resistance

          3.13.4 Abrasion Resistance

          3.13.5 Freeze-Thaw Resistance

          3.13.6 Alkali-Silica Reaction

     3.14 SPLIT-CYLINDER TENSION TESTING ON CRACKED CYLINDERS

REFERENCES

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Graph. Sample tensile stress-strain response for steel fiber reinforcement

Figure 2. Photos. Mixing of UHPC. (a) Water addition. (b) HRWA addition. (c) Prepaste consistency. (d) Fiber addition. (e) Finished mix

Figure 3. Graph. Mix time as affected by premix age

Figure 4. Graph. Final flow diameter as affected by premix age

Figure 5. Photos. (a) Grinding and (b) measuring of 76-mm (3-inch) diameter cylinders

Figure 6. Photos. 76-mm (3-inch) diameter cylinders (a) before and (b) after compression testing

Figure 7. Graph. Compressive strength and density of control cylinders

Figure 8. Graph. Compressive strength and cylinder end planeness of control cylinders

Figure 9. Photos. Modulus ring attachment (a) before and (b) during testing

Figure 10. Graph. Selected stress-strain responses for steam-treated UHPC (N1A)

Figure 11. Graph. Selected stress-strain responses for steam-treated UHPC (N1AxxA)

Figure 12. Graph. Selected stress-strain responses for untreated UHPC

Figure 13. Graph. Selected stress-strain responses for tempered steam-treated UHPC

Figure 14. Graph. Selected stress-strain responses for delayed steam-treated UHPC

Figure 15. Graph. Compressive strength gain from casting up to 8 weeks of age

Figure 16. Graph. Modulus of elasticity gain from casting up to 8 weeks of age

Figure 17. Graph. Strain at peak compressive stress from casting up to 8 weeks of age

Figure 18. Graph. Sample untreated stress-strain curve with linearity descriptors

Figure 19. Graph. Secant modulus from casting up to 8 weeks of age

Figure 20. Graph. Ratio of elastic to secant modulus from casting up to 8 weeks of age

Figure 21. Graph. Compressive stress to strength ratio at 1 percent stress drop from linear elastic

Figure 22. Graph. Compressive stress to strength ratio at 5 percent stress drop from linear elastic

Figure 23. Photo. Compression cubes and cylinders including (clockwise from upper left) 102-mm (4-inch), 76-mm (3-inch) overlength, 76-mm (3-inch), and 51-mm (2-inch) diameter cylinders and 51-mm (2-inch) and 100-mm (4-inch) cubes

Figure 24. Photos. (a) Cylinder and (b) cube compression testing

Figure 25. Photos. Compression failure of a steam-treated UHPC cylinder containing no fiber reinforcement (a) 1/6 second before failure, (b) 1/30 second before failure, (c) at failure, and (d) 1/10 second after failure

Figure 26. Photos. Prism flexural test setup for (a) a 229-mm (8.9-inch) span and (b) a 305-mm (11.9-inch) span

Figure 27. Graph. Examples of first crack shown on load-deflection response curves

Figure 28. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for steam-treated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 152-mm (6-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 29. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for untreated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 152-mm (6-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 30. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for tempered steamtreated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 152-mm (6-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 31. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for delayed steamtreated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 152-mm (6-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 32. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for steam-treated 76- by 102-mm (3- by 4-inch) prisms over a 305-mm (12-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 33. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for untreated 76- by 102-mm (3- by 4-inch) prisms over a 305-mm (12-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 34. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for tempered steamtreated 76- by 102-mm (3- by 4-inch) prisms over a 305-mm (12-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 35. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for delayed steamtreated 76- by 102-mm (3- by 4-inch) prisms over a 305-mm (12-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 36. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for steam-treated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 229-mm (9-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 37. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for untreated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 229-mm (9-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 38. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for tempered steamtreated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 229-mm (9-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 39. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for delayed steam-treated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 229-mm (9-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 40. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for steam-treated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 305-mm (12-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 41. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for untreated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 305-mm (12-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 42. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for tempered steam-treated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 305-mm (12-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 43. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for delayed steam-treated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 305-mm (12-inch) span with third-point loading

