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Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-13-085
Date: October 2013

 

Accelerated Determination of ASR Susceptibility During Concrete Prism Testing Through Nonlinear Resonance Acoustic Spectroscopy

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FOREWORD

Accurate, reliable, and timely laboratory assessment of concrete mixtures - aggregates combined with cementitious materials - is a critical component in ensuring the durability of concrete infrastructure from the adverse effects of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Currently, the "Concrete Prism Test" (American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) C1293) is the most reliable standard test method for assessing the suitability of materials and materials combinations for resistance to damage by ASR. However, the main drawback of this method is the 1- to 2-year duration required for the test. This research study evaluates a new nonlinear acoustic technique for characterization of ASR damage in standard concrete prism specimens. Nonlinear impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy offers fast and reliable measurement of the material nonlinearity. Microstructural changes that occur as a result of ASR cause an increase in the measured nonlinearity, which can be used as a measure of the amount of ASR-induced damage. This study evaluates 10 concrete mix designs with varying ASR reactivity. Both standard expansion tests and nonlinearity measurements are performed on the specimens. This report presents the results of those tests to illustrate the utility of this new method as a complementary technique for damage assessment of laboratory concrete prisms specimens. This report is intended for those who assess aggregate reactivity by ASTM C1293 or ASTM C1260.

Jorge E. Pagán-Ortiz
Director, Office of Infrastructure
Research and Development

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, policy, or regulation.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade and manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the object of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

 

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.

FHWA-HRT-13-085

2. Government Accession No. 3 Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle

Accelerated Determination of ASR Susceptibility During
Concrete Prism Testing Through Nonlinear Resonance
Acoustic Spectroscopy

5. Report Date

October 2013

6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)

Krzysztof J. Lesnicki, Jin-Yeon Kim, Kimberly E. Kurtis, and Laurence J. Jacobs

8. Performing Organization Report No.

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Georgia Institute of Technology
790 Atlantic Drive
Atlanta, George 50332-0355

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.

DTFH61-08-R-00010

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Office of Infrastructure Research & Development
Federal Highway Administration
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101-2296

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Interim Report
July 2009-June 2012

14. Sponsoring Agency Code

 

15. Supplementary Notes

The Contracting Officer's Representatives are Y.P. Virmani, HRDI-60, and Fred Faridazar, HRDI-20. We are grateful to FHWA's ASR Technical Working Group for its valuable comments in addition to providing suggestions throughout the performance period.

16. Abstract

Accurate, reliable, and timely laboratory assessment of concrete mixtures—aggregates combined with cementitious materials—is a critical component in ensuring the durability of concrete infrastructure from the adverse effects of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Currently, the “Concrete Prism Test” (ASTM C1293) is the most reliable standard test method for assessing the suitability of materials and materials combinations for resistance to damage by ASR. However, the main drawback of this method is the 1- to 2-year duration required for the test. This research study evaluates a new nonlinear acoustic technique for characterization of ASR damage in standard concrete prism specimens. Nonlinear impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy offers a fast and reliable measurement of the material nonlinearity. Microstructural changes that occur as a result of ASR cause an increase in the measured nonlinearity, which can be used as a measure of the amount of ASR-induced damage. This study evaluates 10 concrete mix designs with varying ASR reactivity. Both standard expansion tests and nonlinearity measurements are performed on the specimens. This report presents the results of those tests to illustrate the utility of the new method as a complementary technique for damage assessment of laboratory concrete prisms specimens.

17. Key Words

Nonlinear Acoustics, Vibration, Concrete, Alkali Silica Reaction, ASR

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

19. Security Classification
(of this report)

Unclassified

20. Security Classification
(of this page)

Unclassified

21. No. of Pages

76

22. Price
Form DOT F 1700.7 Reproduction of completed page authorized

 

SI* (Modern Metric) Conversion Factors

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Tables

 

List of Figures

 

List of Abbreviations and Symbols

Abbreviations
AMBT Accelerated Mortar Bar Test
ASR Alkali-Silica Reaction
ASTM Refers to ASTM International (formerly American Society for Testing and Materials) standards
CPT Concrete Prism Test
FA Fly Ash
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
GDOT Georgia Department of Transportation
HR Moderately to Highly Reactive aggregates according to their ASR behavior
HWY Highway
I-XX I represents interstate, numbers following denote specific interstate
kSA kiloSamples
MR Potentially (or May be) Reactive aggregates according to their ASR behavior
NDE bNondestructive Evaluation
NDT Nondestructive Testing
NEWS Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy
NIRAS Nonlinear Impact Resonance Acoustic Spectroscopy
Nm Nanometer
NR Non-Reactive aggregates according to their ASR behavior
NRUS Nonlinear Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy
NWMS Nonlinear Wave Modulation Spectroscopy
SCM Supplementary Cementing Materials
SD Standard Deviation
SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio
UV Ultraviolet
UV-C light Ultraviolet Radiation at 0.00001 inches (254 nanometers)
 
Symbols
σ Stress
Ε0 Linear Elastic Modulus
β Coefficient of Quadratic Anharmonicity
δ Coefficient of Cubic Anharmonicity
ε Strain
α Measure of the Material Hysteresis
Δε Strain Amplitude
part of the nonlinear stress-strain relationship formula where epsilon dot is the strain rate Strain Rate
f0 Linear Resonance Frequency
f Resonance Frequency at Increased Excitation Amplitude
C1 Coefficient Proportional to Material Hysteresis
A Signal Amplitude
η Scaled Hysteresis Parameter
ξ0 Linear Damping Rate
ξ Damping Rate at Increased Excitation Amplitude
c3 Coefficient Proportional to Material Hysteresis
Ω Nonlinear Damping Parameter
ηc Cumulative Nonlinearity
t Time, Thickness
L Specimen Thickness in Direction of Wave Propagation
ν Wave Speed
t0 Time of Arrival at Receiving Transducer
Ε Young's Modulus of Elasticity
m Mass
b Width
L Length
t Thickness
ff Fundamental Resonant Frequency of Bar in Flexure
Τ1 Correction Factor for Fundamental Flexural Mode
μ Poisson's Ratio
 

 

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