Figure 44. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for steam-treated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 381-mm (15-inch) span with 76 mm (3 inches) between loads

Figure 45. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for untreated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 381-mm (15-inch) span with 76 mm (3 inches) between loads

Figure 46. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for tempered steam-treated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 381-mm (15-inch) span with 76 mm (3 inches) between loads

Figure 47. Graph. ASTM C1018 load-deflection response results for delayed steam-treated 51- by 51-mm (2- by 2-inch) prisms over a 381-mm (15-inch) span with 76 mm (3 inches) between loads

Figure 48. Equation. Flexural cracking strength of a concrete prism

Figure 49. Equation. AFGC correction factor for concrete prism flexural strength

Figure 50. Equation. Centerline deflection of a simply supported prismatic beam

Figure 51. Graph. Ratio of shear to flexural deflection for a third-point loaded prism

Figure 52. Graph. ASTM C1018 toughness results for steam-treated UHPC prisms

Figure 53. Graph. ASTM C1018 toughness results for untreated UHPC prisms

Figure 54. Graph. ASTM C1018 toughness results for tempered steam-treated UHPC prisms

Figure 55. Graph. ASTM C1018 toughness results for delayed steam-treated UHPC prisms

Figure 56. Graph. ASTM C1018 residual strength results for steam-treated prisms

Figure 57. Graph. ASTM C1018 residual strength results for untreated prisms

Figure 58. Graph. ASTM C1018 residual strength results for tempered steam-treated prisms

Figure 59. Graph. ASTM C1018 residual strength results for delayed steam-treated prisms

Figure 60. Equation. Tensile stress in an ASTM C496 split-cylinder test

Figure 61. Photos. Split-cylinder tensile test including (a) standard test setup, (b) lateral expansion measuring apparatus, and (c) UHPC cylinder during test

Figure 62. Graph. Typical response for a UHPC cylinder during the ASTM C496 test

Figure 63. Chart. Average tensile cracking results from the ASTM C496 test

Figure 64. Chart. Average split cylinder peak strength from the ASTM C496 test

Figure 65. Photos. AASHTO T132 setup including (a) test grips and (b) specimen

Figure 66. Graph. Load-displacement response for steam-treated briquettes (28 days)

Figure 67. Graph. Load-displacement response for steam-treated briquettes (56 days)

Figure 68. Graph. Load-displacement response for steam-treated briquettes (84 days)

Figure 69. Graph. Load-displacement response for untreated briquettes (28 days)

Figure 70. Graph. Load-displacement response for untreated briquettes (56 days)

Figure 71. Graph. Load-displacement response for untreated briquettes (84 days)

Figure 72. Graph. Load-displacement for tempered steam-treated briquettes (28 days)

Figure 73. Graph. Load-displacement for tempered steam-treated briquettes (56 days)

Figure 74. Graph. Load-displacement for tempered steam-treated briquettes (84 days)

Figure 75. Graph. Load-displacement for delayed steam-treated briquettes (28 days)

Figure 76. Graph. Load-displacement for delayed steam-treated briquettes (56 days)

Figure 77. Graph. Load-displacement for delayed steam-treated briquettes (84 days)

Figure 78. Chart. Tensile cracking strength of UHPC briquettes

Figure 79. Chart. Postcracking peak strength of UHPC briquettes

Figure 80. Chart. Area under the load-displacement response curve after cracking

Figure 81. Chart. Ratio of postcracking to precracking areas under the load-displacement curve

Figure 82. Photos. (a) Notched cylinder and (b) testing of an unnotched cylinder

Figure 83. Photo. Test setup for 102- by 51-mm (4- by 2-inch) notched prisms loaded on a 406-mm (16-inch) span

Figure 84. Photo. Resistance foil gage to monitor crack propagation

Figure 85. Photos. Prism M1P00 after (a) 86 mm (3.6 inches) and (b) 98 mm (3.8 inches) of crack extension

Figure 86. Photo. Prism M2P03 after 93 mm (3.63 inches) of crack extension

Figure 87. Graph. Load-CMOD response for steam-treated prism M1P00

Figure 88. Graph. Load-CMOD response for steam-treated prism M1P01

Figure 89. Graph. Load-CMOD response for steam-treated prism M1P02

Figure 90. Graph. Load-CMOD response for steam-treated prism M1P03

Figure 91. Graph. Load-CMOD response for untreated prism M2P00

Figure 92. Graph. Load-CMOD response for untreated prism M2P01

Figure 93. Graph. Load-CMOD response for untreated prism M2P02

Figure 94. Graph. Load-CMOD response for untreated prism M2P03

Figure 95. Graph. Long-term shrinkage results

Figure 96. Equation. Shrinkage as a function of time after casting

Figure 97. Photo. Embeddable vibrating wire gage

Figure 98. Graph. Early age shrinkage

Figure 99. Photos. (a) Creep cylinders in load frame and (b) measurement of creep

Figure 100. Graph. Long-term creep results

Figure 101. Equation. Creep as a function of time after loading

Figure 102. Photo. Short-term creep test setup

Figure 103. Graph. Early age creep behavior of 55 to 65 MPa (7,975 to 9,425 psi) UHPC

Figure 104. Graph. Early age creep behavior of 86 MPa (12,470 psi) UHPC

Figure 105. Graph. Heat generated in 152-mm (6-inch) diameter cylinders during initial curing

Figure 106. Graph. Heat generated in 152-mm (6-inch) diameter cylinders from casting through steaming

Figure 107. Graph. Heat signature for 152-mm (6-inch) diameter cylinders in a wellinsulated calorimeter

Figure 108. Graph. Fiber dispersion analysis results for cylinders impacted on an ASTM C230 flow table

Figure 109. Photos. Fiber dispersion analysis photographs for a 645-mm2 (1.3-inch2) area in the (a) bottom, (b) lower middle, (c) upper middle, and (d) top of a cast cylinder

Figure 110. Photos. (a) Cylinder and (b) setup for rapid chloride ion penetrability test

Figure 111. Graph. Average current passed versus time results for three sets of cylinders

Figure 112. Graph. Chloride ion content results after 90 days of ponding

Figure 113. Photos. (a) Cylinder before and (b) after 90 days of chloride ponding

Figure 114. Photo. Scaling slab before initiating ASTM C672 testing

Figure 115. Photo. Scaling slab after ASTM C672 testing

Figure 116. Photo. Surface deterioration of a vertical surface after 70-plus-145 cycles of wetting/drying with a chloride solution in a freezing/thawing environment

Figure 117. Photo. ASTM C944 abrasion test setup

Figure 118. Photo. Steel cast surface untreated and steam-treated abrasion specimens after 8 and 10 minutes of abrading, respectively

Figure 119. Chart. ASTM C944 weight loss (grams) per abrading

Figure 120. Chart. Average weight loss (grams) per abrading

Figure 121. Chart. Linear best-fit weight loss (grams) per abrading

Figure 122. Photo. Resonant frequency testing of a freeze/thaw prism

Figure 123. Photos. Freeze-thaw prism (a) before testing and (b) after 564 cycles

Figure 124. Graph. Resonant frequency of freeze/thaw prisms

Figure 125. Graph. Relative dynamic modulus of elasticity of freeze/thaw prisms

Figure 126. Graph. Mass change of prisms during freeze-thaw testing

Figure 127. Graph. Resonant frequency of prisms maintained at room temperature in a laboratory environment or in a water bath

Figure 128. Graph. Relative dynamic modulus of elasticity of prisms maintained at room temperature in a laboratory environment or in a water bath

Figure 129. Graph. Mass change of prisms maintained at room temperature in a laboratory environment or in a water bath

Figure 130. Photo. Length comparator for ASR measurements

Figure 131. Graph. ASTM C1260 alkali-silica reactivity expansion results

Figure 132. Photo. Crack in a split cylinder tensile specimen

Figure 133. Photo. Crack in a split-cylinder tensile specimen under 350x magnification

Figure 134. Chart. Split-cylinder peak strength results

Figure 135. Equation. Concrete tensile strength approximation

Figure 136. Graph. Compressive strength gain as a function of time after casting

Figure 137. Equation. Compressive strength at any age after casting

Figure 138. Equation. ACI 318 approximation of modulus of elasticity

Figure 139. Equation. ACI 318 approximation of modulus of elasticity including density

Figure 140. Equation. Comité Européen du Beton approximation for modulus of elasticity (metric units)

Figure 141. Equation. Comité Européen du Beton approximation for modulus of elasticity (English units)

Figure 142. Equation. Kakizaki approximation for modulus of elasticity

Figure 143. Equation. ACI 363 approximation for modulus of elasticity

Figure 144. Equation. Ma approximation for modulus of elasticity

Figure 145. Graph. Modulus of elasticity as a function of 28-day compressive strength

Figure 146. Equation. Approximation for UHPC modulus of elasticity (in psi)

Figure 147. Graph. Modulus of elasticity as a function of compressive strength

Figure 148. Equation. UHPC modulus of elasticity approximation (in psi) for compressive strengths up to 131 MPa (19 ksi)

Figure 149. Graph. Compressive stress-strain behavior compared with linear elastic response

Figure 150. Graph. Normalized compressive stress-strain results for steam-treated UHPC

Figure 151. Graph. Deviation from linear elastic compressive behavior for steam-treated UHPC

Figure 152. Equation. Deviation of compressive stress-strain response from linear elastic behavior

Figure 153. Equation. Compressive stress-strain behavior defined as a function of the deviation from linear elastic behavior

Figure 154. Graph. Compressive stress-strain response approximations

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Typical UHPC composition

Table 2. Manufacturer-supplied material characteristics

Table 3. Chemical composition of steel fibers

Table 4. Batching descriptions with associated specimens and curing regimes

Table 5. Batching descriptions with associated specimens and curing regimes for nonstandardized batches

Table 6. Batching and casting properties of steam-treated and untreated UHPC

Table 7. Batching and casting properties of batches cast to complete the study by addressing special issues

Table 8. Control cylinder compressive strength results from the M and N deliveries

Table 9. Control cylinder compressive strength results from the L delivery

Table 10. Strength, modulus of elasticity, and strain at peak stress results at various ages after casting

Table 11. Compressive stress-strain response linearity at various ages after casting

Table 12. Cylinder and cube compressive strength results

Table 13. Demolding age effect on 28-day compressive strength results

Table 14. Long-term delayed steam effect on compressive strength

Table 15. Load rate effect on compression testing results

Table 16. ASTM C1018 strength results

Table 17. Definition of toughness indices (from ASTM C1018 FIG. X1.1)

Table 18. ASTM C1018 toughness results

Table 19. Split tensile strength normalized by 28-day compressive strength

Table 20. First-crack parameters determined by instantaneous lateral expansion of cylinder and aural observations

Table 21. Fiber influence on postcracking behavior

Table 22. Direct tension test results

Table 23. Penetration resistance results

Table 24. Long-term shrinkage

Table 25. Early age shrinkage rate

Table 26. Long-term creep results

Table 27. Early age creep results

Table 28. Coefficient of thermal expansion results

Table 29. Air void analysis results

Table 30. Rapid chloride ion penetrability results

Table 31. Effect of a water bath on the compressive strength of steam-treated and untreated UHPC

Table 32. Timetable for ASTM C1260 specimens

Table 33. ASTM C1260 alkali-silica reactivity expansion results

Table 34. Crack width and split-cylinder peak strength results for ponded cylinders

Table 35. UHPC material characterization results for average tensile properties of UHPC

Table 36. Average UHPC material properties presented according to curing treatment

Table 37. Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity results

Table 38. Constants for equation in figure 152


 
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